RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-10, Number-4, April-2017

 

75

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 295-298 (2017)

 

Effect of foliar application of iron on clusterbean [Cyamposis tetragonoloba (L.) TAUB] varieties

R.B. Solanki*, L.R. Yadav, Anshul Gupta and H.P. Verma

Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner, Rajasthan-303329, India

*e-mail: radhikasolanki100@gmail.com

(Received: July 24, 2016; Revised received: December 01, 2016;Accepted: December 05, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to work out optimum dose of foliar application of iron and to evaluate production potential of clusterbean [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub] varieties. The treatment consisted of combinations of five clusterbean varieties (RGC-986,RGC-1003,RGC-1033, RGC-1055 and RGC-1066) and four foliar sprays treatment of 0.5 % FeSO4 (control, branching, flowering and branching +flowering) were tested in randomized block design with three replications. Results revealed that the highest total N, P, K and Fe uptake (110.8, 13.0, 51.5 kg/ha and 1143 g/ha), seed yield (1816 kg/ha), stover yield (3787 kg/ha), net returns (Rs. 53651/ha) and B:C ratio (2.25), ‘RGC-1033’ proved best and economically profitable compared to rest of varieties. Application of 0.5 % FeSO4 at branching + flowering stage significantly increased quality of seed and stover, seed yield (1550 kg/ha) and stover yield (3624 kg/ha) and proved economically beneficial compared to over control. However, application of 0.5 % FeSO4 at branching recorded at par net returns with spray at branching +flowering stage.

Key words: Clusterbean, Varieties, Foliar spray, Iron, Nutrient uptake

76

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 299-303 (2017)

 

Impact of climate variability on crop yield in different districts of Gulbarga division

Laxmi N. Tirlapur1 andN.R. Mamle Desai2

1Dept. of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, India

2Dept. of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Vijayapur-586 101, India

*e-mail: laxmint4424@gmail.com

(Received: June 16, 2016; Revised received: December 24, 2016;Accepted: December 28, 2016)

 

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Abstract: India is mainly an agricultural country. Agriculture being a means of livelihood of almost 58 per cent of the population in the country represents India’s most important economic sector. Climate and Agriculture are inextricably linked. Climate change affects agriculture in a number of ways, including through changes in average temperatures, rainfall, climate extremes, changes in pests and diseases etc. Realizing the importance of climate for agriculture production, present study was carried out in different districts of Gulbarga division. Results of the study revealed that, in all the districts namely Bellary, Bidar, Gulbarga and Raichur rainfall showed decreasing trend during the period of study from 1983-84 to 2012-13. Maximum range in the magnitude of average rainfall between the driest and wettest years was observed in Bidar district i.e.; 332.74 mm followed by Gulbarga (316.56 mm), Bellary (228.88 mm), Raichur (222.29 mm) and Koppal (179.70 mm). In Bellary district 80.11% and 86.50% of variation in the yield of Jowar and Cotton was explained by the climatic parameters used in the study. In Gulbarga district84.60% variation in Jowar yield was explained by the variables such as actual rainfall, maximum and minimum temperature and maximum and relative humidity. In case of Raichur district Sunflower and Jowar yield were highly sensitive to the climate variability because 94.30% and 81.56% variation in the yield of Sunflower and Jowar was explained by the variables under study.

Key words: Climate Variability, Climate change, Deviation, Range, Green House Gases

77

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 304-308 (2017)

 

Genetics of spot blotch disease in bread wheat caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana

Ashish Ojha*, Gynanedra Singh, B.S. Tyagi, Virender Singh and Rajita

Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132001, Haryana, India

*e-mail: ashishbt26@gmail.com

(Received: June 19, 2016; Revised received: December 22, 2016;Accepted: December 27, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Spot blotch of wheat caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana (sacc.) Shoem, is one of the most important disease constraints to wheat cultivation in the northeastern and eastern plain zone of India. Bipolaris sorokiniana is also known as the cause of foliar blight, seedling blight, head blight and common root rot of wheat worldwide.A total of 100 genotypes/ germplasm /lines/ genetic stocks were screened under field and epiphytotic polyhouse condition with high pressure by the monoconidial culture of the most aggressive isolate obtained from different climatic zones from India. We found 11 genotypes those were found highly resistant or immune for different aggressive isolate used for inheritance study. Indian genotypes showed to be more susceptible compared to other lines / Genotypes originated from CIMMYT, CHINA and Brazil. Chirya-3 and Yangmai#6 from Cimmyt and China showed highly resistance to the spot blotch under both conditions (Field & Polyhouse). On the basis of the disease frequency these six crosses (Yangmai #6/ GW 322, Yangmai #6/ HD 2967 Yangmai #6/ HD 2985 and Chirya-3/ GW 322, Chirya-3/ HD 2967, Chirya-3/ HD 2985) the data showed good fit to the segregation ratio of 15 resistant: 1 susceptible. P value showed the high significant value (3.841) in all over the crosses. Based upon our studies under both artificial as well as natural epiphytic conditions by using three (F1, F2 and BC1) indicated that resistance in Chirya 3 and Yangmai#6 are governed by dominant genes. Test of allelism also proved that the resistant genes in the Chirya-3 and Yangmai#6 are allelic in nature. A resultant population with combined genome of the resistant lines Chirya-3 and Yangmai#6 with diverse resistant sources would be able to provide defense mechanisms in a way that the yield loss as a result of HLB infection could be significantly minimized.

