RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-10, Number-6, June-2017

 

122

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 491-493 (2017)

 

Studies on variability, heritability and genetic advance for quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes

Reena Rani, R.K. Sheoran and Bunty Sharma*

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS HAU, Hisar

*e-mail: sharmabunty097@gmail.com

(Received: June 12, 2016; Revised received: December 04, 2016;Accepted: December 22, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Ninety genotypes of sunflower of different agro-ecological origins were evaluated for the estimation of proportion of variability, broad sense heritability, predicted genetic advance and genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation. Data were recorded on five selected plants for yield and yield attributing traits. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were observed as the highest for seed yield per plant, followed by seed filling percentage and 100-seed weight and moderate for plant height, hull content, head diameter, protein content and stem girth. High heritability was reported for all the traits, except stem girth and head diameter. Higher values of GA as percent of mean were observed for seed yield per plant (93.79), plant height (28.95), head diameter (20.58), 100-seed weight (54.24), seed filling percentage (60.94), hull content (28.25) and protein content (23.59). High heritability associated with high GA was recorded for seed yield per plant (93.64), 100-seed weight (86.15), seed filling percentage (98.15), hull content (96.96), plant height (87.65) and protein content (92.16). Hence, these traits should be preferred for sunflower improvement programme.

Key words: Variability, Helianthus annuus, Heritability and genetic advance

123

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 494-496 (2017)

 

Study on epicuticular wax content variability in temperate maize lines as a drought tolerance related mechanism

Z.A. Dar*1, M.S. Sheshsayee2, A.A. Lone4, Pratibha, M.D2, J.A. Khan3, I. Abidi4, M. Ahmed4,

M. Habib4, Pradeep Kumar Singh4, B. Afoza4 and Faheema Mushtaq4

1DARS, Budgam (SKUAST-K), 2Department of Crop Physiology, 3Departement of Plant Biotechnology, GKVK, UAS-Bangalore-560065, India

4Division of Vegetable Science SKUAST-Kashmir Shalimar Srinagar, India

*e-mail: zahoorpbg@gmail.com

(Received: July 09, 2016; Revised received: December 01, 2016;Accepted: December 11, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Plant Epiculticular waxes, which covers the outer surface of aerial plant tissue forms the last defensive barrier of plant, playing important role in drought tolerance. In the present study, thirty genotypes of Maize (Zea mays) which includedtwentyeight inbredlinesandtwochecks maintainedat D(K)ARS,SKUAST-K were used to analyse the genetic variability for epicuticular wax content (ECW)in leaves. Special structures were built for growing maize germplasm and calorimetric assay was performed to quantify the ECW in leaves. Accordingly, the EWC ranged from 1.56 (KDM-921A) µg/cm2 to 7.54 (KDM-954) µg/cm2 with a mean of 4.25 µg/cm2.The frequency distribution also indicated the spread of genotypes across the mean to suggest the existence of an appreciable genetic variability for EWC in maize genotypes which displayed significant genetic variability and hence having the differential capacity to withstand environmental stress.

Key words: Maize, Epiculticular Wax, Drought, Variability

124

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 497-500 (2017)

 

Correlation and divergence analysis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.em. Thell)

Tejasvi Singh*, Vinod Singh, Anuj Kumar, S.K. Yadav and Snehanshu Singh

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, N.D. Universityof Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229, India

*e-mail- tejasvisingh1991@gmail.com

(Received: April 14, 2016; Revised received: December 13, 2016;Accepted: December 17, 2016)

 

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Abstract: This experiment was carried out with 104 indigenous genotypes elite lines of bread wheat along with four checks for genetic variability, character association anddivergence analysisin Augmented Block Design which was divided into 5 blocks of equal size. Eachblock had 24 plots of test entries along with 4 checks. The trial was conducted at Main Experiment Station Research Farm of Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.). during Rabi 2013-14 The characters studied were days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, tillers / plant, spike length, flag leaf area, peduncle length, 1000-grain weight, biological yield / plant, harvest index and grain yield / plant. A very strong positive association of grain yield / plant was observed with biological yield / plant followed by harvest index, tillers / plant, peduncle length and plant height. The characters showing highly significant positive correlation with seedyield and its components suggested that during selection these characters may be given due to importance for developing high yielding varieties. The Flag leaf area, days to maturity and test weight showed non significant negative correlation with grain yield / plant. The 100 indigenous lines and 4 check varieties of wheat were grouped into 11 distinct clusters by using non hierarchical Euclidean cluster analysis. It indicated the existence of high degree of genetic diversity present in the varieties / lines. Therefore, these varieties / lines may serve as valuable source for selection of diverse parents. Maximum intra-cluster distance was found for cluster-VI followed by cluster-XI, the minimum intra-cluster distance was recorded for cluster-VII followed by cluster-II. The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster-IV and cluster-XI followed by cluster-III and cluster-XI. The lowest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster-I and cluster-II followed by cluster-VII and cluster-IX. Hence, crosses should be made between these widely related genotypes located in intra and inter cluster distances, to get desirable extant ofheterotic potential.

