RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-10, Number-3, March-2017

 

50

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 197-198 (2017)

 

Sonographic studies on intestinal obstruction in dogs

K. Rajkumar* and C. Ansar Kamran

Dept. of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary College, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bangaluru-560 024, India

*e-mail: rajvet10@gmail.com

(Received: April 22, 2016; Revised received: November 11, 2016;Accepted: November 16, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The study was to determine the utility of sonography in the diagnosis of bowel obstruction in dogs.One hundred and fifty clinical cases of dogs of different ages and breeds, presented to ultrasonographic unit of Veterinary college hospital, Hebbal, Bengaluruwere utilized for the present investigation.The criteria for simple small bowel obstruction (SBO) includes,the presence of fluid-filled dilated small bowel (diametere25 mm) proximal to collapsed small bowel or ascending colon andthe presence of peristaltic activity (observed as peristalsis of the intestinal wall or to-and-fro movements of spot echoes inside the fluid-filled dilated small bowel) in the entire dilated proximal small bowel. Out of the total cases examined over a period of one year only five cases were confirmed of intestinal obstruction. Three dogs had complete blockage in the small intestine and signs include persistent vomiting, weight loss, and dehydration. Dogs with complete blockage of small intestine, there were luminal dilation resulting in jejunal diameter of >1.5 cm and in dogs with incomplete obstruction ultrasonography revealed a peach pit in the lumen of a mildly fluid distended bowel segment and there was a strong acoustic shadow associated with the foreign body. From our study findings it is concluded thatultrasound has the potential to diagnose complications of bowel obstruction that are not easily identified using clinical x-ray criteria, and the examination can be performed in the emergency at the bedside, thus facilitating patient care.

Key words: Sonography, Intestinal obstruction, Dogs

51

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 1 99-204 (2017)

 

Effect of plant growth regulators and sulphur levels on yield, nutritive status and profitability of coriander in Rajasthan, India

Santosh K. Meena1,3, Babloo Sharma2*, N.L. Jat3 and O.P. Sharma3

1Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

2Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Bidhan Chandra KrishiViswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252, India

3Department of Agronomy, Sri Karan Narendra College of Agriculture

(Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University), Jobner, Jaipur- 303329, India

*e-mail: b.sharmabhu08214@gmail.com

(Received: May 20, 2016; Revised received: November 16, 2016;Accepted: November 21, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A study was done during rabi season (November to March) 2009-10. Results showed that maximum seed yield (1405 kg ha-1), straw yield (1946 kg ha-1), N and S uptake in seed (46.60 and 4.73 kg ha-1) and straw (22.58 and 2.55 kg ha-1), protein content (20.73%) and essential oil content (0.39%) of coriander were recorded with 500 ppm Thiourea spray, but was at par with 1000 ppm Triacontanol and significantly higher than water spray and 1.0 ppm Brassinolide spray. Significantly highest seed yield (1394 kg ha-1), straw yield (1991 kg ha-1), N and S uptake in seed (46.21 and 4.57 kg ha-1) and straw (21.40 and 2.46 kg ha-1) and protein content (20.54%) and essential oil (0.40%) were recorded up to 40 kg ha-1 application, which was higher as compared tocontrol and 20 kg S ha-1.The results of this study suggestedthat foliar application of 500 ppm Thiourea twice at 45 at 80 DAS and soil applied sulphur at 40 kg S h-1 fetched significantly higher net returns as well as B: C ratioin coriander cultivation.

Key words: Plant growth regulators, Sulphur levels, Nutritive status, Profitability, Coriander.

52

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 205-208 (2017)

 

Effect of phytohormones and signal molecules on biochemical changes and shelf life of banana fruit

B.R. Sahithya*, B. Raju, Kulapati hipparagi, S. Raghavendra and B.S. Sagar

Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot - 587103 (Karnataka)

*e-mail: sahithyagowdab@gmail.com

(Received: May 14, 2016; Revised received: November 17, 2016;Accepted: November 21, 2016)

 

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Abstract: An investigation was undertaken to study the effect of post harvest application of phytohormones and signal molecules on shelf life and biochemical quality of banana cv. Grand Naine. Freshly harvested banana fruits were treated with different phytohormones and signal molecules and kept at ambient condition. The maximum shelf life (24.33 days), green life (17 days) and titratable acidity (0.41%) were recorded in treatment with 150ppm GA3 (gibberellic acid). Whereas, treatment with 1Mm SNP (sodium nitroprusside) exhibited the maximum yellow life (7.67days) and finally extended the shelf life up to 23 days. Fruits treated with 0.5gL-1 kinetin recorded the maximum total protein (16.40mg/g) with 21 days storage life. Fruits treated with ethrel 1mlL-1 recorded the highest percentage of reducing sugar (11.98%) and exhibited the rapid sugar accumulation and the minimum shelf life (8days). Untreated fruits showed the shelf life of 16 days. According to the findings, the best treatment for shelf life enhancement is 150ppm GA3.