Key words: Wheat, Inheritance, Resistance, Pathogen and Isolate

78

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 309-311 (2017)

 

Biochemical and light microscopic study of thyroid gland in Pati ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) of Assam

Snehangsu Sinha*1, Munmun Sarma1, Rita Nath2 and K.B. Devchoudhury1

1Department of Anatomy & Histology, 2Department of Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Science, AAU, Guwahati, India

*e-mail: drsnehangsusinha@gmail.com

(Received: June 25, 2016; Revised received: December 24, 2016;Accepted: December 28, 2016)

 

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Abstract:In the present investigation, after hatching the randomly selected 42 birds were divided into 7 groups and reared under open range system. The seven groups of birds were kept for different periods i.e. day old, 2 weeks, 4weeks, 8weeks, 20weeks, 30weeks and 40 weeks. Blood samples about 2-3 ml were collected from the wing veins of each bird under aseptic condition by using insulin syringe. After blood collection the birds were slaughtered for histological works. From the study it as observed that Alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly with age i.e. for 0 to 40 weeks while AST, ALT, CPK, glucose, protein, cholesterol, creatinine and triglycerides increased significantly (P<0.0001) with age. The microscopic structure of thyroid glands of Pati ducks revealed primarily the capsule enclosing the follicles that contained colloid. Parafollicular cells were found in interfollicular space.

Key words: Pati ducks, biochemical, light microscopy

79

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 312-314 (2017)

 

Impact of Integrated nutrient management on growth

characters of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Abhishek Tiwari, Ankit Tiwari* and N.B. Singh

Department of Agronomy, N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229, India

*e-mail: ankit.0768@gmail.com

(Received: May 10, 2016; Revised received: December 11, 2016;Accepted: December 17, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2013 with an objective to find out the suitable treatment combination of the organic source of mineral fertilizer in rice. The experiment was laid out in Randomised Block Design with 12 treatments combinations viz. T1:N0P0K0, T2:25% recommended NPK through fertilizer, T3:50% recommended NPK through fertilizer, T4:75% recommended NPK through fertilizer, T5:100% recommended NPK through fertilizer, T6:50% recommended NPK through fertilizer+50% N (FYM), T7:75% recommended NPK through fertilizer+25% (FYM), T8:75%recommended NPK through fertilizer+50% (Wheat cut straw), T9:75% recommended NPK through fertilizer+25% of N (Wheat cut straw), T10:50% recommended NPK through fertilizer+25% N through Sesbania green manuring, T11:75% recommended NPK through fertilizer+25% N through Sesbania green manuring, T12:Farmers practice N90P30K0 with three replications. Integrated nutrient management (INM) increases the plant height, number of tillers, dry matter accumulation and leaf area index when applied with green manuring (Sesbania). Treatment T11 (R 75% +25% GM+W75%) found significantly superior and produced taller plants (117.0 cm), maximum number of tillers (356.10), dry matter accumulation (250.2) and leaf area index (4.55) as compared to the other treatments.

Key words: Organic manures, INM, Soil fertility, NPK, Rice

80

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 315-318 (2017)

 

Studies on colour parameters of brown rice at various moisture contents using different storage structures

Ankit Kumar* and V.K. Tiwari

1Department of Postharvest Process and Food Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalya, Jabalpur-482004, India

*e-mail: jggankit@gmail.com

(Received: May 21, 2016; Revised received: December 17, 2016;Accepted: December 26, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The colour parameters for four months stored brown rice at 12%, 14% and 16% moisture contents (w.b.) in different indigenous storage structures (mud bin, jute bag and polypropylene bag) at prevailing environmental conditions such as redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were studied for single variety of paddy (Sugandha). A different trends were observed for value a* and b* during storage time. Along with the storage time decreased the value of a*. Maximum value of a* were observed in polypropylene bag (4.14, 4.34 and 4.66) followed by mud bin (4.02, 4.08 and 4.32) and at jute bag (3.65, 3.88 and 4.14) at 12, 14 and 16% moisture content respectively after 120 days. But value of b* increased throughout storage periods. Highest value of b* showed in jute bag (24.55, 24.30 and 23.98) followed by mud bin (24.24, 24.02 and 23.78) and minimum in polypropylene bag (23.89, 23.74 and 23.62) corresponding at 12, 14 and 16 % moisture content respectively. Hunter value a* and b* are very significant role on chroma C* and hue angle h°. From the study revealed that colour parameters b* value was most important for quality of stored brown rice.