Key words: Wheat, Character association, Diversity, Cluster

125

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 501-504 (2017)

 

Studies on nitrogen substitution through organics and foliar application

of water soluble fertilizers on yield and nutrient uptake

by chilli (Capsicum annuumL.) in a Vertisol

T. Thulasiramireddy*, B.I. Bidari, P.L. Patil and M.V. Manjunatha

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580005, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: thulasi097@gmail.com

(Received: July 18, 2016; Revised received: December 11, 2016;Accepted: December 18, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2013-14 and 2014-15 on Byadgi chilli by substituting fertilizer nitrogen with different sources of organic manures along with foliar application of water soluble fertilizers to study the yield and nutrient uptake by chilli. The experiment consists of four main treatments as organics, M1- Recommended Package of Practices (RPP)- {Recommended Dose of Fertilizers (RDF) + 25 t ha-1 FYM}, M2- 50 per cent N through FYM + 50 per cent inorganic N, M3- 50 per cent N through VC + 50 per cent inorganic N, M4- 50 per cent N through FYM and VC + 50 per cent inorganic N and four sub treatments as water soluble fertilizers, S1- KNO3 @ 1 per cent, S2- K2SO4 @ 1 per cent, S3- 19:19:19 @ 1 per cent, S4- KNO3+ K2SO4+ 19:19:19 each @ 1 per cent along with one control ( RPP + water spray) with three replications. The design adopted was split plot. Results revealed that 50 per cent substitution of N through vermicompost recorded highest fruit yield (9.79 q ha-1), nitrogen uptake (45.66, 53.88 and 118.8 kg ha-1 at 75, 105 and 140 Days After Transplanting (DAT) respectively), phosphorus uptake (7.63, 9.17 and 21.66 kg ha-1 at 75, 105 and 140 DAT respectively) and potassium uptake (72.51, 112.80 and 178.00 kg ha-1 at 75, 105 and 140 DAT respectively) followed by 50 per cent substitution of N through vermicompost + FYM (FarmYard Manure). Foliar application of KNO3+K2SO4+19:19:19 water soluble fertilizers each at one per cent recorded highest yield and nutrient uptake compared to individual application of water soluble fertilizers.

Key words: Organic manures, Water soluble fertilizers, Nutrient uptake by chilli

126

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 505-506(2017)

 

Effect of nitrogen on Antirrhinum (Antirrhinum majus L.)

Shabab Alam Khan and Ashok Kumar

Dept. of Floriculture and Landscape, College of Horticulture & Forestry, N.D. Univ. of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad-224229 India

*e-mail: akmnduat@yahoo.com

(Received: September 01, 2016; Revised received: January 27, 2017;Accepted: January 31, 2017)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during winter season of 2014-2015. The experiment was laid out in randomized Block Design with 11 treatments comprising of nitrogen (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 kg/ha). Results revealed that maximum plant height at spike initiation stage was (39.33 cm), plant spread (25.43 cm), number of branches (12.66) number of leaves (402.20) were recorded at nitrogen 50 kg per hectare. Higher nitrogen levels enhances days in spike initiation (65.66 days), however duration of flowering was enhanced (100.33 days), length of spike (43.66 cm), number of florets per spike (32.33), number of spike per plant (10.66), number of spike per ha (15.1 lacks), spike yield per ha (300.90 q) and vase life (12.66 days).

Key words: Nitrogen, Antirrhinum, Growth, Yield, Vase life

127

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 507-512(2017)

 

Cost effective production of cellulase using wheat bran from Bacillus subtilis BM1 and encoding endo-beta-1,4-glucanase producing gene

Sanjeev Kumar, Nivedita Sharma and Shruti Pathania*

Microbiology Research Laboratory, Dept. of Basic Science, Dr. Y.S.P. Univ. of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan (HP)-173230, India

*e-mail: shrutipathania89@gmail.com

(Received: July 25, 2016; Revised received: January 28, 2017;Accepted: February 04, 2017)

 

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Abstract: The objective of the present study was isolation screening and characterization of cellulase producing efficient strain, the optimization of different process parameters was done under submerged fermentation for hyper cellulase production. the bacterial strain was isolated from humus rich compost sample and identified as Bacillus subtilis BM1 based on its 16sRNA producing 1.02 IU/ml of cellulase in Riviere medium. The effect of media, pH, inoculum size, carbon source, different concentration of carbon and incubation time was studied. The maximum cellulase production of 4.05 IU/ml (FPase 0.25 IU, CMCase 1.60 IU and b-glucosidase) was observed at optimal condition in basal salt medium, 6 pH with inoculum size of 10%, wheat bran as a carbon source at a concentration of 0.75% after incubation at 45oC for 72h thus Bacillus subtilis BM1 served as a potential strain for cellulase production. Encoding of genes responsible for cellulase production was done using gradient PCR.