Key words: Banana, Biochemical changes, Grand naine, Shelf life

53

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 209-212 (2017)

 

Productivity and nutrient uptake of pearl millet influenced by intercropping with legumes and fertility level

G.K. Giana*, O.P. Sharma, A.C. Shivran, P.K. Boori and S.S. Meena

Department of Agronomy, S.K.N. College of Agriculture (SKNAU), Jobner, Jaipur, Rajasthan-303 329

*e-mail: geetaagro28@gmail.com

(Received: May 01, 2016; Revised received: November 17, 2016;Accepted: November 23, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 2013 at S.K.N. Agriculture University , Jobner (Jaipur), to study the effect of intercropping and fertility levels on yield, nutrient uptake and economics of pearlmillet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br. emend Stuntz] on loamy sand soil of semi-arid eastern plain zone of Rajasthan. The treatments consisted of 4 intercropping systems viz. sole pearlmillet, pearlmillet + clusterbean, pearlmillet + mungbean and pearlmillet + cowpea with 4 fertility levels viz. no fertilizer, 30 kg N + 15 kg P2O5, 45 kg N + 22.5 kg P2O5 and 60 kg N + 30 kg P2O5/ha. Sole pearlmillet recorded significantly higher grain (20.4 q/ha) and stover (51.9 q/ha) yields of pearlmillet over pearlmillet intercropped with legumes. Among the systems, pearlmillet + clusterbean fetched the significantly maximum net returns (Rs 45212/ha) and B:C ratio (2.92). Sole pearlmillet is being at par with pearlmillet + clusterbean and pearlmillet + mungbean, recorded significantly higher N (58.64 kg/ha) and P (11.56 kg/ha) uptake by pearlmillet grain and stover than pearlmillet + cowpea intercropping system. Fertility levels increasing upto 45 kg N + 22.5 kg P2O5/ha were recorded significantly higher seed yield (20.4 q/ha), stover yield (51.5 q/ha), net returns (Rs 40208/ha) and B:C ratio (2.76) yields over control and 30 kg N + 15 kg P2O5/ha. The N and P concentration, uptake and total uptake in pearlmillet grain and stover and protein content in pearlmillet grain were recorded significantly higher by application of 60 kg N + 30 kg P2O5/ha as compared to lower levels.

Key words:Intercropping, Pearlmllet, Nutrient uptake, Net returns, B:C ratio

54

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 213-215 (2017)

 

Post-harvest evaluation of banana genotypes for quality and shelf life

B.S. Sagar*, B. Raju and B.R. Sahithya

Department of Fruit science, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot, College of Horticulure Bagalkot-587-104, India

*e-mail: sagar99022@gmail.com

(Received: May 04, 2016; Revised received: November 18, 2016;Accepted: November 23, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Present study was undertaken in fruit science laboratory, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot, Karnataka during 2013-2014. Twenty three different genotypes of desert and cooking banana were evaluated for quality and shelf life. Banana Fruit of many of the cooking genotypes had a significantly longer shelf life than that of the desert banana. The maximum total soluble solids (23.80obrix) and reducing sugar content (13.25%) were found in the genotype Lalchakrakeli. The lowest acidity was noticed in Rajapuri (0.13 %). Robusta recorded the maximum (178.33g) pulp weight among all other genotypes investigated and also themaximum (62.67g) peel weight whereas, Elakkibale recorded the highest (5.80%) pulp to peel ratio. The longest green life (15.66 days), shelf life (22.33 days) and the maximum firmness (56.40 N) was noticed in the genotype Balbisiana however, the longest yellow life (6.67 days) was observed in the genotype Poovan.

Key words:Banana, Cooking, Desert, Genotypes, Shelf life, Quality

55

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 216-220 (2017)

 

Agronomic performance of certified organic rice [Oryza sativa (L.) sub sp.japonica] as influenced by cultural practices

Victor Debbarma* and Thomas Abraham

Dept. of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad-211 007, India

*e-mail: victoragronomist@gmail.com

(Received: May 01, 2016; Revised received: November 20, 2016;Accepted: November 24, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The experiment was carried out to study the agronomic performance of organic japonica rice as influenced by planting methods, green manures and liquid forms of organic manures. The soil of the experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, low in available nitrogen, medium in available phosphorus and high in available potassium with 8.0 soil pH. The result recorded the higher plant height (54.36 cm) in the treatment T5 [SRI(t) + Sesbania aculeata L. + Panchagavya]. At 75 to 90 DAS/DAT intervals higher CGR of 0.61 g m-2 day-1 was recorded in the treatment T10 (DSR + Sesbania aculeata L. + Fish amino acid). The combined effect of 3 factors influenced the number of tillers (10.80 hill-1), grain yield (2.10 t ha-1) and straw yield (3.90 t ha-1) in the treatment T6 [SRI(t) + Sesbania aculeata + Fish amino acid]. The result recorded that the available organic carbon, zinc, and manganese were increased by the effect of both the green manure crops (Sesbania aculeata L. and Crotolaria juncea L.). The pH of the soil was decreased in all the treatment by the influenced with both the green manure crops dhaincha and sunnhemp. Highest gross return (103500 ha-1), net return (76020.00 ha-1) and benefit-cost ratio (3.76) were influenced by the combined effect of 3 factors in the treatment T6 [SRI(t) + Sesbania aculeata L. + Fish amino acid].

