RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-10, Number-10, October-2017

 

196

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (10) 793-796 (2017)

 

Study of tree species amelioration effect on soil physico-chemical properties of sodic soils of Central Uttar Pradesh

R. R. Verma*1, H. P. Chaudhary2, Yogesh Kumar2 and N. K. Katiyar3

1Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow - 226 002, India

2Department of Soil Conservation & Water Management, C.S.A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208 002, India

3Regional Pesticides Testing Laboratory, Kanpur - 208 022, India

*e-mail: ratan.verma@rediffmail.com

(Received: April 16, 2017; Revised received: July 24, 2017;Accepted: August 02, 2017)

 

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Abstract: A study was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative effect of various tree species in salt affected soils.Under the study 11 tree species viz.Acacia nilotia, Azadirachta indica, Cassia siamea, Cordia dichotoma, Delonix regia, Emblica officinalis, Holoptelea integrifolia, Pithecolobium dulce, Peltophorum peterocarpum, Psidium guajava, Terminalia arjuna were selected at”National Botanical Research Institute of Banthara Farm, Lucknow” North India. Representative surface layer soil samples (0-15 cm depth) were collected from ground area of selected tree species and analysed. The soil bulk density was significantly decreased from initial 1.85 to1.32 Mg m-3 whereas, soil porosity, water holding capacity and moisture equivalent were significantly increased (47.4%, 57.27% and 24.82%,respectively ) due to plantation of Acacia nilotica tree species over without plantation status (32.48%, 33.33% and 15.44%, respectively).The tree species were found effective in bringing abrupt improvement in soil physico-chemical properties. Soil organic carbon was enhanced to the level of 0.95% and cation exchange capacity 15.48 cmolkg-1 whereas, soil pH, electrical conductivity and exchangeable sodium per cent values were decreased underAcacia nilotica plantation

Key words: Salt affected soil, bulk density, organic carbon, water holding capacity and tree species

 

 

197

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (10) 797-806 (2017)

 

Distant hybridization in grapes through embryo rescue for desirable traits- A review

T. Anupa* and R. S. Roshni

ICAR - National Research Centre for Grapes, Manjri Farm, P. O. Box No. 3. Solapur road, Pune-412 307, India

*e-mail: anupatnayak@gmail.com

(Received: May 17, 2017; Revised received: July 20, 2017;Accepted: July 27, 2017)

 

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Abstract: Grape is the one of the most important fruit crop grown all over the world. Wide-hybridization is an important tool in the hands of the plant breeder and a cytogeneticist. It is the first step to transfer genes of the wild species into the cultivated ones. Distant Hybridization involves parents belong to the different species of the same genus (Interspecific hybridization) or of different genera (Intergeneric hybridization). In order to introgress desired traits viz., seedlessness, triploidy, into genotypes having other important attributes, viz., stress-resistance (biotic and abiotic stresses). Hybridization between distantly related Vitissp is often used by breeders. Breeding efficiency of hybridization between distantly related species is low, mainly due to differences in chromosome numbers between different subgenera, which often lead to cross incompatibility and embryo abortion. However, this problem can be addressed by in ovulo embryo rescue and the technique has been extensively applied to rescue inherently weak, immature or hybrid embryos to breed seedless and triploid grapes for the hybridization of distantly related Vitis sp. It is likely that the breeding of seedless grapes will still be a major application in the future and more cultivars of different Vitis sp. such as V. rotundifolia, V. labrusca and wild Chinese Vitis sp. (V. amurensis, V yenshanensis, V quinlingenesis, V hancockii, V romanetti), which are resistant to various biotic and abiotic stresses, are still encouraged to be used as male parents in hybridizations with V. vinifera cultivars in order to obtain stress resistant and high quality seedless grapes.In present review of literaturean effort has been made with an objective to understand how the combination of distant hybridization with the help of embryo rescue technique together will be a promising approach to breed novel seedless grape cultivars.

Key Words: Distant Hybridization, embryo rescue, grape, desirable traits

 

198

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (10) 807-811 (2017)

 

Soil test based fertilizer prescription for wheat (Triticum aestivum L) in rice (Oryza sativa L.)- wheat cropping system in Inceptisols

G. R. Khedikar1,2, D. S. Kankal*3, V. N. Mishra1 and A. G.Shukla1

1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur -492 012 (Chhattisgarh), India

2Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth), Hiwara, Gondia, (Maharashtra), India

3AICRP on Integrated Farming System Research, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola- 444 104 (Maharashtra), India,