Key words: Cellulase, Submerged fermentation, Optimization, Gene encoding, Bacillus subtilis

128

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 513-515 (2017)

 

Studies on variability analysis for yield and yield attributes

in ridge gourd [Luffaacutangula L. (Roxb.)] germplasm

Pushpendra Kumar1*, V.B. Singh1, C.N. Ram1, Deepak Kumar Gautam1 and Rajesh Kumar2

1Department of Vegetable Science, 2Department of Horticulture, NDUA&T, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229, India

*e-mail: pkgoyal4699@gmail.com

(Received: July 02, 2016; Revised received: December 14, 2016;Accepted: December 19, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The present investigation conducted with objective to assess the genetic variability among thirty two genotypes of ridge gourd for eleven traits viz., node number to anthesis of first staminate flower,node number to anthesis of first pistillate flower, days to anthesis of first staminate flower, days to anthesis of first pistillate flower, days to first fruit harvest, average fruit length (cm), average fruit diameter (cm), number of fruits per plant, averagefruit weight (g),total fruit yield/plant (kg) and vine length (m).The results of present studies indicate top five varieties showed highest fruit yield per plant was NDRG-9 followed by NDRG-19, NDRG-1, NDRG-44, NDRG-6. Besides, these germplasm also possessed average to high mean performance for most of the yield components. The data recorded on eleven quantitative characters were subjected to analysis of variance to test the significance of difference among the genotypes. Analysis of variance showed that the mean square due to genotypes were highly significant for all the eleven characters. The higher magnitude of coefficient of variation at genotypic as well as phenotypic levels were observed higher for node number to anthesis of first staminate flower followed by total fruit yield per plant and node number to anthesis of first pistillate flower while days to first fruit harvest had lowest coefficients of variation. The presences of high heritability in broad sense were observed for all the character except days to anthesis of first staminate flower. Moderate heritability and high genetic advance in per cent of mean was recorded for node number to anthesis of first staminate flower followed by node number to anthesis of first pistillate flower, fruit length and fruit yield/plant showing additive gene affect and very good response to selection for improving above yield and yield contributing traits.

Key words: Ridge gourd, PCV, GCV, Genetic advance, Heritability

129

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 516-520 (2017)

 

Standardization of seed storage behaviour on germinability in Myrica esculenta (Kaphal): An endangered medicinal plant of Indian Himalaya

Ganga Datt* and J.S. Chauhan

Department of Seed Science and Technology, School of Agriculture & Allied Sciences, HNB Garhwal University

(A Central University), Srinagar Garhwal-246174, Uttarakhand, India

*e-mail: kuniyalganga54@gmail.com

(Received: January 05, 2017; Revised received: May 24, 2017;Accepted: May 28, 2017)

 

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Abstract: In the present study, the effect of storage behaviour of M. esculenta seeds on germination, seedling emergence and suitable seed storage conditions to retain viability were standardized. The five storage containers i.e., earthen pots (C1), plastic jars (C2), canvas bags (C3), polythene bags (C4) and tin boxes (C5) and four temperature regimes i.e., (20–25 0C) (room temperature, T1), 0 ± 1 0C (T2), - 4 ± 1 0C (T3) and 10 ± 1 0C (T4) were tested. The storage devices preserve and retain viability significantly (P<0.05) trend of C1>C3>C2>C4>C5 and T2>T3>T4>T1 in the species when the seeds were stored for 2-6 months of storage period, it was confirmed using quick viability test. Similarly, the mean germination and seedling emergence were also decreased as the same trends. However, the interaction effect of earthen pots under 0 ± 1 0C temperature regime (C1T2) maintained significantly (P<0.05) maximum germinability after 2 months (53.75%) followed by C2T2 and C3T2 (51.00 and 46.25%, respectively) as compared to other storage conditions and minimum germinability showed in 6 months old seeds stored in tin boxes at 10 ± 1 0C (C5T4) as 1.75%. Notably, a sharp decline in germinability and seedling emergence were recorded in seeds stored in all the storage containers placed at different temperature regime after 2 to 6 months of storage. The implementation of these results must be suggested for conservational management aspects, especially nursery development and sustainable utilization to maintain diversity of M. esculenta in Himalayan Regions.

Key words: Germinability, Field emergence, Storage behaviour, Viability, Ex-situ conservation, Endangered

130

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 521-526(2017)

 

Weed suppression through canopy and herbicidal management in short duration pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) based intercropping systems

Dhananjai Singh*1 and Thomas Abraham2

 1Linseed coordinating unit, C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208002, India

2Department of Agronomy, Allahabad School of Agriculture, S.H.U.A.T.& S., Allahabad-211 007, India

*e-mail: dhananjai.csa@gmail.com

(Received: August 29, 2016; Revised received: January 22, 2017;Accepted: January 27, 2017)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2005 and 2006 at crop research farm, Department of Agronomy, Allahabad School of Agriculture, Sam Higginbottom University of Agricultural, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad (U. P) to evaluate studies on weed suppression through canopy and herbicidal management in short duration pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) based intercropping systems. The treatment comprised offour cropping system viz. , pigeonpea sole, pigeonpea + greengram (1:3), pigeonpea + blackgram (1:3) andpigeonpea + cowpea (1:1) and five weed control measures viz., unweeded check, one hand weeding at 25 DAS, two hand weeding at 25 DAS and 50 DAS,alachlor (1.5 kg ha-1) andpendimethalin (1.0 kg ha-1). Results showed that cropping system pigeonpea + cowpea (1:1) increased the seed yield of pigeonpea by 4.18, 1.76 and 9.03% in comparison to pigeonpea+blackgram (1:3), pigeonpea+greengram(1:3) and pigeonpea sole, respectively. Growth and yield attributes of pigeonpea were significantly higher when pigeonpea was intercropped with cowpea (1:1) in comparison to other cropping systems during both years. Weed control treatments two hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS recorded lowest weed density and dry matter of weeds at 30, 60 and 90 DAS in comparison to one hand weeding at 25 DAS, alachlor (1.5kg ha-1) and Pendimethalin (1.0 kg ha-1 ) during both years. Whereas, weed density and dry weight of monocot and dicot weeds were maximum in unweeded check during both the years. There was significant effect of interaction between cropping system and weed control measures on seed yield of pigeonpea during both years. The treatment combination of pigeonpea+cowpea (1:1) with two hand weeding at 25 and 50 DAS recorded significantly maximum seed yield of pigeonpea and pigeonpea equivalent yield during both the years. This treatment combination also recorded lowest density of monocot and dicot weeds as well as dry matter of weeds during both years.