Key words: Organic rice, Japonica rice, Productivity, Soil fertility, Economics

56

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 221-223 (2017)

 

Assessment of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) genotypes under high hill conditions of Uttarakhand

Ashok Chhetri1, Nidhika Thakur*1, Manju Negi1, S.C. Pant2 and Ghan Shyam Abrol3

1Department of Fruit Science, 2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 3Department of Food Science and Technology,

VCSG, UUHF, Bharasra, Pauri Garhwal, U.K.

*e-mail: nidhika991@gmail.com

(Received: April07, 2016; Revised received: November 19, 2016;Accepted: November 24, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Different strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) genotypes were evaluated to study the variability in vegetative, fruit yield and quality characters at the experimental farm of Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali, Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, Bharsar, Pauri Garhwal during 2013 and 2014. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) and comprised of nineteen genotypes. The results showed that different strawberry cultivars exhibited marked variation in the growth and fruiting characteristics. Among all the genotypes, the fruit breadth (23.13 mm), number of fruits per plant (23.33) and yield per plant (106.21 g) were found highest with Dana. Shimla Delicious had highest fruit length (30.17 mm), TSS (11.00 B), TSS/acid (10.79) and lowest titratable acidity (1.18%). Hence, for fruit yield and quality characteristics, the cultivars Dana and Shimla Delicious were best suited for cultivation in high hills of Uttarakhand.

Keywords: Strawberry, genotypes, yield and quality

57

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 224-227 (2017)

 

Genetic variability studies in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) under transitional zone of Karnataka

Chethan, T.*, Vishnuvardhana, Arif A. Agasimani, Lakshman, D. and R.K. Mesta

Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal & Aromatic Crops, K.R.C. College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, Gokak, Belgaum-591 218, India

*e-mail: chetan.hortico@gmail.com

(Received: May 06, 2016; Revised received: November 20, 2016;Accepted: November 25, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance and genetic advance as a per cent over mean for sixteen characters were assessed by field evaluation of sixty one genotypes. High degree of variation was observed for all characters. The difference between phenotypic coefficient of variation and genotypic coefficient of variation were found to be narrow for most of the traits except dry weight of the plant, herbage yield, days to maturity, seed yield per plant and harvest index. The high estimates of heritability was found with almost traits except fresh weight of the plant (68.69), dry weight of the plant (63.68), herbage yield (55.60), number of umbellets per umbel (62.29), days to maturity (71.50) and harvest index (58.07). High estimates of genetic advance as a per cent over mean was observed for almost traits except fifty percent flowering, days to maturity and harvest index.

Key words: Coriander, Coriandrum sativum L., GCV, PCV, Heritability, Genetic Advance, Per se

58

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 228-231 (2017)

 

Effect of ecofriendly supercritical carbon dioxide, temperature and pressure on anti-nutritional compositions of Moringa seed kernel oil

Dinesha, B.L.*, Udaykumar Nidoni, Ramachandra, C.T., Nagraj Naik and Sankalpa, K.B.

Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering,

University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur- 584 104, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: dinirbdgtc@gmail.com

(Received: May 17, 2016; Revised received: November 22, 2016;Accepted: November 27, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The research was aimed to determining the effect of ecofriendly supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) temperature and pressure on anti-nutritional compositions of moringa seed kernel oil. The highest tannins (8.58 and 8.37%), saponins (2.26 and 2.23%) and phytates (9.79 and 11.03%) were obtained for SC-CO2 extracted moringa (PKM-1 and KDM-1) seed kernel oil at SC-CO2 pressure of 200 bar and temperature of 40C. Lowest values of tannins, saponins and phytates content of 1.54 and 1.34%, 0.48 and 0.56%, 3.09 and 3.07% were obtained for SC-CO2 pressure of 100 bar at temperature of 40 C. The anti-nutritional compositions of soxhlet extracted moringa seed kernel oil was found to be 10.45 and 10.27; 3.32 and 3.38; 12.26 and 12.15%. From the findings of this research work, SC-CO2 extracted oil was found lower anti-nutritional compositions compared to the soxhlet extracted oil. Therefore, it was concluded that SC-CO2 extracted moringa PKM-1 seed kernel oil contains lower concentrations of the analyzed anti-nutritional compositions compared to moringa KDM-1 seed kernel oil.

Key words:Anti-nutritional,Supercritical carbon dioxide, Tannins, Saponins and Phytates

59

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 232-234 (2017)

 

Genetic divergence study in ridge gourd [Luffa acutangula L. (Roxb.)] germplasm

Pushpendra Kumar*, V.B. Singh,C. N. Ram and Deepak Kumar Gautam

Department of Vegetable Science, NDUA&T, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229, India

*e-mail: pkgoyal4699@gmail.com

(Received: May 12, 2016; Revised received: November 21, 2016;Accepted: November 26, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The present investigation was conducted using thirty two germplasmof ridge gourd. Genetic divergence analysis following Mahalanobsis D2 statistics revealed wide range of genetic diversity among thirty two germplasmof ridge gourd for all the eleven characters which was pertaining to growth, yield and quality traits. The study observed for node number to anthesis of first staminate flower,node number to anthesis of first pistillate flower, days to anthesis of first staminate flower, days to anthesis of first pistillate flower, days to first fruit harvest, average fruit length (cm), average fruit diameter (cm), number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight (g),total fruit yield/plant (kg) and vine length (m).Genetic variation within and between clusters observed.The maximum intra-cluster distance observed in case of cluster IV (230.298) followed by cluster III (132.732), cluster II (97.112) and cluster I (46.043) while the minimum intra-cluster distance showed by cluster V and cluster VI (0.000), indicating genetic similarity of genotypes belonging to these respective clusters.