Key words: Brown rice, Storage structures, Storage time, Moisture contents and Colour parameters

81

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 319-321 (2017)

 

Influence of bulb size and growth regulators on the performance of english cape Lily (Crinum sp.)

P. Manimaran1* and R. Sendhilnathan2

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University,Annamalai Nagar-608002, Tamil Nadu, India

*e-mail: mmhorts@gmail.com

(Received: June 01, 2016; Revised received: December 07, 2016;Accepted: December 12, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A study of the influence of bulb size and growth regulators on the performance of English cape lily (Crinum sp) was conducted. The bulbs of different sizes (small 5, medium 7.5, and large 10 cm) are soaked for 12 hours before planting with growth regulators Viz., Gibberllic acid (GA3) and Naphthalene acidic acid (NAA) @ 500, 1000 ppm concentration before planting. Among the various bulb size and growth regulators, soaking of large size of 10 cm in diameter of lily bulbs soaked with appropriate concentration of GA3 @ 1000 ppm was significantly increased the plant growth characters of 80 % bulbs sprouting earliest of 9.09 days, plant height (66.20 cm), number of leaves (22.33 plant-1), leaf area (247.33 cm2), Flower parameters of days taken for spike emergence (26.43 days), days taken for floret open (32.87 days), highest spike length (58.33 cm), flower length (12.82 cm), flower diameter (14.53 cm), weight of the flower (4.30 g) and highest vase life (12.47 days), Bulb yield parameters namely number of bulbs and bulblets (12.33 plant1), weight of bulbs and bulblets (395.67 g plant-1) was achievedEnglish cape lily (Crinum sp). From the experiment, the bulbs of size 10 cm soaked in GA3 @ 1000 ppm for 12 hours before planting could adjudged as the best treatment in performance of English cape lily under the open field condition.

Key words: Bulb size, Crinum sp, English cape lily, GA3, NAA

82

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 322-326 (2017)

 

Influence of structured water and fertilizer on Ec, pH, N, P and K content in water and soil of grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

Balesh Goudappanavar*, D.R. Patil, Sunkam Mahesh, Shambhulingappa Negalur and Rani Shiranal

Department of Fruit Science, UHS, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India-587103

*e-mail: balesh351@gmail.com

(Received: June 25, 2016; Revised received: December 16, 2016;Accepted: December 23, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment consisted of types of water (Structured water and Bore well water) and five levels of fertilizer (100, 90, 80, 70, 60 % of the RDF) and was laid out in split plot design. Among the types of water, structured water recorded significantly minimum EC and pH (0.767 dS/m and 7.333) respectively, whereas, Nitrogen (238.13 kg/ha), Phosphrous (53.10 kg/ha) and Potassium (282.36 kg/ha) recorded significantly highest.Among the levels of fertilizer, 100% RDF wasrecorded significantly minimum EC (0.875 dS/m) and pH (7.350). Whereas, structured water recorded significantly highest Nitrogen, Phosphrous and Potassium (236.13, 51.00 and 269.18 kg/ha) respectively.

Key words: Bore well water, EC, Fertilizer, Nitrogen, pH, Phosphrous, Potassium and Structured water

83

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 327-329 (2017)

 

Effect of growing media on quality plantlet regeneration through macro-propagation in banana (Musa spp. L.)

D.U. Pujar*, A.M. Shirol, G.S.K. Swamy, S.S. Hiremath and P.R. Choudhury

Department Fruit Science, Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture Arabhavi, UHS, Bagalkot-580121, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: deepapjr13@gmail.com

(Received: June 18, 2016; Revised received: December 23, 2016;Accepted: December 28, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Studies were conducted to know effect of media on quality plantlet regeneration through macro propagation in banana cv. Ney Poovan. Since Ney Poovan is a promising variety in Karnataka and fetches high price in market because of its excellent taste but a major problem in cultivation of Ney Poovan variety is supply of quality planting material. Hence, macro-propagation was tried to see the practicability in using it for large scale multiplication. In this study, effect of growing media on quality plantlet regeneration through macro propagation was tried. Since, banana has strong apical dominance, which when suppressed will give rise to many side suckers. This principle was used in macro propagation. Apical region was removed to encourage lateral buds. For easy penetration of buds incisions were given. Total number of plantlets regenerated after 4-5 months were recorded. Different growing media were used to know the regeneration capacity of corm through macro-propagation. Among different media used media combination of sawdust + FYM significantly produced higher number of primary buds per corm, number of plantlets after secondary decapitation, total number of plantlets per corm and days taken for first bud emergence.