Key word: Cropping system, Weed control measures, Pigeonpea equivalent yield, Dry matter accumulation of weeds

131

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 527-530 (2017)

 

Site specific nutrient management in sugarcane for yield maximization

Ramesha, Y.M.*1, Manjunatha Bhanuvally2, Ashok Kumar Gaddi2 and Krishnamurthy, D.1

1Department of Agronomy, 2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry,

University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584 102, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: rameshaym@gmail.com

(Received: December 15, 2016; Revised received: May 04, 2017;Accepted: May 09, 2017)

 

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Abstract: An experiment was carried out during rabi 2013-14 and 2014-15 in deep black soil to study the site specific nutrient management (SSNM) in sugarcane for yield maximization. Results revealed that, Co-86032 was onpar with 2003-V-46 with respect to cane yield. Among the SSNM treatments, application of fertilizer as per the SSNM with the target yield of 250 t/ha recorded significantly higher millable cane yield (188 t/ha) and green top yield (19.2 t/ha) and which was onpar with the application of fertilizer as per the SSNM with the target yield of 200 t/ha (173 and 17.5 t/ha, respectively) compared to other SSNM treatment and recommended dose of fertilizer application. Whereas, variety Co-86032 along with the application of fertilizer as per the SSNM with the target yield of 250 t/ha recorded significantly higher millable cane yield (190 t/ha) and green top yield (19.9 t/ha) and which was onpar with the variety 2003-V-46 along with the application of fertilizer as per the SSNM with the target yield of 250 t/ha (186 and 18.5 t/ha, respectively).

Key words: Sugarcane, Varieties, SSNM, Millable cane yield

132

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 531-533 (2017)

 

Growth characters of Dendrobium orchid as influenced

by various inorganic nutrient mixtures

J. Jiji Allen1* and M. Kannan2

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, HC&RI, TNAU, Coimbatore-641003, India

*e-mail: daffodils.jiju@gmail.com

(Received: August 01, 2015; Revised received: January 14, 2016;Accepted: January 18, 2016)

 

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Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of inorganic nutrient mixtures on growth characters of Dendrobium orchid. One-year-old plants of Dendrobium orchid hybrid Emma White were used for the experiment. Thirteen treatment combinations with six different inorganic nutrient mixtures at two different concentrations as foliar spray and control (water spray) were applied at weekly interval in a Completely Randomised Design with two replications. The commercial nutrient mixture 30:10:10 (Plantafol) (0.4%) resulted in highest plant height(33.60cm), internodal length (4.56 cm), leaf length (13.98 cm), leaf width (4.11cm), leaf area (42.32 cm2), total chlorophyll content (0.74 mg/g) and leaf nitrogen content (2.37%). While shoot diameter (11.43 mm) was found highest in the plants treated with combination of 0.4% 12:61:0 and 13:0:45.Therefore foliar spray of 4% (30:10:10) is recommended for better growth of Dendrobium orchid cv. Emma white.

Key words: Growth, Inorganic nutrients, Dendrobium, Emma white

133

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 534-537 (2017)

 

Temperature regimes influences on antioxidants and cell membrane stability during reproductive phases of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes

M.K. Rathod*, B.A. Kiran, V.P. Chimmad, B.O. Kiran and K.V. Asha

Department of Crop Physiology, College of Agriculture, University of agricultural sciences, Dharwad-580005, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: mukeshkrathore417@gmail.com

(Received: July 01, 2016; Revised received: December 18, 2016;Accepted: December 22, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Global temperature is increasing possibly due to climate change, which would have detrimental effects on agricultural crops being grown in arid and semi-arid regions. A field experiment was conducted during rabi, with three genotypes (Annigeri-1, JG-11 and JG-14) as influenced by five sowing dates (D). The investigation revealed that the genotype, JG-14 under D5 temperature regime recorded significantly maximum catalase activity (24.21 I.U.) at 15 days after 50 per cent flowering, whereas Annigeri-1 and JG-11 recorded significantly minimum pollen sterility per cent under D1 and D2 temperature regimes at 50 per cent flowering (11.08 and 15.49 I.U.). Similar increasing in activity pattern was recorded in case of guaiacol peroxidase activity too, as followed in catalase activity during all the growth stages and this may be due to the increased in difference of Tmax and Tmin under late sown conditions, significantly maximum guaiacol peroxidase activity was found in JG-11 (1.73 I.U.) and JG-14 (2.03 I.U.) under D4 and D5 temperature regimes. Eventually, Annigeri-1, under the lateral temperature regimes recorded significantly maximum (34.39%) membrane stability index (MSI) throughout the growth stages, whereas, JG-14 under the D1 and D2 temperature regimes recorded significantly minimum (21.54 and 21.87 %) membrane stability index (MSI) and the increasing trend was followed for MSI from D1 to D5 temperature regimes and from flowering to maturity. Apparently, JG-14 recorded comparatively higher catalase (24.21 I.U.) and guaiacol peroxidase (2.03 I.U.) activity than JG-11 (13.69 and 1.38 I.U. respectively) and Annigeri-1 (11.08 and 0.85 I.U. respectively) under the late sown conditions. Similarly, JG-14 kept the cellular membrane systems functional during the heat stress and experienced average higher yield and proved to be best genotype under the late sown and higher temperature conditions for maximum yield under all temperature regimes.

