RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-11, Number: 4 (April), 5 (May), 6 (June) - 2018

 

24.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11(4) 109-115 (2018)

 

Phytomediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles by using Rhus parviflora Roxb. leaf extract and their biological activity

 

Deepak Patel1, Harish Chandra2* and J.S. Jangwan1

1Department of Chemistry,

2 Deparment of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre,H. N. B. Garhwal University (A Central University) Srinagar, Garhwal-246174, Uttarakhand, India

*Corresponding author e-mail: hreesh5@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 11.03.18; Revised received: 29.03.18; Paper Accepted: 03.04.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

The present study was conducted to synthesized Zinc oxide nanoparticle from the medicinally important high altitude medicinal plant Rhus parviflora which is known to have many uses in traditional system of medicine. The present investigation was carried out by taking leaf extract of R. parviflora and reacted with zinc acetate dehydrate. X ray diffraction (XRD), SEM (Scanning Electron microscopy) and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) were used for the characterization of synthesized nanoparticles. The wavelength specific UV-Vis absorption peaks for ZnO nanoparticles were recorded at 340 nm which confirmed the synthesized particle in nano scale. The obtained Nano powder was tested for their antimicrobial activity against uropathogens and some standard strain of pathogenic bacteria. The synthesized ZnO NPs are active against only two bacterial species i.e. Bacillus subtilis and B. cereus and no activity has been recorded against rest of the pathogenic bacteria. The synthesized ZnO NPs was also tested for their antioxidant potential and it is found to have moderate antioxidant properties..

Keywords

ZnO NPs, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, XRD, SEM

25.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (4) 116-121 (2018)

 

Evaluation of botanicals with cow urine against yellow stem borer in paddy

 

Ahilandeswari. K* and Uma Maheswari, N

PG and Research Department of Microbiology, Sengamala Thayaar Educational Trust Women’s College, Sundarakkottai, Mannargudi-614 016, Tamil Nadu, India

*Corresponding author e-mail: ahilamicro23@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 05.03.18; Revised received: 24.03.18; Paper Accepted: 04.04.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

The Yellow Stem Borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas is regarded as most dominant and destructive pest species in rice. For this reason, relative toxicity of certain natural herbal extract viz., Azatirachta indica, Adhatoda zeylanica, Pongamia pinnata, Ricinus communis, Acorus calamus with Cow urine was evaluated against the adult moths and larvae of Yellow Stem Borer at seedling (20 DAS) and tiller stage (20 DAT) by artificial release into rice pots sprayed with herbal pesticides. At seedling stage, lower per cent of moth survival was recorded in Azatirachta indica and Mixed botanicals (33.33%) as compared to untreated control (77.77%). In tiller stage also, significant reduction of moth survival was found with Azatirachta indica (33.33%) followed by Mixed botanicals (44.44%). Percent Dead Heart was calculated by observing larvae damage and it shows the pest control ability of these botanicals in rice and superior effect was obtained with mixed botanicals. All the treatments were found to be significantly different from untreated control at both stages of crop. Also, the positive influence of cow urine in pest control and plant growth regulation was confirmed. The result showed minimum occurrence of pest attack and percent Dead Heart in response to herbal pesticides with cow urine treatment in the rice variety of ADT 43. Hence it is recommended to use this bio pesticide for organic cultivation of rice.

Keywords

Cow urine, Mixed botanicals, Moths survival, Yellow Stem Borer, Percent Dead Heart

26.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (4) 122-129 (2018)

 

Ameliorative potential of Withania somnifera (‘Ashwagandha’) against water borne hexavalent chromium induced genotoxicity in a fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793): A study based on chromosomal aberrations

 

Rajesh Prasad and Sunil P. Trivedi*

Environmental Toxicology & Bioremediation Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, India

*Corresponding author e-mail: sat060523@gmail.com, trivedi_sp@lkouniv.ac.in

 

Paper received: 01.03.18; Revised received: 28.03.18; Paper Accepted: 03.04.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

To explore the efficacy of ethanolic extract of root powder of Withania somnifera (‘Ashwagandha’) against chromium tri-oxide (Cr6+) induced chromosomal aberrations 15 days laboratory acclimatized fish, C. punctatus (12.20 ± 1.29 cm, 42 ± 2.01 gm) were maintained in six groups. Group I, served as control and fishes of groups II and III were exposed separately with extract of W. somnifera (3 mg/L) and LC50/10 of Chromium trioxide (7.89 mg/L), respectively for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure periods. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in group III was recorded significantly (p<0.05) increased in comparison to control. In contrast, in groups IV, V and VI, where fishes were exposed simultaneously with sub lethal test concentration of Cr (VI) and extract of W. somnifera (1, 2, 3 mg/L, respectively), a decreasing trend in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations was recorded in comparison to group III after 24 , 48 , 72 and 96 h of exposure periods. Thus, it can be inferred that extract of W. somnifera holds enough ameliorative potential against Cr (VI) induced chromosomal aberrations in C. punctatus, in laboratory microcosms.