Key words: Ridge gourd [Luffa acutangula L. (Roxb.)], Clusters, Genetic divergence, Germplasm

60

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 235-238 (2017)

 

Effect of varying concentration of nickel on spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) metabolism and recovery of damage using boron and copper

Shiv Shankar Yadav*,Manoj Kumar Soni andY.K. Sharma

Laboratory of Environment science, Department of Botany, LucknowUniversity, Lucknow-226007, India

*e-mail: shivluresearch@gmail.com

(Received: May 22, 2016; Revised received: November 25, 2016;Accepted: November 30, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A pot culture was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of Spinach to nickel at 200M, 500M, 1000M concentration. The response of spinach towards elevated level of nickel (500M, 1000M) shows that its effect was inhibitory on catalase (CAT), total protein and sugar content at 45 and 90 days of observation. However damage was recovered by boron and copper as compared to lone concentration of Ni (500M, 1000M).The estimated activity of peroxidase (POD) from lower to higher concentration (200M, 500M, 1000M) was increased in leaves of spinach plant on 45 days (11.64, 14.55, 20.63, 23.41 O.D./g) and 90 days (12.71, 18.56, 25.51,30.16 O.D./g) of analysis. The concentration of total protein in 45 days spinach leaves at excess Ni levels was decreased from the values of control level (87.17, 83.92, 53.56, 40.80 g/g). The rate of decrease in protein was also observed in 90 days of analysis (154.17, 146.26, 103.59, 82.51 g/g). whereas, protein was improved in each treatment of Ni (500M, 1000M) with B (150M, 300M) and Cu (50M, 100M) as compared to lone application of Ni (500M and 1000M). Increase level of Ni progressively decreased sugar in spinach leaves on 45 days (2.85, 2.49, 1.83, 1.00 g/mg) and 90 days (2.61, 2.26, 1.44, 0.760 g/mg). Eventually, it was improved in recovery treatment as compare to lone concentration of Ni on both time points of analysis (45 and 90 days).

Key words: Catalase, peroxidase, protein, sugar, nickel, boron, copper

61

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 239-242 (2017)

 

Impact of Fe application and Rhizobium inoculation on root nodulation and yield of chickpea

Shweta Kumari * and S.K. Dubey

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, CSAUA&T, Kanpur-208002, India

*e-mail: shwetacsa11oct@gmail.com

(Received: May 24, 2016; Revised received: November 24, 2016;Accepted: November 30, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The root nodulation and yield of chickpea plants grown with different Fe concentrations and Rhizobium culture was studied in comparison to the un-inoculation at screen house. Treatments consisted four levels of iron i.e. 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 ppm and two levels of microbial inoculation i.e. un-inoculation and inoculation with Rhizobium. The treatments replicated four times in completely randomized design (factorial) in cemented pots. The results indicated that among the iron levels, 5.0 ppm showed better effect on number of nodules per plant (14.00, 19.00 and 10.00) at 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS), respectively. The grain (20.03 g pot-1), stover (23.97 g pot-1) yield and test weight of seeds (20.90 g) was also significantly increased with 5.0 ppm ferrous chloride in comparison to 0, 2.5 and 7.5 ppm levels. The seed treatment of chickpea with Rhizobium culture significantly increased the root nodulation (12.00, 18.50 and 8.75, respectively), grain (19.78 g pot-1) and stover (23.73 g pot-1) yield and test weight (20.85 g). In future, the experimental results may prove very useful for increase the nodulation and yield in chickpea with test weight.

Key words: Chickpea, Iron, Nodulation, Rhizobium, Stover, Test weight, Yield

62

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 243-245 (2017)

 

Economicheterosis and genetic divergence in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.] hybrids under rainfed conditions

Manoj Kumar1*, P.C. Gupta1, Nemichand Sharma2 and Shiv Narayan2

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, College of Agriculture

2ARS Beechwal, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner-334006, India

*e-mail: manoj.vishnoi108@gmail.com

(Received: April 29, 2016; Revised received: November 23, 2016;Accepted: November 29, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Heterosis has been a phenomenon of great interest for plant breeders and its utilization has led to the considerable yield improvement in crop plants. Fifty hybrids along with three checks raised in randomized block design with two replication in the experimental farm of Agriculture Research Farm Beechwal, Bikaner. The analysis of genetic divergence was carried out by using Mahalanobis D2 statistic. The grouping of genotypes in to clusters was made as per Tochers methods. The 50 genotypes were grouped together in to 10 clusters. Cluster I was the largest and consist of thirty seven genotypes followed by cluster II with four genotypes. Seven clusters contained only single genotypes. The maximum inter cluster distance (505.75) was recorded between cluster IV and cluster X. Likewise intra cluster distance (50.41) was highest for cluster X.The highest positive significant economic heterosis for seed yield (61.73%) was exhibited by the genotype 88004A MRC HS-170-3-5-2-B-B-2-B-B-B-1 followed by 843-22A MRC HS-130-2-2-1-B-B-1-B-B-B-B-1-B-B (49.66%).