Key words: Antioxidants, Cell membrane stability, Chickpea, Reproductive phase and Temperature regime

134

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 538-540(2017)

 

Identification and in-vitro antibiogram of bacterial pathogens from

bovine mastitis in and around Meerut, India

Harshit Verma*, Rajeev Singh, Shriya Rawat, Vikas Jaiswal, P.S. Maurya and D.K. Yadav

College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, S.V. Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Modipurum, Meerut-250110, U.P., India

*e-mail: dr_harshitverma@yahoo.co.in

(Received: August 08, 2016; Revised received: December 14, 2016;Accepted: December 18, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different antibiotics against mastitis causing microorganisms in and around Meerut. A total of 100 milk samples from mastitic cases were cultured and bacteriologically evaluated. All the bacteria isolated through microbiological procedures were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test by disc diffusion method to a twelve number of antibiotics. The major prevalent pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (45.45%), E. coli (21.59%), Streptococcus sp. (2.27%), Pseudomonas sp. (1.14%), Proteus sp. (4.55%) and mixed infection (20.45%). The result revealed that gentamicin (59.09%) was the most effective antibiotic followed by amoxicillin+sulbactum (54.55%), cefotaxime+clavulanic acid (52.27%) ciprofloxacin (46.59%), enrofloxacin (45.45%), and ampicillin+sulbactum (40.91%). Maximum resistance was observed against ampicillin+cloxacillin (26.14%) followed with oxytetracycline (34.09%) and streptomycin (30.68%).

Key words: Mastitis, Antimicrobial, Staphylococcus sp., Disk diffusion

135

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 541-545 (2017)

 

Impact of Sclerotinia-rot on Brassica juncea under different agronomic practices

Rajender Singh*1, Mamta1and Dhiraj Singh2

Department of Plant Pathology, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, India

*ICAR Directorate of rapeseed and mustard research, Bharatpur, India

*e-mail: rsb1965@gmail.com

(Received: August 01, 2015; Revised received: January 14, 2016;Accepted: January 18, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A comprehensive survey for stem rot ( Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) of Indian mustard was carried out in farmer fields during December to March (2005-2013) in different district of Haryana (Ambala, Bhiwani, Faridabad, Fatehabad, Gurgaon, Hisar, Jhajjar, Jind, Kaithal, Karnal, Kurukshetra, Mahendergarh, Mewat, Rewari, Sirsa, Sonipat, Rohtak and Yamuna Nagar). Maximum Sclerotinia rot incidence 16.7% was recorded in Mahendergarh district and least of 2.5% in Yamuna Nagar. Sclerotinia rot incidence was significantly and positively correlated with sulphur deficiency (0.48). Highest disease incidence (28.6%) was observed in 11th Oct.-25 Oct. sowing followed by early sown (15.0%) and late sown (8.1%). Growth parameters viz. plant height (156 to 140 cm), primary branches (6.3 to 4.0), secondary branches (16.9 to12.55) dry matter accumulation yield (14.75 to 9.5q/ha) and yield attributing character, yield (9.92 to 6.98 q/ha) and oil content (29.00 to 25.33%) of Indian mustard were also significantly less within 11th Oct.-25 Oct. as compared to other date of sowing due to more incidence of Sclerotinia rot. Crop geometry do have influence on disease development, high disease incidence15.42% was observed in dense row plant spacing (30x10cm) followed by 15.00% disease incidence in 45x10cm plant spacing. Plant growth and development were also significantly less with 30x10cm as compared to other spacing due to more incidence of Sclerotinia rot. Minimum disease incidence (8.1%) was observed in sorghum-wheat-pearlmillet-mustard cropping sequence. Growth parameters, yield attributing character, yield and oil content of Indian mustard were also significantly more in sorghum-wheat-pearlmillet-mustard cropping sequence as compared to other. Test weight, oil content and total protein content decreased drastically upto 66.37%, 34.70% and 38.95%, respectively at early seed development stage of infection. Fatty acid composition was also adversely affected by it. Oleic acid and erucic acid reduced by 17.46% and 18.12%, respectively, whereas, palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid and eicosenoic acid increased by 63.05, 23.07, 48.55, 23.25 and 14.24%, respectively depending upon stage ofinfection.