*e-mail: dskankal@gmail.com

(Received: November 07, 2016; Revised received: July 22, 2017;Accepted: July 30, 2017)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during rabi season 2010-11for wheat (Triticum aestivum L) crop in rice (Oryza sativa L.) -wheat cropping system on Inceptisol of Bastar plateau of Chhattisgarh. The field was divided into three equal long strips (L0, L1 and L2) with fertility variation in a Reinforced Resolvable Block Design of 21 selected treatments of three groups. Considering soil test vis-à-vis targeted yield concept; based on Integrated Plant Nutrient Supply (IPNS), fertilizer prescription equations were developed from basic data of nutrient requirement q-1 grain production (NR) and nutrient efficiency from soil (ES), fertilizer (EF) and farm yard manure (EFYM).Mean values (kg ha-1)of available soil N, P and K were ranged from 230 to 240, 17.26 to 24.98 and 277 to 284 in strips L0, L1 and L2, respectively, increased with respect to fertility strips from L0 to L2. Plant uptake showed highest increase in mean N, P and K in strip L2 over strips L0(31.27, 12.59 and 36.65 %,respectively). Strip L1 recorded a highest yield increase of 38.80 % over strip L0than others. Fertilizer N and P with FYM showed better efficiency and grain yield (R2 =0.80) than fertilizer nutrient alone or with other combinations. Contribution towards uptake of N, P and K was highest of K2O from fertilizer (61.48%) and lowest was of P2O5 from FYM (3.22%).Fertilizer prescription equations showed reduced fertilizer requirement with increased use of FYM and soil test values, resulting in saving of chemical fertilizer.

Key Words: Cropping system, fertilizer prescription, Inceptisol, IPNS, targeted yield, wheat

 

199

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (10) 812-815 (2017)

 

A solar system model for small farm

Atiqur Rahman* and B.P. Bhatt

ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Division of Land and Water Management, Patna-800 014, Bihar, India

*e-mail: rahman_patna@yahoo.co.in

(Received: November 07, 2016; Revised received: July 22, 2017;Accepted: July 30, 2017)

 

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Abstract: Global environmental concerns and increasing demand for energy are opening up new opportunities for utilization of solar energy in agriculture. However, despite many potential benefits, applications of solar energy technologies in agriculture are limited. The foremost reason behind this limitation is the high initial investment cost and lack of awareness about systems’ benefits. This paper presents a solar system model suitable for smallholders those are practicing integrated farming. In this model, a single solar array fulfilling the energy requirements, for groundwater pumping, aerating fishpond for improving dissolved oxygen content, washing cattle shed, humidifying cattle sheds for appropriate microclimate and supplying pressured water at 1.2 -1.5 kg/cm2 for irrigating crops by pressured methods of irrigation.

Keywords: Solar system, integrated farming, dissolved oxygen, pressured irrigation, small farm

 

200

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (10) 816-820 (2017)

 

Performance of rice Cultivar (Oryza sativa L.) to leaf colour chart nitrogen based management in eastern plane (Uttar Pradesh)

Anil Kumar*, O. P. Rai and Vishuddha Nand

Department of Agronomy, NDUA&T Kumarganj, Faizabad, pin-224 229, India

*e-mail: anildocter@gmail.com

(Received: November 07, 2016; Revised received: July 22, 2017;Accepted: July 30, 2017)

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Abstract: Leaf Colour Chart (LCC) based Nitrogen Management in Rice conducted by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), in India, there is a saving of 20-40kg N/ha (44kg-88kg urea/ha) by using Leaf Colour Chart. From 290 Site Specific Nutrient Management (SSNM) demonstrations, conducted by TNAU in the Cauvery delta during 2005-06, it revealed that the increase in grain yield because of SSNM using LCC ranged from 0.34 to 1.07 tonnes/ha , with an average of 0.75 tonnes/ha. Keeping in this view an experiment was conducted at ND University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad during 2013-14 and 2014-15, using as Split Plot Design with three replications. Main treatments were comprising three rice cultivars (PA-6444, PHB-71 and NDR- 359)and sub treatments placed at LCC nitrogen based management likes, ( recommended dose of nitrogen, 25% N allocated as FYM+ LCC<3, 25% N basal as Urea + LCC<3, 25% N basal as FYM+ LCC<4, 25% N basal as Urea+ LCC<4,25% N basal as FYM+ LCC<5 and 25% N basal as Urea + LCC<5). The experiment results revealed that the yield attribute characters viz, no of panicle bearing shoot (484.16, 481.58), length of panicle (26.67, 26.57 cm), grain weight/panicle (4.79, 3.85 g) and test weight (24.48, 23.48 g) was found significant. The maximum grain yield was obtained with rice cultivar PA-6444 (65.92-64.51 q/ha) which was superior over NDR-359 (59.01-55.99 q/ha) and at with par PHB-71(63.85-63.30 q/ha). Among the LCC nitrogen based management. The highest biological yield was recorded under 25% N basal as Urea + LCC<5 which was significantly superior over rest of treatments.