Key words: Pearl millet, Economic Heterosis, Genetic divergence, D2 technique

63

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 246-248 (2017)

 

Morphological characterization, identification and edibility test of edible mushrooms from Vindhya forest of Northern India

M.K. Yadav*1,2, Ram Chandra2, S.K. Yadav3, P.K. Dhakad2, Sushreeta Naik2 and Usha1

1Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University, Jhansi-284003, India

2Deptt. of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 3Deptt. of Agricultural Entomology and Zoology,

Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

*e-mail: manojbhu87@gmail.com

(Received: April 24, 2016; Revised received: November 24, 2016;Accepted: November 29, 2016)

 

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Abstract: In the present investigation that was studies the collection of 25 edible mushrooms from different localities of Vindhya forest were observed and other phenotypic parameter noted in fresh form. The fruiting structures like cap, stalk, gills, volva and annulus were observed as present / absent during collection. The shape and colour of fruit bodies was also recorded. The edibility test of collected edible mushrooms was also ascertained by obtaining information from local and tribals consuming the same. This information noted as fruiting stage and edible part of mushroom at the time of consumption and as well as their taste flavor and chewing nature. 12 collected edible mushroom out of 25 that C. indica, P. flabellatus, P. ostreatus, P. florida, P. eryngii, P. sajor-caju, A. bisporus, P. pulmonarius, P. porrigens, P. onesti, A. polytricha and H. lactifluorum have excellent edibility. The flavor of collected edible mushroom were having different flavor such as cheese, vegetable, fish, chicken.

Key words: Vindhya forest, Fleshy fungi, Morphologically, Parameter

64

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 249-252 (2017)

 

Variability studies for grain yield and component traits in F2 segregating populations of Kharif Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]

Sanjeevsingh Rajaput*1, Kamatar M.Y.1, Bharamaraj Badiger2, Bangaremma S.W.1

1Department of Genetics and Plant breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580005, Karnataka, India

2Department of Seed Science and Technology, UAS, G.K.V.K, Bangalore

*e-mail: sanjeevsinghrjpt@gmail.com

(Received: April 19, 2016; Revised received: November 23, 2016;Accepted: November 28, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The present investigation was undertaken to study the variability, heritability and genetic advance in six F2 segregating populations derived from cross between resistant to downy mildew and agronomically good combiner lines of sorghum. Moderate PCV and GCV with high heritability and genetic advance as per cent mean were observed in all populations for panicle length. Phenotypic and Genotypic coefficient of variability were high for grain yield and panicle weight in all the six populations, while high variability for 1000 grain weight was observed in four F2 populations. High heritability coupled with high genetic advances was observed for panicle weight and grain yield in all the six populations indicating the role of additive gene action. Whereas, high heritability with low to moderate genetic advance in all the six segregating population for 1000 grain weight was observed, indicating the presence of both additive and non-additive gene action in the expression of these traits. Hence, simple selection for the traits like panicle weight, 1000 grain weight and grain yield would be sufficient to bring genetic improvement in the desired direction.

Key words: Sorghum, Variability, Genetic advance, Segregating population and Heritability

65

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 253-256 (2017)

 

Morphological traits based diversity in selected clones of sugarcane (Saccharumofficinaru L.)

Guruprasad Hiremath1 and Nagaraja T.E.2

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore-560 065, India

2ZARS, V.C, Farm, Mandya, UAS, Bangalore

*e-mail: guruprasad4235@gmail.com

(Received: April 19, 2016; Revised received: November 23, 2016;Accepted: November 28, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Genetic diversity is indispensable to sustain genetic gain in breeding programmes. Present investigation in search of genetically diverse clones was conducted in Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two replications at Zonal Agriculture Research Station (ZARS), Vishweshwaraiah Canal Farm, Mandya, Karnataka, India. Based on Mahalanobis D2 statistic thirty five clones were grouped into eight clusters of which, cluster III was the largest followed by cluster V with 15 and 10 genotypes, respectively. Higher inter-cluster distance was noticed between cluster V and VII (21.439) indicating high genetic diversity among two clusters. Thus, exploitation of genotypes of these two clusters as parents for crossing could produce good segregants. Lower inter cluster distance between cluster II and IV (6.214) and intra cluster distance within cluster II (3.523) and I (3.742) was noticed to indicate the close relationship of genotypes within each of these clusters. Commercial cane sugar (CCS) yield (t/ha) followed by pol per cent juice and single cane weight contributed the highest whereas, CCS (%) contributed least towards the divergence. High cluster mean value for juice quality was exhibited by cluster VIII and IV whereas for cane yield and sugar yield, cluster VI was the best. It has been suggested that genotypes within these clusters could show greater potentiality for breeding purpose by virtue of their desirable characters.