Key words: Agronomic practices, Growth, Yield, Quality, Indian mustard, Sclerotinia rot

136

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 546-549 (2017)

 

Influence of spacing and organics on growth, yield and quality of arid legume moth bean [Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal]

S.N.O. Sadashivanagowda*1, S.C. Alagundagi1, A.N. Bagali2 and B.T. Nadagouda1

1Department of Agronomy and 2Department of Horticulture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: sadayogikrishi@gmail.com

(Received: August 01, 2015; Revised received: January 14, 2016;Accepted: January 18, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of spacing and organics on growth, yield and quality of moth bean genotypes during kharif 2013. The experiment was laid out in Randomised Complete Block Design with factorial concept and replicated thrice. There were 14 treatments including 12 treatment combinations involving three moth bean genotypes (MBS 27, BJMB 1 and local), two spacing (30 cm x 10 cm and 45 cm x 10 cm) andtwo organics (2.5 t ha-1 FYM and 1 t ha-1 vermi compost) along with two controls (local variety at 30 cm x 10 cm spacing with 10:20 kg N:P2O5 ha-1and local variety at 30 cm x 10 cm spacing with 10:20:10 kg N:P2O5:K2O ha-1). The local moth bean genotype gave significantly higher seed yield (796 kg ha-1) at wider row spacing of 45 cm x 10 cmcompared to 30 cm x 10 cm. Application of 1 t vermi compostper ha recorded significantly higher seed yield (714 kg ha-1) compared to 2.5 t FYM per ha. The interaction of moth bean local variety at spacing of 45 cm x 10 cm with application of 2.5 t FYM per ha produced significantly higher seed yield (983 kg ha-1), effective nodule number per plant (10.26), nodule weight (5 mg plant-1), total dry matter at harvest (95.74 g plant-1), seed yield (17.60 g plant-1) and crude protein yield (234 kg ha-1) compared to other interactions. It can be concluded that for dry land situation, interaction of local moth bean genotype can be recommended at a spacing of 45 cm x 10 cm with 2.5 t FYM per ha application.

Key words: Moth bean, Spacing, Organics, Growth, Yield, Seed quality parameters

137

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 550-553 (2017)

 

Sustainable sugarcane production through judicious

nutrient application – An economic analysis

Shubham Lamba*1, K.S. Grewal1 and Vijay Kumar2

1Department of Soil Science, 2Regional Research Station, CCS Haryana Agricultural University-125004, India

*e-mail: shubham.hau@gmail.com

(Received: August 12, 2016; Revised received: January 14, 2017;Accepted: January 20, 2017)

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Abstract: It has been observed in the nation and in Haryana that the area under sugarcane cultivation is shrinking since farmers are shifting from sugarcane cultivation to other crops due to various issues. On the other hand sugar industries are unable to meet out the increasing demand of sugar and by products due to various sugarcane production related issues. The present study examinedthe profitability on the basis of benefit-cost analysis, nutrient fertilization for enhancing the productivity of sugarcane and overall effect on the yield and corresponding economic returns. After experimentation and thorough investigation, it has been found that application of NPKS + Fe + Mn + Zn had provided better returns both in quantity (83.2 t ha-1 cane yield) and quality (9.96 t ha-1 sugar yield) which helped in better returns to the farmer and desirable sugar production for the processing industry.The results of the research workenhanced the possibility of upliftment of farmers’ livelihood and fulfilment of sugar industries demand so that farmers will not shift from sugarcane cultivation and sugar industries could also be facilitated with enough supply of quality canes.

Key words: Economics, Nutrients, Sugar, Sugarcane, Sustainability

138

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 554-556 (2017)

 

Seed ageing and deterioration during storage of pearlmillet

hybrid along with their parental line

Ankush Gupta*, R.C. Punia and O.S. Dhaiya

Department of Seed Science and Technology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, Haryana, India

*e-mail: ankushgupta1010@gmail.com

(Received: July 21, 2015; Revised received: January 02, 2017;Accepted: January 5, 2017)

 

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Abstract: Investigations were carried to determine the extent of loss in seed viability of pearl millet hybrid along with their parental A and B line during storage under different environments and containers. The results demonstrated that the extent of ageing and consequent deterioration varied considerably with the storage conditions, containers and genotypes, being acute under ambient conditions within cloth bag, while much lesser under cold conditions within poly set bin container. Seed deterioration was evident by loss in seed viability (86.71 ± 25.40), vigour (2543 ± 401), and dehydrogenase activity (0.306 ± 0.089). Parental A and B lines (86.00 - 30.78 and 82.33- 24.5) of pearl millet lost viability more rapidly than the hybrid (91.67% - 46.22%), when stored under identical conditions. Seed ageing also affect the seedling emergence index (6.81 ± 4.83), which was significantly decreased with increasing seed deterioration.