Keywords

Chromium, Withania somnifera (‘Ashwagandha’), Chromosomal aberrations, genotoxicity, C. punctatus

27.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (4) 130-134 (2018)

 

Biosynthesis, characterization and application of chitin nanoparticle with Adhatoda vasica

 

Bhuvaneswari D & PriyaIyer*

PG and Research Department of Biotechnology, Women‘s Christian College, Chennai- 60006, India

*Corresponding author e-mail: brajuraj@yahoo.com

 

Paper received: 09.03.18; Revised received: 25.03.18; Paper Accepted: 02.04.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

Aqueous and Ethanol extraction of Adhatoda vasica leaves were used in phytochemical analysis. Chitin was extractedfrom prawn shells by chemical method. Then chitin with silver nanoparticle was produced along with leaves extract. The present study was used to investigate anti- microbial, anti- inflammatory, anti- coagulant, thrombolytic activity, anti-larvae and anti-oxidant activity.

Keywords

Biosynthesis, chitin nanoparticle, Adhatoda vasica, phytochemical

28.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (4) 135-138 (2018)

 

Responses of salt stress on physiological and biochemical activity of short duration salt tolerant rice genotype CSR 43

 

Dhananjaya Singh1*, Anuradha Singh2 and Y. P. Singh1

1Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station,

Lucknow-226005, India

2Department of Botany, Meerut College of Meerut-250001(UP), India

*Corresponding author e-mail: dsingh_06@yahoo.co.in

 

Paper received: 10.03.18; Revised received: 30.03.18; Paper Accepted: 08.04.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

The effect of salt stress on physiological and biochemical activity of short duration salt tolerant rice genotype CSR 43 was study in different levels of sodicity viz., Control, pH9.2, 9.4 and 9.8 and thirty- five day old seedling was transplanted as per treatments. Observations were recorded proline, MDA, peroxidase activity (POD) and SOD content was determined at vegetative and flowering stages. The result showed that sodicity increased leaf POD, proline, and MAD content in leaf at both stages. The reduction of POD, proline and MAD content in leaf was higher in pH 9.8 at both vegetative and flowering stage.

Keywords

Rice, POD, SOD, Proline, MDA, Sodicity

29.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (5) 139-143 (2018)

 

Elemental profiling of Acorus calamus Linn from different altitudes of Uttarakhand

 

Pinky Chaubey1, Archana Parki1, Om Prakash1*, Ravendra Kumar1, Sonal Tripathi2 and A.K. Pant1

1Department of Chemistry, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar- 263 145, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand, India

2 Department of Agricultural Chemistry & Soil Science, NM College of Agriculture, Navsari Agriculture University, Dandi Road, Navsari - 396 450, Gujarat, India

*Corresponding author e-mail: oporgchem@gmail.com, pinkychaubey991@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 31.03.18; Revised received: 18.04.18; Paper Accepted: 26.04.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

All the elements such as various major, minor and trace elements are important for determining the capability of medicinal plants in treating various diseases and to understand their pharmacological action. Present study describes the trace and major nutritional elements of Acorus calamus leaf and rhizomes collected from twenty different ecological niches of Uttarakhand. A total of 14 elements were tested for their presence in leaves and rhizomes of A. calamus by using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Among tested elements Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr, P, Ca, K, Mg and Na were present in all the collections in varying amount. Cobalt (Co) was absent in all the collection, Cd (0.2ppm) could be detected only in Gairsen collection, however Ni was present only in Sararikhet (20 ppm), Paithani (2.0ppm), Chaukhutiya (34.0ppm), Jadaukhand (2.0ppm), Someshwar (10.0ppm) and Palpur (10.0ppm) respectively. Khedagaon collection revealed maximum concentration of Fe (2664.5 ppm in leaf, 13507.4 in rhizomes) Similarly in Kotsari collection the Fe content was 14062.6 ppm in rhizome and 469.3 ppm in leaf). This collection also contained maximum Zn content (741.8 ppm) in rhizome. From above it can be inferred that the indigenous herb A. calamus can be a good natural source of nutritional elements besides its medicinal applications.