Key words: Sugarcane, Diversity, Clusters, D2 statistic, Variability

66

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 257-260 (2017)

 

Assessment of polymers as alternative carrier for rice endophytes for use as bioinoculants

K. Anbukkarasi*1 and T. Umamaheswari2

1RVS Agricultural College, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu - 613402, India

2Dept. of Food Science & Nutrition, Home Science College & Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai-624 104, India

*e mail: anbumicro80@gmail.com

(Received: April 28, 2016; Revised received: November 22, 2016;Accepted: November 28, 2016)

 

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Abstract: We aimed to assess two different polymersviz., cellulose andstarch for preparation of riceendophytic formulations. Six previously isolated rice endophytic bacteria were characterized and identified as Paenibacillus isolates (K4, K15, N1 and Y2), Pseudomonas isolates (K23 and G) and RhizobiumCOG5 was used as reference strain. Among the isolates, reference strain RhizobiumCOG5 showed maximum nitrogenase activity (52 n moles ml-1 h-1).Paenibacillus isolate K15 produced maximum amount of indole acetic acid (IAA) (21.5 mg 100 ml-1) and cytokinin(12.5 ng ml-1) whereas Pseudomonas isolate G produced maximum amount of gibberellic acid (11.60 g ml-1). Polymer based carrier formulations were prepared by using cellulose and starch. Population in polymer based formulations was maintained at 108cfug-1 whereas in lignite it was maintained up to 107cfug-1.Among the cellulose and starch polymer formulations evaluated, cellulose was found to be the best carrier for rice endophytes.Among the treatments, cellulose blended formulation promote higher vigour index and dry matter production (2.5 mg seedling-1) followed by starch blends.

Key words:Bacterial rice endophytes, Carrier, Cellulose, Starch, Biofertilizer

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Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 261-264 (2017)

 

Vacuolar compartmentation of Na+ in NHX1 transgenic rice

Rajashree, B. Biradar*1 andSashidhar, V.R.2

1Department of Crop Physiology, UAS, Dharwad-580 005, India and 2Department of Crop Physiology, UAS, Bangaluru-560 065, India

*e-mail: raju4319@gmail.com

(Received: April 28, 2016; Revised received: November 22, 2016;Accepted: November 28, 2016)

 

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Abstract: To increase salt tolerance maintenance of low concentration ofNa+ then K+ and high K+/Na+ratio is very important for enzymatic activity and other cellular activity. NHX1 transgenic ricehave this capacity to maintain high K+/Na+ ratio. To know this NHX1 trasgenic and wildtype rice plants are exposed to 350mM NaCl by hydroponic method. Sodium and Potassium content was estimated by the ICP- OES. Root andleafsamples were used for estimation. Na+ and K+ content was expressed in m. mol/g of dry weight. After 45 days of treatment data revealed that there was significant difference in the Na+ and K+ concentration of root (In wildtype: Na+ concentration was 137.2 mM g-1 of dry weight and K+ concentration was 94.09 mM g-1 of dry weight; in transgenic line: Na+ concentration was 40.56 mM g-1 of dry weight and K+ concentration was 115.81 mM g-1 of dry weight) and shoot (In wildtype: Na+ concentration was 195.00 mM g-1 of dry weight and K+ concentration was 251.10 mM g-1 of dry weight; in transgenic line: Na+ concentration was 114.20 mM g-1 of dry weight and K+ concentration was 291.60 mM g-1 of dry weight). Even though transgenics had higher concentration of Na+they showed tolerance to salt stress because these transgenics have mechanism of compartmentation through pgNHX1 gene, this mechanism was absent in wildtype. The K+ concentration was higher in roots of transgenics compared to wildtype. The K+/ Na+ ratio in the roots (0.90) and shoots (2.55) of transgenics was higher compared to wild type (0.68 in root and 1.28 in shoot). This showed that transgenics have maintained ion homeostasis under salt stress by sequestering the toxic Na+ into the vacuoles. The production of ROS and the cells ability to scavengeis considered as critical features of stress tolerance. Wildtype under stress condition had produced more H2O2 compared to transgenic lines. This suggest that transgenic plant cells have ability to scavenge the ROS.

Key word: Compartmentation, ICP-OES, NHX1 gene, Salt stress, Tonoplast and vacuole

68

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 265-269 (2017)

 

Water-stable aggregates and associated parametersin native and cultivated soils under varying crops of research farms in relation to their suitability for good agriculture

Viralkumar A. Patel and Amaresh Das*

Department of Soil Science, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari - 396 450, India

*e-mail: dramreshdas@yahoo.co.in

(Received: May 25, 2016; Revised received: November 23, 2016;Accepted: November 28, 2016)

 