Key words: Banana, Macro-propagation, Growing media, Ney Poovan

84

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 330-333 (2017)

 

Studies on morphology characterization of rice germplasm

Mithlesh Kumar Kanwar*, Ravindra Kumar Verma, A. K. Sarawagi, Naveen Kumar Markam and Rambihari Lahre

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, IGKV, Raipur (CG) 492012, India

*e-mail: mithleshkanwar009@gmail.com

(Received: May 12, 2016; Revised received: December 28, 2016;Accepted: January 02, 2017)

 

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Abstract: The present study was conducted to characterize the rice germplasm on the basis of morphological characteristics. Germplasm used in the current study were consisted of 28 rice accessions including four local check varieties; poornima, Samleshwari, IGKV-R1 and N-22 were planted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replication. For this purpose, all 28 rice germplasm collected from different sources and these germplasm were characterized and grouped on the basis of leaf color, flag leaf angle, panicle type, hull color, awning and other characters. The data were recorded on 19 different agro-morphological traits. The rice germplasm exhibited sufficient genetic variation for most of the morphological traits. After evaluation of 28 germplasm was characterized, on the basis of frequency distribution, top most germplasm were identified for the yield ancillary traits. These can be used to identify phenotypically divergent sources for traits of interest in breeding programmes. Morphological characterization is most important parameters for characterization of germplasm.

Key words: Rice, germplasm, RCBD, morphological, characterization and check variety.

85

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 334-338 (2017)

 

Effect of substrates on strawberry (fragaria × ananassa duch.) runner production and growth under greenhouse conditions

Vivek Beniwal* and Anil Kumar Godara

Department of Horticuture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana- 125 004, India

*e-mail: beniwalvivek007@gmail.com

(Received: July 30, 2016; Revised received: December 22, 2016;Accepted: December 27, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The experiment was conducted to standardize the appropriate growing media viz., sand, normal soil and artificial media like cocopeat, perlite and vermiculite in different proportions (by volume) for propagation of strawberry mother plant and runner production under greenhouse condition. The initiation of runner was early (27.05 days) and the number of strawberry runners per plant was maximum (12.92) under sand. Spread of the mother plant increased significantly with time and found maximum (79.11 cm) under sand. Height of crown and diameter of runner crown was increased significantly with time and found maximum under cocopeat + vermiculite + perlite (3:1:1, 7.44 mm) and cocopeat + vermiculite (3:1, 4.22 mm) respectively. Other growth parameters like plant height, spread of the runner plant and number of leaves per runner were better under growing media cocopeat and cocopeat + vermiculite.

Key words: Strawberry, Propagation, Ofra, Runner, Green house

86

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 339-343 (2017)

 

Effect of FYM and zinc application on soil properties, soil microbial biomass and yield of Barley under irrigation of different residual sodium carbonate waters

Prerna Dogra*, B.L. Yadav, Savitri Sharma, S.R. Rundala and Sita Kumawat

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Sri Karan Narendra Agriculture University, Jobner (Jaipur)-303329, India

*e-mail: dograprerna@yahoo.com

(Received: July 10, 2016; Revised received: December 07, 2016;Accepted: December 11, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Field experiment was conducted to workout the effect of different residual sodium carbonate (RSC) waters, FYM and zinc fertilization on soil properties, soil microbial biomass build up, loss and turnover, yield of barley in loamy sand soil during rabi seasons of 2013-14 and 2014-15. The treatments were: Three levels of RSC waters (control, 5 and 10 mmol L-1), two levels of FYM (control and 15 t ha-1) in main plot and four levels of zinc (control, 15, 30 and 45 kg ZnSO4 ha-1) in sub-plot. Result revealed that under irrigation with high RSC (10 mmol L-1) of irrigation water the ECe (electrical conductivity of saturated-paste extract) was decreased to the extent of 32.04 and 17.48 % and OC (organic carbon) was decreased significantly to the extent of 23.08 and 35.71% over 2.5 and 5 mmol L-1, while pHs increased to the extent of 9.49 and 5.16 % and ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) increased significantly to the extent of 22.67 and 14.46% over 2.5 and 5 mmol L-1. The soil biological activity like build-up and losses of microbial biomass C, N and P were reduced significantly, while, turnover rate of microbial biomass increased with all the levels of RSC of irrigation water. The grain and straw yield of barley also decreased significantly with increasing levels of RSC in irrigation water. Application of 15 t FYM ha-1 showed significant decrease in pHs to the extent of 7.82%, ESP to the extent of 2.47%, turnover rate of biomass C (14.56%), N (18.09%) and P (25.29%) of soil over control. The CEC (cation exchange capacity) ) increased by 2.25%, OC (organic carbon) increased by 4.69 % and Soil microbial biomass C, N and P buildup increased by 8.58, 9.88 and 25.18% and Soil microbial biomass C, N and P losses increased by 4.85, 6.38 and 6.06% under application of 15 t FYM ha-1. Application of FYM significantly increased the grain (7.40%) and straw yield (5.13%) of barley. The increasing level of zinc significantly increased grain and straw yield of barley at harvest.