Key words:Deterioration, Storage, Pearl millet, Dehydrogenase

139

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 557-559(2017)

 

Economics of tomato cultivation as influenced by different training and spacing levels under protected conditions

Mehraj-u-din Shah, Baseerat Afroza*, Shabir Hussain Khan, Pradeep Kumar Singh and Javed Iqbal Chishti

Division of Vegetable Science, Sher-e-Kashmir Univ. of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar-190025, J&K, India

*e-mail: bafroza@gmail.com

(Received: August 03, 2016; Revised received: December 28, 2016;Accepted: January 04, 2017)

 

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Abstract: An investigation was carried out in semi controlled greenhouse during Kharif-2012 to study the economic viability of cultivation of tomato under protected conditions. Two indeterminate hybrids of tomato were planted at two levels of spacing and three levels of trainings resulting in twelve treatment combinations. The cultivation of tomatoes under protected conditions proved to be most profitable, yielding a net profit of Rs. 38,843 per greenhouse with an overall expenditure of Rs. 21,037. The benefit cost ratio was worked out to be 1.84. The treatment combination Shalimar Tomato Hybrid-1 + Spacing 60 cm x 30 cm + One shoot plant-1 gave the highest net returns of Rs.1,08,209 and benefitcost ratio of 3.77. The closer spacing between plants and training to one branch plant-1 proved to be the best combination because of highest yield potential thereby increasing net returns per unit area.

Key words: Tomato, Protected, Spacing, Training, Economics

140

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 560-564 (2017)

 

Influence of pruning severity on plant canopy architecture for yield and quality attributing traits of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Pant Prabhat

Parbhat Kumar, K. Karuna*, Abhay Mankar, Dhiru Kumar Tiwari and R. R.Singh

Department of Horticulture (Fruit and Fruit Technology), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813210, Bihar, India

*e-mail: kkaruna10@gmail.com

(Received: August 13, 2016; Revised received: January 17, 2017;Accepted: January 20, 2017)

 

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Abstract: To ascertain the crop regulation, plant canopy architecture, flowering, fruit quality and yield potential of pruning season (spring and summer) with different pruning intensities (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 per cent) a study was conducted on guava plants under ultra-high density orcharding. The results revealed that spring pruning to 80 per cent registered highest shoot length, plant height and canopy volume. During the spring season (15th February pruning) with 40 per cent of pruning intensity, the shoots took the minimum days (57.65days) to flower, days to 50 per cent flowering and days to full bloom and it was significantly lower than all other pruning levels. It seems that heavy pruning (80 per cent) in summer season (15th April pruning) tended to minimize the duration of flowering. Fruits produced under 80 per cent pruning intensity were the heaviest in weight for the spring (147.40 g) and the summer pruning season (155.58 g). It was observed that the maximum number of fruits and highest fruit yield with better quality fruits in terms of TSS (10.56 0Brix), TSS / acid (51.51) ratio, ascorbic acid (241.86mg/100g pulp), reducing sugar (4.24%) and total sugar (8.21%) content was found with 40 per cent pruning intensity in summer season. The pruning date also shifted the rainy season crop to winter season crop.

Key words: Canopy architecture, Guava, Pruning, Quality, Yield

141

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 565-568 (2017)

 

Heavy metals toxicity on growth and reproduction ofEisenia fetida

Jyoti Yadav*1, R.K. Gupta1 and Deepak Kumar2

1Department of Zoology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar- 125 004, India

2Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, LUVAS, Hisar-125 001, India

*e-mail: yadavjyoti694@gmail.com

(Received: August 24, 2016; Revised received: January 11, 2017;Accepted: January 17, 2017)

 

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Abstract: The present studyof 28 days was carried out to analyze the effects of heavy metals viz. cadmium and zinc on survivability and reproduction rate of E. fetida. The worms were exposed to Zn (0.02 ppm. 0.04 ppm and 0.06 ppm), Cd (0.002 ppm, 0.04 ppm and 0.06 ppm) and Cd+ Zn (0.01+ 0.01 ppm, 0.02+ 0.02 ppm and 0.03+ 0.03 ppm).A dose dependent reduction in growth, survivability, cocoon production and no. of hatchlings/ cocoon was observed. Cd was found more toxic than Zn and Cd along with Zn act synergistically, thus proves more detrimental for worms. Maximum reduction in growth, live earthworms, cocoon production and hatchlings was found in case of Cd (0.06 ppm) followed by Cd (0.04 ppm). Significant reduction in survivability and reproduction rate in case on Zn as compared to control has also been observed. However, no. of hatchlings/cocoon was found to be the most sensitive parameter of Zn and Cd induced toxicity.

Key words: Eisenia fetida, Cocoon, Hatchlings, Survivability

142

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 569-571 (2017)

 

Effect of the organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on growth

and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.)

Jay Prakash, Sanjay Kumar*, Vijay Kumar Pandey, Shashank Verma and Sutanu Maji

Department of Applied Plant Science (Horticulture), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Univ., Rae Bareli Road, Lucknow- 226 025, India

*e-mail: sanjay123bhu@gmail.com

(Received: August 29, 2016; Revised received: January 22, 2017;Accepted: January 28, 2017)

 

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Abstract: The present experiment entitled “Effect of the organic manures and inorganic fertilizers on growth and yield of Garlic was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The row to row and plant to plant spacing were maintained at 15 cm and 10 cm respectively. The treatment combinations were control, RDF (NPK )100 %, Vermicompost 100 %, FYM 100 %, 50 % RDF +50 % Vermicompost, 50% RDF +50 FYM, 50 % Vermicompost + 50 % FYM, 75 % RDF + 25 % Vermicompost, 75 % RDF + 25 % FYM, 50 % RDF +25 % FYM + 25 % and Vermicompost. The observations were recorded on maximum height of plant (72.32cm) in T8, minimum number of leaves (4.96) in T1, length of leaves (42.48) in T8, maximum width of leaves (1.77cm) in T8, minimum diameter of stem (9.62cm) in T1, diameter of bulb (3.65cm) in T1 and maximum bulb yield (310.66 q/hac) in T8. On the basis ofinvestigation it is concluded that combination of 75% RDF+25%Vermicompost can be recommended for garlic growers to achieve the better growth, higher yieldof 310.66 q per ha and quality crop with 48.47g weight of bulb under the agro-climatic condition of Lucknow.