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Abstract:A study was under taken during 2011-12 on the comparative assessment of water stable aggregates (WSA), aggregate ratio (AR), Mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates, aggregates associated organic carbon and total nitrogen status in native and cultivated surface soils under eight major crops. Irrespective of crops native soils exhibited higher per cent of macro-WSA (>0.25 mm) as compared to corresponding cultivated soils as was reflected in mean aggregate ratios (AR) varying from 2.76 to 7.04 in cultivated and 4.43 to 10.48 in native soils. MWD of WSA for native and cultivated soils of research farms varied from 1.35 - 2.37 mm and 0.84 - 2.10 mm, respectively. Cultivated soil AR was of the order: Bardoli-wheat > Vyara-rice > Paria-sapota > Surat-sorghum > Navsari-sugarcane > Paria-mango > Vanarasi-soybean > Surat-cotton. MWD was considered as degree of suitability for good agriculture. Accordingly the order was:Bardoli-wheat > Paria-sapota > Paria-mango > Vyara-rice > Navsari-sugarcane > Surat-sorghum > Vanarasi-soybean > Surat-cotton. Native soils analyzed higher WSA-associated-organic carbon (WSA-OC) over cultivated soils in all the size fractions (>2.0, 1.0 - 2.0, 0.5 - 1.0, 0.25 - 0.5 and < 0.25 mm). WSA-organic carbon (OC) and total nitrogen (TN) did not follow any definite trendas to varying aggregate sizes for both native and cultivated soils. Micro-aggregates (< 0.25 mm)- stored OC was considered asthe measure ofstable or sequestered OC and based on that, research farms were of the following order: Surat-cotton (2.01 g kg-1) > Navsari-sugarcane (1.53 g kg-1) > Vanarasi-soybean (1.37 g kg-1) > Paria-mango (1.19 g kg-1) > Paria-sapota (1.10 g kg-1) > Surat-sorghum (0.98 g kg-1) > Vyara-rice (0.94 g kg-1) > Bardoli- wheat (0.89 g kg-1).

Key words: Native soils, cultivated soils under different crops, WSA, AR, MWD, Aggregates associated organic carbon and total nitrogen

69

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 270 -274 (2017)

 

Stability analysis for different agromorphological traits under different temperature regimes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Ankit Kumar1, Pradeep Kumar*2, Gyanendra Singh2 and Kashi Nath Tiwari2

1Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut-250110, India

2Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132 001, Haryan, India

*e-mail: pradeeptaliyan231@gmail.com

(Received: May 18, 2016; Revised received: November 24, 2016;Accepted: November 28, 2016)

 

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Abstract:The present study was undertaken to identify the stable genotypes for grain yield and its components traits with desirable performance under three varying temperature regimes taking 20 diverse wheat genotypes planted under three microenvironments during Rabi 2012-2013. Pooled analysis of variance revealed significant variance due to environment for all traits indicating thereby differential response of all the genotypes. The combined analysis of variance depicted significant G x E interaction for all the characters under study indicating substantial amount of predictable G E interaction. For grain yield, two genotypes (NW 1014 and K 9162) exhibited stable performance across the environments based on their superior mean performance, regression coefficient (b) close to unity and non significant deviations from regression. Genotype K 612 showed superior mean performance, had regression coefficient greater than unity with non-significant deviation from regression coefficient and thus was found suitable for favorable conditions. Whereas, genotypeK 9162 was the highest yielding and stable genotype along with early maturity (118 days) and has potential for late planting conditions and may also be utilized for hybridization programme to improve yield and reduce crop duration in wheat.

Key words: Bread wheat, Stability parameters, Temperature regimes and Grain yield

70

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 275-279 (2017)

 

Micro-watersheds prioritization for effective soil conservation planning of sub-watershed

A.P. Lakkad*1, Dileshwar Nayak2, G.R. Patel3 and P.K. Shrivastava2

1College of Agril. Engg. & Technology, NAU, Dediapada-393040, India

2ASPEE College of Horticultural & Forestry, NAU, Navsari-396450, India; 3College of Agriculture, AAU, Vaso-387380, India

*e-mail: larunp@nau.in

(Received: May 18, 2016; Revised received: November 24, 2016;Accepted: November 27, 2016)

 

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Abstract:Among the major causes of soil degradation in India, water erosion is considered to be the most severe one which covers almost 68.39 % of the affected area resulting into the annual soil loss of about 5.3 billion tons through erosion.In the present study an attempt has been made to measure and model the water erosion to identify priority of micro-watersheds for watershed management planning of study area using the ArcGIS interface. Sub-watershed (5D1A5c) that catches water from main stream of Dediapada region (Dist.-Narmada, Gujarat) was selected for the study purpose. The sub-watershed covers 7 micro-watersheds i. e. d, e, f, g, h, j and k. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was used to estimate cell wise gross soil erosion of study area. The parameters of RUSLE were estimated separately by adopting standard procedure. The erosion susceptibility map was derived using gross erosion rate and soil loss tolerance limit of the study area using standard formula. Two different approaches were adopted for prioritization of micro-watersheds. In the first approach, gross erosion values of each micro-watershed were arranged in descending order to decide the priority of micro-watersheds while in second approach, the priority of micro-watersheds was decided based on the highest area under very high priority (> 35 ton/ha/yr) with lowest area under safe zone (< 0 ton/ha/yr) for each micro-watershed. The prioritization of micro-watersheds from both the approaches gives same priority. The priorities of micro-watersheds were decided as d, g, j k, e, f and h for micro-watershed planning, execution and management program.