Key words: RSC water, Zinc, Barley, FYM, Microbial biomass, Yield, Yield attributes

87

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4)344-346 (2017)

 

Management of direct and residual nutrients for high sustainable yields in rice-mustard system

Kautilya Chaudhary and R.K. Pathak and Pardeep Kumar1*

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Chandra Sekhar Azad University of

Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, U.P., India

1Department of Soil Science, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut, U.P., India

*e-mail: sehravat@gmail.com

(Received: August 14, 2016; Revised received: January 03, 2017;Accepted: January 09, 2017)

 

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Abstract: The experiment was conducted on rice mustard cropping system with 150kg N+ 75kg P2O5+ 75kg K2O ha-1 in rice crop during kharif 2011. The other treatments included the 125% increased doses of above and sulphur (60 kg ha-1) and zinc (5 kg ha-1) were added since the experimental soil was deficient in these two nutrients. Mustard was grown after rice on the residual nutrients of the same treatments with application of 80 kg N ha-1 uniformly. The results revealed that rice yields varied from 49.0 to 73.0 q ha-1 and NPK raised by 125% with 60 kg S ha-1 and 5kg Zn ha-1 gave the highest yields .The uptake of NPK, S and Zn were also increased significantly. In mustard the seed yield varied from 10.50 to 20.86 kg ha-1 and the highest yield was obtained in the same treatment in case of rice. The results were significant. the variation in oil content was significant but it was higher at lower dose i.e. in case of S60+Zn5 without N.P.K. however the oil yield was a function of seed yield which varied from 4.08 to 8.58qha-1.

Key words: Rice mustard cropping system, Nutrient uptake, Residual soil nutrients, Oil content

88

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 347-352 (2017)

 

Effect of tillage practices and sowing methods on growth and yield of soybean crop in vertisol

Ajeet Kumar* and A.K. Shrivastava

Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur, 482 004, India

*e-mail: ajeetkumar978pau.edu

(Received: July 09, 2016; Revised received: December 29, 2016;Accepted: January 09, 2017)

 

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Abstract: An experiment was carried out in order to assess the effect of tillage on soil physical properties, crop growth and yield of soybean crop under different sowing methods. The soybean variety JS 97-52 was planted in clay loam soil under three different sowing methods viz. raised bed planter (T1), conventional seed cum fertilizer drill (T2) and zero till drill (T3). It was found that soil moisture content was (16.56%) higher in raised bed planter method as compared to other sowing methods. Maximum bulk density was obtained in zero till drill with 1.71 g/cc at the time of harvesting i.e. 90 DAS (days after sowing) and minimum in raised bed planter with 1.39 g/cc and followed by seed drill with 1.50 g/cc respectively. The results of agronomic observations revealed that the seed emergence,plant height, number of root per plant, depth of root, number of nodules per plant and total grain yield per hectare were,superior in raised bed planter. The second best was seed cum fertilizer drill, while seed zero till drill was found to be less effective. Soybean sown on ridges resulted in greater seed emergence (94.5%), plant height (78.3 cm), depth of root (50.96 cm), number of nodules per plant (135.58), which in turn caused greater grain yield (3137.25 kg/ha), the next best was seed cum fertilizer drill, while zero till drill was not effective as other two methods.

Key words: Tillage practices, Sowing methods, Emergence, Plant growth, Yield, Soybean

89

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 353-355 (2017)

 

Assessment and impact of vehicular traffic noise at Allahabad– Mirzapur highway, U.P.

Ibadaiahun Myrthong*1, S.B. Lal2 and Satyendra Nath

1Department of Environmental Science, 2School of Forestry and Environment, SHIATS, Allahabad-211007, U.P., India

*e-mail: imyrthong644@gmail.com

(Received: July 08, 2016; Revised received: December 30, 2016;Accepted: January 06, 2017)

 

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Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the noise pollution problems on the highway connecting Allahabad and Mirzapur and its impact on the people living in and around the highway. Noise descriptors like L10, L90, Leq and Traffic Noise Index (TNI) were assessed to reveal the extent of vehicular traffic noise level on the highway. The data recorded at the selected sites revealed that the Leq noise level at Naini ranges from 82.8 to 94.91 dB, at Arail Mode it ranges 95.75 to 97.91dB, at Cotton Mill it ranges from 79.4 to 85.62 dB, at BPCL it ranges from 79.5 to 85.3dB and at UCER the Leq Noise level ranges from 76.62 to 85.98 dB. The impacts were analyzed with the help of a questionnaire where the results obtained revealed that 70 to 85% of the respondents are exposed to noise regularly, 45-76% are suffering from auditory and non auditory effects whereas the percentage of satisfaction of the environment and traffic as well as awareness was as low as 10-23% in all the selected sites. The present study helps us to conclude that the noise levels at all the selected sites were have reached an alarming rate thereby causing dissatisfaction and impact to the people living in the vicinity of the highway