Key words:LCC, rice, cultivars, FYM, Urea, nitrogen, biological yield and grain& straw yield

201

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (10) 821-823 (2017)

 

Microflora of poultry litter during rearing of broilers and post-ensiling

Jinu Manoj1, Srihari, S.2, Sharma, R.K.2 and Singh, M.K*3

1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, 3Department of Livestock Production and Management,

College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, SVPUAT, Meerut, India

2Department of Livestock Production and Management, C.C.S. Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India

*e-mail: drmanoj611@rediffmail.com

(Received: July 05, 2017; Revised received: August 26, 2017;Accepted: August 29, 2017)

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Abstract: Microflora of litter has potential health hazards both in animals and humans. The disposal of poultry litter has become a major problem to the broiler and shell egg industry. The recycling of poultry litter as a protein rich feed source ensures a safe way of disposal. Ensiling of litter eliminates the pathogenic organisms as well as decreases the nutrient loss. In the present study, litter samples were collected during the rearing stages of broilers and after ensiling. These samples were processed for the microbiological analysis. The total bacterial count per gram of the litter were ranged from 1.1 õ 102 to 5.1 õ 107 cfu/g until 6th week, whereas coliforms and E.coli were ranged from 2.6 õ 103 to 2.2 õ 106 cfu/g and 3.1 õ 102 to 1.1 õ 103 cfu/g during the day 14 and 42, respectively. A very few colonies of Salmonella were detected from the 28th and 42nd day samples after enrichment. None of the coliforms, E.coli or Salmonella was found in the ensiled litter and the total bacterial count was reduced to 1.6 õ 103 CFU per gram of ensiled litter. The results of the present investigation enlightens the use of ensiling as a method for eliminating the pathogenic organisms present in the broiler litter, along with its beneficial use as a livestock feed.

Key words: aerobic plate count, coliforms, E.coli, litter, poultry, Salmonella

 

202

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (10) 824-827 (2017)

 

Awareness and practices among butchers of unorganised slaughter houses of Punjab regarding Zoonotic diseases

Amritpal Singh1 and Prateek Jindal*2

1Veterinary Officer, CVH- KheriGurna, District Patiala, India; 2School of Public Health and Zoonoses, GADVASU, Ludhiana, India

*e-mail: jindalvet@gmail.com

(Received: August 03, 2017; Revised received: September 14, 2017;Accepted: September 18, 2017)

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Abstract: The aim of the study was to access the awareness regarding zoonotic disease and related practices among butchers of Punjab, India. A questionnaire-based study was conducted.The work was conducted on butchers of Punjab region in India which were selected randomly. Different districts of Punjab were targeted while randomly selecting the butchers.A total of 100 butchers were interviewed with a questionnaire. The respondents were presented with a structured questionnaire with 20 competence items of information on awareness and practices in regard to zoonotic diseases.The results demonstrated that the very small percentage of butchers (11%) knew about the concept of zoonoses. Twenty seven percent of the butchers stated that they were aware that the mentioned diseases can cause death in animals and more than 80% butchers still don’t use gloves or any kind of safety gears. More than 90% respondents indicated that they needed proper training programmes to upgrade their knowledge on zoonoses.It can be concluded that the major proportion of butchers had very poor awareness and attituderegarding zoonotic diseases. Therefore, there is a dire need to educate butchers through awareness campaigns and training programmes. It will be important to upgrade the knowledge of all respondents as this will help into preventing as well as control diseases.

Keywords: Awareness, Information, Butchers, Slaughterhouse, Zoonoses

 

203

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (10) 828-831 (2017)

 

Seroprevalence of typhoid fever in the rural community of Saharanpur (U.P.), India

Kuldeep Rana1 and Harish Chandra2

1Department of Microbiology, Mewar University, Gangraar, Chittorgarh-312901, Rajasthan, India

2*High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal-246174 (Uttarakhand), India

*e-mail: hreesh5@gmail.com

(Received: August 14, 2017; Revised received: September 24, 2017;Accepted: September 29, 2017)

 

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Abstract: Typhoid fever is curable disease and can be cured by using certain antibiotics but due to the emergence of multi drug resistance Salmonella Typhi, it is very difficult to manage the disease in rural areas where economic condition of peoples are not very good. People of the village are not in a state to bear the expenses of new generation drugs. It is a big challenge for the medical practitioner to control the spread of multi drug resistant S. Typhi. It should be controlled through awareness among peoples for good sanitation practices as well as induction of mass immunization program in rural areas. The present study was conducted to know the prevalence of typhoid fever in different places of Saharanpur and also the gender distribution of typhoid fever. Out of 320 samples investigated for typhoid 255 samples were found positive for typhoid-specific antigens. Out of 255 blood samples screened only 42 samples were found culture positive, 99 and 156 samples are positive for male and female respectively. The incidence of higher typhoid cases was reported in the age 31-40 years followed by 21-30 years.