Key word: Prioritization of Micro Watersheds, Erosion, Remote Sensing, GIS, RUSLE

71

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 280-283 (2017)

 

Estimation of combining ability for growth, yield and its components in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. Ex. Poir)

Gururaj S. Kakamari* and Jagadeesha R.C.

K.R.C. College of Horticulture, (University Horticultural Sciences) Arabhavi -591 218, India

*e-mail: gurukakamari@gmail.com

(Received: May 12, 2016; Revised received: November 26, 2016;Accepted: November 30, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A six parent diallel cross of pumpkin revealed contribution of both additive and non-additive gene action controlling the expression of yield and its components. The Combining ability study was carried out at Kittur Rani Channama College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, Karnataka, Epistasis was pronounced for all the characters. Among parents, KP-31 and KP-51 ranked as top general combiners for yield and its components. Higher yield was associated with increased number of fruits KP-51(0.30), average fruit weight KP-31(0.54), fruit length KP-51(2.03) and fruit diameter KP-31(4.21). Good specific combination involved high low general combiners. Exploitation of heterosis appeared to be limited. Three crosses KP-31 KP-26, KP-17Arabhavi local and KP-51Arabhavi local were identified for developing high yielding genotypes of pumpkin with other desirable characters.

Key words: Cucurbita moschata, General combining ability, Specific combining ability, Yield

72

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 284-287 (2017)

 

Effect of structured water and fertilizer on quality of grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

Balesh Goudappanavar*1, D.R. Patil1, Ashok Alur2, R.K. Mesta3 and Sateesh Patterpur1

1Department of Fruit Science,2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, 3Department of Plant Pathology,

COH, UHS, Bagalkot, Karnataka-587103, India

*e-mail: balesh072@gmail.com

(Received: May 12, 2016; Revised received: November 24, 2016;Accepted: November 27, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment on Effect of structured water and fertilizer on growth, yield and quality of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv manjari naveen. The experiment consisted of types of water (Structured water and Bore well water) and five levels of fertilizer (100, 90, 80, 70, 60 % of the RDF) and was laid out in split plot design. Among the types of water, structured water recorded significantly highest TSS (17.98), Acidity (0.13%), Total sugar (18.92mg/100 g), Reducing sugar (16.16mg/100 g) and Non Reducing sugar (2.81mg/100 g) respectively, Among the levels of fertilizer, 100 % RDFwasrecorded significantly highest TSS (18.83) and Reducing sugar (16.22 mg/100 g) . However, the interaction effect between types of water and levels of fertilizer was non significant.

Key words: Bore well water, Fertilizer, Non Reducing sugar, Reducing sugar, TSS, Total sugar and structured water

73

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 288-290 (2017)

 

Studies on genetic divergence for yield attributing traits in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek)

Manoj Kumar Sao*, Naveen Kumar Markam, S.K. Nair, Swagatika Khandual and Pradeep Kujur

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, IGKV, Raipur (CG) - 492012, India

*e-mail: manojsao11@gmail.com

(Received: May 18, 2016; Revised received: November 27, 2016;Accepted: November 30, 2016)

 

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Abstract: AThirty genotypes of green gram used to study the nature and magnitude of genetic divergence using Mahalanobis D2 Statistics. The data for ten important traits recorded from the genotypes raised in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The thirty green gram genotypes were grouped into five clusters. Cluster V contained the highest number of fourteen genotypes followed by cluster III and IV with has five-five genotypes. The patterns of distribution of genotypes from different geographical location into five clusters were random, demonstrating that geographical isolation may not be the only factor causing genetic diversity. The highest intra-cluster distance was observed for cluster V (1.506) and the lowest intra-cluster distance was observed for cluster I (0.759). While the highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster II and IV (7.677) and the lowest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and V (2.664). The cluster IV has high mean value for days to 50% flowering (69.07), plant height (50.31), days to maturity (100.07), number of pods per cluster (4.02), number of seeds per pod (11.09) and seed yield per plant (5.31). Thus genotypes of these clusters may be used as potential parents for hybridization program for developing high yielding mungbean varieties.

Key words: D2 statistics, Genetic divergence, Genotype, Inter and Intra cluster distance, Mungbean

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Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (3) 291-294 (2017)

Genetic divergence analysis in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Vora Zarna N., Patel J.B.*, PansuriyaA.G. and Yusufzai Sana A.

Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagarh-362 001, Gujarat, India

*e-mail: jbpatelvasai38@gmail.com

(Received: June 13, 2016; Revised received: November 28, 2016;Accepted: December 03, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity among 40 genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The genetic diversity analysis revealed the formation of 13 clusters suggesting the presence of wide genetic diversity. The clustering pattern indicated that geographic diversity was not associated with genetic diversity. The analysis of per cent contribution of various characters towards the expression of total genetic divergence indicated that grain yield per plant followed by length of main spike, number of effective tillers per plant, plant height, number of grains per main spike and grain filling period contributed maximum towards total genetic divergence. Based on the maximum genetic distance, it is advisable to attempt crossing of the genotypes from cluster XII with the genotypes of cluster X, which may lead to the generation of broad spectrum of favourable genetic variability for yield improvement in bread wheat.

Key words: Genetic divergence, D2 statistic, Triticum aestivum L.

 

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