Key words: Environment, Highway, Impact, Pollution, Traffic

90

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 356-360 (2017)

 

Genetic analysis of diversity and variability for yield and yield attributing traits in recombinant inbred lines of interspecific tetraploid cotton

 Nagaraju C.H.*1, B.M. Khadi2 and I.S. Kategeri3

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, UAS, Dharwad-580005, Karnataka, India

2Director of Education, 3IABT, College of Agriculture, UAS, Dharwad-580 005, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: nagchilukuri4519@gmail.com

(Received: July 06, 2016; Revised received: January 01, 2017;Accepted: January 05, 2017)

 

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Abstract: Recombinant inbreed lines derived from interspecific cross DS-28 (G. hirsutum) x SBYF-425 (G. barbadense) were utilized to study the genetic variations and divergence for seed cotton yield and its contributing traits in two different locations during 2015-16. The mean values of genotypes indicated existence of sufficient genetic variability. Environmental variances were found greater than the genotypic variances for all the traits except for the plant height and seed cotton yield. Based on per se performance, the DHBR lines 32, 110, 111, 115 and 116 were identified as potential donors for seed cotton yield. Based on morphological and yield contributing traits 150 lines including checks were grouped into eleven clusters on D2 values, indicating high amount of divergence. Seed cotton yield (25.07%), number of fruiting bodies (19.40 %), ginning out turn (14.48%) and boll weight (10.08%) contributed towards genetic divergence and these traits are major determinants of genetic variability in inbreed populations and it as observed that genotypes grouped under cluster XI, II and IX having more than four characters at desirable direction and selection of genotypes under these cluster would be useful to generate desirable genetic resource on inter crosses. Five genotypes, DHBR-32 and DHBR-33 for number of bolls per plant (36.80 and 36.30), DHBR-77 for number of sympodia per plant (21), DHBR-93 for seed index (12.03 g), DHBR-60 for ginning out turn (45.25%) a and DHBR-11 for boll weight (5.95 g) were promising in terms of seed cotton yield and its components.

Key words: Tetraploid cotton, RILs, Inter-specific hybridization, Variability, Genetic diversity

91

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 361-365 (2017)

 

System productivity and energy use parameters as influenced by cropping system and soil moisture conservation measures under maize based cropping system

Bidyapati Ngangom1, Anup Das2, Ramkrushna G.I.2 and Ipsita Kar3

1Department of Agronomy, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736165, W.B., India

2Division of crop production, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam-793103, Meghalaya, India

3Department of Agronomy, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003, Odisha, India

*e-mail: ipsita.kar06@gmail.com

(Received: July 22, 2016; Revised received: January 02, 2017;Accepted: January 08, 2017)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the energy balance and system productivity as influenced by various cropping system and soil moisture conservation measures under maize based cropping sequences.In rabi, after maize, the crops were grown under zero tillage with five cropping systems (CS) as main plot treatments viz., Maize-Fallow (CS1), Maize-Toria (CS2), Maize-French bean {(bush type(BT)} (CS3), Maize-French bean {(pole type (PT)} (CS4), Maize-Blackgram (CS5) and four soil moisture conservation (SMC) measures as sub plot treatments viz, no mulch (M0), in-situ maize stalk mulch (MSM) (M1), MSM+Ambrosiasp. 10 t ha-1(M2), MSM+Tephrossiasp. 10 t ha-1 (M3). Results from the experiment revealed that the productivity of all the rabi crops were highest with the use of MSM+Tephrossiaas mulch. Highest maize equivalent yield (MEY) was obtained from Maize-French bean (PT) under MSM+ Tephrossia mulch (9.5 t ha-1) followed by MSM+ Ambrosia mulch (8.8 t ha-1). Maize-blackgram system recorded highest net energy (166054 MJ ha-1)which was 30% higher over maize-fallow system. Energy use efficiency under MSM+ Tephrossia mulch was 5% higher than no mulch. Highest energy intensity was recorded under maize-French bean (PT) system (0.77 MJ kg-1) followed by maize-blackgramsystem (0.61 MJ kg-1). Highest energy productivity was in maize-blackgram(4.24 kg MJ-1). There was 83% increase in energy productivity under maize-blackgram system than maize-fallow system. Highest land use efficiency of maize-blackgram system was recorded (54.79%). Hence, maize–blackgram performed better in terms of energy productivity, energy use efficiency and land use efficiency with the combined use of maize stalk mulch and tephrosia mulch.