Key words: Organic manures, Inorganic fertilizers, Bio-fertilizers, Garlic, Growth and Yield

143

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 572-574 (2017)

 

Correlation and path coefficient studies in fenugreek

(Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) genotypes

K.V. Santhosh*, P.M. Gangadharappa, H.C. Vikram, R.C. Jagadeesha and Mukesh Chouhan

KRC College of Horticulture, Arabhavi-591310, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot

*e-mail: kvthosh@gmail.com

(Received: August 27, 2016; Revised received: January 25, 2017;Accepted: January 29, 2017)

 

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Abstract: Twenty four diverse genotypes of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) were evaluated for growth and yield traits. In most of the parameters genotypic correlation coefficient were higher than phenotypic correlation coefficient indicating highly heritable nature of the characters. Seed yield per plant showed positive and correlation with plant dry weight at harvest. Weight of the pod and number of pods per plant showed positive and significant correlation with seed yield per plant at both genotypic and phenotypic level, whereas plant spread (N-S) at 45 DAS, harvest index showed positive and significant correlation at genotypic level only. Path coefficient analysis revealed that plant height at 45 DAS, plant spread (E-W) at 45 DAS, plant dry weight at harvest, pod length, harvest index and hundred seed weight had direct and positive effect on seed yield per plant. From the study, it was concluded that improvement of seed yield in fenugreek can be done through selection based on the characters viz., number of pods, plant dry weight at harvest, pod length, harvest index and hundred seed weight.

Key words: Yield parameters, Correlation coefficient, Path analysis, Trigonella foenum-graecum

144

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 575-577 (2017)

 

Study of genetic diversity in late sown mustard

Anuj Kumar1, Jaydev Kumar*2, Sarvan Kumar3, Tejasvi Singh1, Vinod Singh1, Amit Kumar5 and Mukul Kumar4

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 5Department of Horticulture, N.D.U.A &T., Faizabad-224 229, U.P., India

2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, C.S. Azad University Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208 002, U.P., India

3ICAR-Division of Crop Improvement, Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal-132 001, Haryana, India

4Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, Mandan Bharti Agriculture College, Agwanpur, Saharsa, Bihar-852 201 India

*e-mail: jaydev.140@rediffmail.com

(Received: June 20, 2016; Revised received: January 26, 2017;Accepted: January 30, 2017)

 

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Abstract: Genetic divergence studied in Indian mustard involving 80 genotypes consisted of fifteen female lines, four testers, 60 F1’s and one standard variety. The studied traits were days to 50 % flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), number of primary branches-1, number of secondary branches-1, length of main raceme (cm), number of siliqua on main raceme, seed yield-1 (g), biological yield-1 (g), 1000 seeds weight (g), harvest index (%) and oil content (%).The experimental materials were evaluated in a randomized block design in order to identify genetic divergence on the basis of Tocher cluster analysis in Indian mustard. All the genotypes were grouped into nine clusters revealing the presence of vast amount of diversity in the material for different traits. According to results, cluster I had the maximum 26genotypes. Cluster V, VI, VII, VIII and IX had minimum each having one genotype, respectively. The highest intra-cluster distance value was found for cluster IV (231.61) followed by cluster III (194.01). The maximum inter-cluster distance was reported between cluster IV and VI (2371.39) followed by cluster IV and VII (2055.54) whereas, minimum inter-cluster distance was observed between clusters I and III (197.311). Based on results, genotypes grouped into different clusters could be utilized in either crossing programme to development desirable segregants and specific pool of Indian mustard.

Key words: Clustering pattern, D2 analysis, Indian mustard

145

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 10 (6) 578-580 (2017)

 

Influence of irrigation schedule and weed management practices on weed dynamics and yield of summer greengram under south Gujarat condition

 Anita*, Desai L.J., Chaudhari V.D. and Chaudhari, S.N.

DepartmentofAgronomy,N.M. CollegeofAgriculture,NavsariAgricultural University, Navsari-396 450, Gujarat, India

*e-mail: anitabijarniya27@gmail.com

(Received: August 18, 2016; Revised received: January 18, 2017;Accepted: January 25, 2017)

 

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Abstract: An experiment was conducted at College Farm, N.M. College of Agriculture, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari during summer season of 2014 to “study the irrigation schedule and weed management practices in summer greengram under south Gujarat condition”. The results revealed that application of irrigation at branching, flowering and pod development stage increased seed and stover yield, weeds population and dry weight of weeds. Weed-control treatments significantly increased seed and stover yield of crop over weedy check. Two hand weeding at branching and flowering stage and application of pendimethalin 1.0 kg/ha as pre-emergence could successfully reduce the weed population and dry weight of weeds with the highest weed control efficiency which ultimately increased the yield of greengram over weedy check.

Key words: Greengram, Irrigation, Weed control efficiency, Weed management and yield

 

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