Keywords: Typhoid fever, S. Typhi, Multi drug resistant

 

204

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (10) 832-835 (2017)

Distribution of available micronutrient in soils of areca plantations

Nagaveni, H. C.1, C. T. Subbarayappa2 and Parshuram Chandravanshi3

1Dept. of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Horticulture, Mudigere, India

2Dept. of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore, India; 3ZAHRS, Babbur farm, Hiriyur, India

*e-mail: nagu.hcsn@gmail.com

(Received: August 16, 2017; Revised received: September 22, 2017;Accepted: September 28, 2017)

 

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Abstract: A survey was conducted in the areca growing tracts of Davangere districts in 2014 to assess the status of available micronutrients like Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) and Boron (B)in both surface and subsurface soils at university of agricultural sciences GKVK Bangalore. The soils were sandy clay loam to sandy clay loam in texture and neutral to alkaline in reaction with low Electrical conductivity (EC) and medium to higher content of organic carbon (OC). Available micronutrient status of iron, magnesium, Copper, zinc and boron were ranged from 7.44 to 28.28, 3.64 to 28.16, 0.22 to 3.36, 1.06 to 5.40 and 0.04 to 0.59 ppm in surface soil samples and 3.32 to 23.48, 2.01 to 26.36, 0.15 to 2.14, 0.65 to 4.75 and 0.08 to 1.05 ppm in subsurface soils, respectively. Based on the critical limits prescribed for various micronutrients i. e, Iron (4.5 ppm), Manganese (2.00 ppm), Zinc (0.6 ppm), Copper (0.2 ppm) and Boron (0.5 ppm), It was observed that 2.86% of the areas sampled were deficient in available zinc and 98.14 % in available boron. Available Cu and B showed a significant negative correlation with pH whereas significantly positive correlation was noticed between pH and available Fe, Mn and Zn Available Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu showed significantly positive correlation with CEC. But B showed signicantly negative correlation. Available Cu and Mn showed a significant and negative correlation with clay whereas significantly positive correlation with Fe, Zn and B. All the available micronutrients showed significantly positive correlation with organic carbon.

Keywords: Critical limit, Deficiency, Micronutrients, Surface soils, subsurface soils

 

205

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (10) 836-841 (2017)

Effect of different chemicals on induction of dormancy in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.)

 

Priyanka Singh, V.K.Chourasiya, Ruchi Bajpai, Manish Pandey and R.D.S.Yadav

Department of Seed Science & Technology, N.D.U.A &T. Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229, India

*e-mail: priyanka.agkanpur@gmail.com

(Received: August 24, 2017; Revised received: September 20, 2017;Accepted: September 25, 2017)

 

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Abstract: Effect of growth regulators and retardants on sprouting percentage and seed quality parameters of two genotypes of mung bean was investigated. Two genotypes i.e Pusa vishal and HUM16 were treated with six chemicals (MH@100ppm, ABA@50ppm, GA3@80ppm, KNO3 @10mm & H2O2@1mm) included with control(simulated water). The treatment were applied on different growth stage i.e 50 and 60 days after flowering. The treatment of MH and ABA acid were found inhibitory effect on both genotypes against sprouting while GA3 were showed increasing percentage of sprouting and other two treatments were negative performance as comparison to MH and ABA .thus the application of maleic hydrazide and abscisic acid could be use full for inducing the dormancy in mung bean against sprouting under storage as well as field condition along with maintaining all seed quality parameters.

Keywords: Growth regulators, Mung bean, Dormancy

 

206

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (10) 842-844 (2017)

Production potentiality of mustard under paddy

fallow in northern dry zone of Karnataka

Ramesha, Y.M.*1, Manjunath Bhanuvally2 and Ashok Kumar Gaddi2

1Department of Agronomy, 2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry,

University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: rameshaym@gmail.com

(Received: August 27, 2017; Revised received: September 25, 2017;Accepted: September 29, 2017)

 

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Abstract: A large scale demonstration was taken during Rabi 2015 and 2016 on production potentiality of mustard under paddy fallow in northern dry zone of Karnataka, India in five locations at farmer’s field in Siruguppa Taluk, Bellary District of Karnataka. Results showed that, the yield performance of mustard under paddy fallow was significantly varied in different locations. Among different locations, L2 recorded significantly higher seed yield (4.52 q/ha) and which was onpar with the L1 (4.29 q/ha) over to other locations. This might be due to variety used and crop management practices adopted by the different farmers. Further, variety NRCHB-101 recorded significantly higher seed yield (4.29 q/ha) compared to other varieties. However, yield components viz., number of primary and secondary branches, numbers of siliqua per plant, number of seeds per siliqua and seed yield per plant were also higher in L2 compared to other four locations. It indicates that, mustard can also grow in northern dry zone of Karnataka.

Key words: Mustard, seed yield, Economics, Farmers field

 

 

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