Key words: Energy balance, Cropping system, Maize, MEY, Mulch

92

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 366-372 (2017)

 

Runoff modelling of a small agricultural watershed using satellite data and GIS - A Review

Km. Geeta1 and Km. Anisa2

Department of Soil and Water Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering,

Indira Gandhi Agricultural Universities Krishak Nagar, Raipur-492 006, India

Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, Shiats, Allahabad, U.P.-211007, India

*e-mail: er.geeta1@gmail.com

(Received: July 17, 2016; Revised received: January 04, 2017;Accepted: January 10, 2017)

 

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Abstract: In this study an empirical model was developed and validated for estimating the direct runoff from a small agricultural watershed (Arang) in Chhattisgarh (India) shown in fig. 1. A Geomorphic Information System (GIS) was used to extract most of the parameters of the watershed from various thematic maps including DEM land use, soil texture, watershed and sub-watershed boundary the remote sensing and field data. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was prepared using contour map (Survey of India, 1:50000 scale) of the watershed. Various maps including watershed and sub-watershed boundaries, drainage network and soil texture were generated using topographic map and soil resource data in the environment of a Geographical Information System (GIS). The Geometica image processing software was used to extract the topographic features and to delineate watershed and overland flow-paths from the DEM. Land use classification were generated from data of Indian Remote Sensing (IRS 1D) to compute runoff Curve Number (CN). Data extracted from contour map, soil map and satellite imaginary, viz. drainage basin area, basin shape, average slope of the watershed, main stream channel slope, land use, hydrological soil groups and CN were used for developing an empirical model for estimation of surface runoff. Results revealed that the observed runoff values were having good agreement with the runoff values predicted by the empirical model. Student’s t-test resulted that the means of observed and predicted runoff were found to be similar at 95 percent confidence level. Value of coefficient of determination (r2) were found to be 0.827 in case of empirical model indicated that the predicted runoff values for each selected rainfall events were close to the observed values.

Key words: Morphological parameters, Runoff modelling, Runoff measurement, geomorphological parameters, Watershed parameters etc.

93

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 373-377 (2017)

 

Study on phytochemicals and antioxidative capacity of

selected genotypes of Brassica juncea

H. Punetha*1, Heena Sagar1, Swati Panwar1, Usha Pant2 and Om Prakash3

1Department of Biochemistry, 3Department of Chemistry, College of Basic Sciences & Humanities, 2Department of Genetics and

Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, G.B Pant University of Agriculture &Technology, Pantnagar-263 145, India

*e-mail: punetha_hp@rediffmail.com

(Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: December 21, 2016;Accepted: December 25, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Rapeseed & mustard is the important oilseed crop cultivated in many parts of the world for the production of edible vegetable oils, animal feeds and biodiesel. Processing of rapeseed for oil production produces mustard meal as a byproduct. In the present study, fifteen Indian mustard genotypes were evaluated for the study of phytochemicals and antioxidative capacity in fat free meal. The total phenol & flavonoid content was maximum in PDZ-2 whereas di-phenol was maximum in LES-51. The glucosinolate content was observed to be minimum in PDZ-4 (25.44 µmol/g), EJ8-369 (32.74 µmol/g) and EJ8-118 (34.27 µmol/g). The total antioxidant activity based on phospho-molybdenum method varied from 6.66 mg in PDZ-4 to 25.70 mg in PM-29. The highest free radical-scavenging activity was found in LES-49 (38.53±0.705%) followed by EJ8-118 (36.42±2.10%), RLC-3 (35.02±1.54%) and LES-51 (32.77±1.06%) at the concentration of 200 µg/ml. Maximum reducing power activity was found in RLC-4 (1.668±0.002) followed by EJ8-118 (1.416±0.013) andPDZ-3 (1.398±0.019). Ferrous ion chelating activity was found to be maximum in EJ8-118 (38.08 ± 0.56%) at a concentration of 200µg/ml. Thus the defatted meal of investigated Indian mustard genotypes was found to be rich in different bioactive substances with health promoting properties can be utilized in the preparation of functional foods as a viable food ingredient.

Key words: Indian mustard, Defatted meal, Antioxidative capacity andPhytochemicals

94

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 378-382 (2017)

 

Effect of nitrogen and plant growth regulators on seed production and economics of Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.)

Patel J.B.*, Vaja Arpana D., Zala Ishita M. and Daki R.N.

Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001, Gujarat, India

*e-mail: jbpatelvasai38@gmail.com

(Received: June 27, 2016; Revised received: December 18, 2016;Accepted: December 22, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of nitrogen and plant growth regulators on seed production and economics of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) cv. GJB 3. The experiment was laid out as per randomized block design (Factorial) with three replications. Different nitrogen viz., [N0 (Control), N1 (50 kg N/ha), N2 (100 kg N/ha), and N3 (150 kg N/ ha)] and plant growth regulators viz., [G0 (Control), G1 (50 ppm GA3), G2 (50 ppm NAA) and G3 (500 ppm Cycocel)] were used in the study. The results revealed that application of nitrogen @ 150 kg N/ha recorded significantly the highest plant height (68.59 cm), number of fruits per plant (5.66), length of fruit (11.30 cm), diameter of fruit (8.34 cm), number of seeds per fruit (685.49), seed weight per fruit (3.31 g) and seed yield per plant (18.71 g). Among the different plant growth regulators, application of GA3 at 50 ppm recorded significantly the highest plant height (67.25 cm), number of fruits per plant (5.48), diameter of fruit (7.76 cm), number of seeds per fruit (658.45), seed weight per fruit (3.29 g) and seed yield per plant (18.16 g). Among the treatment combinations, nitrogen @ 150 kg/ha and GA3 50 ppm noted maximum plant height (69.67 cm), diameter of fruit (8.67 cm), number of seeds per fruit (762.51), seed weight per fruit (3.75 g) and seed yield per plant (21.53 g). Significantly the maximum number of fruits per plant was registered in treatment combination nitrogen 100 kg N/ha and GA3 @ 50 ppm. The highest gross return (309984 Rs/ha) as well as net return (219996 Rs/ha) with the highest benefit cost ratio (3.44) was obtained from N3G1 (Nitrogen @ 150 kg/ha with 50 ppm GA3).

Key words: Brinjal, Economics, Nitrogen, Plant growth regulators, Seed yield

95

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 383-389 (2017)

 

Tree community structure, regeneration and patterns of diversity in natural and plantation forest ecosystem

D.K. Yadav and M.K. Jhariya*

Department of Farm Forestry, Sarguja University, Ambikapur-497001, C.G., India

*e-mail: manu9589@gmail.com

(Received: June 26, 2016; Revised received: December 19, 2016;Accepted: December 25, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The natural and plantation forest both have their economic and ecological significance. The community structure, regeneration and diversity status shows the health of the forest/stand which is further necessary to plan its conservation priority, sustainable development and management. Therefore, keeping this view in mind the present study was carried out to evaluate the natural and plantation forest ecosystem of Sarguja forest division of Chhattisgarh with the objective to assess the composition, regeneration and diversity pattern of different layers viz., tree, sapling and seedling. A total of 17 species were recorded in natural forest out of which 9 species comprising 8 families was recorded for tree layer, whereas total of 6 species were recorded in plantation site out of which 2 species with 2 families was found in the tree layer, respectively. In sapling layer a total of 6 species with 6 families was encountered in natural forest while it was 3 species with 3 families for plantation site, respectively. In seedling layer a total of 7 species comprising 7 families were found whereas 6 species with 5 families was recorded for plantation site, respectively. The density varied from 520 to 860 individuals ha-1 for tree layer, 2500 to 5500 individuals ha-1 for sapling layer and 9500 to 16000 individuals ha-1 for seedling layer. The value of Shannon index was highest in natural forest except for the seedling layer whereas the Simpsons index was higher in plantation site except the seedling layer. Species richness is showing the similar trend as the Shannon index whereas the value of equitability was much higher in natural forest than the plantation site, while the value of beta diversity is more in plantation site.

Key words: Density, Diversity, Natural forest, Plantation

96

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (4) 390-392 (2017)

 

Comparative evaluation of nutritive qualities in seed meal of selected genotypes of Indian mustard

Nisha Kumari1, Ram Avtar2, Bunty Sharma*1, Sushil1, Babita1 and Naresh Thakral2

1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 2Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding

CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004 (Haryana), India

*e-mail: sharmabunty097@gmail.com

(Received: June 07, 2016; Revised received: December 23, 2016;Accepted: December 28, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Mustard oil holds an important position in the household of India because of its unique flavour and other nutritional properties. The present study therefore, was carried out to evaluate the quality of seed meal of five different genotypes [RH (OE) 0901, RH (OE) 0902, RH (OE) 0903, EC 552578 and Pusa Krishma] of Indian mustard. The methanolic seed meal extract exhibited a concentration dependent elimination of DPPH free radicals. All the five genotypes showed about 50% inhibition in the concentration of 3.0 mg dry seed meal. The high antioxidant activity (20.04 mg/g) was observed in Pusa Krishma while maximum iron chelating activity (32.59%) was observed in the genotype EC 552578. Protein content varied from 31.25 to 37.92%. The maximum methionine and tryptophan content were found in Pusa Krishma (1.09 g/100g protein and 0.88 g /100g protein, respectively). Glucosinolate content ranged from 50.06 to 77.93 m mole/g defatted seed meal.

Key words: Antioxidants, Methionine, Mustard, Protein, Tryptophan

 

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