Keywords

Acorus calamus; elements; medicinal plants; trace

30.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (5) 144-151 (2018)

 

Quantitative evaluation of mangoes (Mangifera Indica L.) In temperate areas of North-East India

 

Sanjay Kumar*1 and Asikho Kiso2

1Department of Botany, BHU, Varanasi; 2Department of Botany, Nagaland University, Lumami, Nagaland. India

*Corresponding author e-mail: ksanjay79@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 03.04.18; Revised received: 25.04.18; Paper Accepted: 27.04.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

The mango tree genotypes (~100) were randomly selected and measured their height and girth. Also, radius and diameter of the trees were derived from girth using standard formulas. The total phenotypic (VP) and genotypic (VG) variation was observed high (927.29) and equal (VP= VG) as well as purely due to genetic constitution (VE=0, VG×E=0 and E=0) for height (H2=1.000) of mango genotypes. The regression coefficients were recorded high towards height (67.6%) and diameter (100%) of the mango trees. The principle component analysis extracted the component height and shared maximum (93.512%) of total variation among the trees. The variations for other parameters were recorded partly genetic and partly environmental effect. The height and girth was placed in two different co-ordinates while radius and diameter placed in same coordinate. The new combination of height (Allele HH/hh) was recorded (0.32HH: 0.49Hh: 0.19hh) among mango trees genotypes.

Keywords

Mangifera species, phenotypic variation, genotypic variation, Allele frequency

31.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (5) 152-154 (2018)

 

Effect of petroleum sludge on plant growth under sandy soil condition: A preliminary study

 

R. Maharana, P.P Sahu, and N.K. Dhal

Environment and Sustainability Department, CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar-751013, Odisha, India

*Corresponding author e-mail: rojalimaharana111@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 06.04.18; Revised received: 28.04.18; Paper Accepted: 30.04.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

In this study, we carried out a pot experiment to investigate the effect of petroleum sludge with biochar derived from Vigna mungo waste (VMW) on the growth and biochemical activities of Zea mays L. and Tagetes patula L. under sandy soil condition. Petroleum sludge was mixed at the rate equivalent to 0, 20, 60 and 100g per kg of sandy soil. Another pot having only biochar with sandy soil taken for comparative study. Biochar is characterized by a large surface area and a high porosity, Owing to its properties, its amendment to contaminated soils has been considered for the immobilization of organic and inorganic contaminants. Results of the study indicated that petroleum sludge contains some important plant nutrients which when amended with biochar signiûcantly enhance the plants growth. This indicates the beneficial effects of biochar and petroleum sludge for increasing the mineral concentration and fertility of sandy soil. Furthermore, the contaminant reduction by biochar from petroleum sludge need to be investigated in more detail before large scale application.

Keywords

Sandy soil, Petroleum sludge, Soil amendment, Plant growth

32.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (5) 155-160 (2018)

 

Typhoid malaise in North Indian city Saharanpur (U.P.):

A case study

 

Kuldeep Rana1, Neha Wal1 and Harish Chandra2*

1Department of Microbiology, Mewar University, Gangraar, Chittorgarh-312901, Rajasthan, India

2Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, H.N.B. Garhwal University (A Central University), Srinagar, Garhwal-246174 (Uttarakhand), India

*Corresponding author e-mail: hreesh5@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 01.04.18; Revised received: 29.04.18; Paper Accepted: 01.05.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

Enteric fever Typhoid is endemic in Indian subcontinent and is of utmost medical concern. Surveillance study was carried particularly in Western Part of Uttar Pradesh Saharanpur City for three consecutive years i.e., 2012-13, 2013-14 and 2014-15. The trends of positive cases as found in the present study was Female > Males > Children following a decreasing trend in the years viz., 2012-13 > 2013-14 > 2014-15 however; number of positive males were comparatively more. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella Typhi have also been observed to follow a decreasing trend as reappearance of sensitivity against antibiotics such as Ciprofloxacin and Ampicillin. The overall study show, which proper surveillance and mass awareness programmes are desperately, required in the region as reappearance of sensitivity show a ray of hope but having no difference as the resistance gene is still in environment.

Keywords

typhoid; surveillance, antimicrobials, resistance, sensitivity

33.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (5) 161-164 (2018)

 

Effect of chromium on morphological parameter of spinach and defend the damage by using zinc, potassium and iron

 

Kamlesh Nath*1, Brijendra Pratap Singh2, Dharam Singh3 and Y.K. Sharma2

1Environment Control Systyem, A.R.P. Ltd. Lucknow, 226012, India

2Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, India

3Department of Environmental Science, I.B.S.B.T., C.S.J.M. University, Kanpur-208002, India

*Corresponding author e-mail: nathkamlesh@rediffmail.com

 

Paper received: 11.03.18; Revised received: 21.04.18; Paper Accepted: 26.04.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

The effect of chromium on morphological parameter of spinach. Leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight of leaves significantly increased in 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm chromium and then decreased in 5 ppm and 10 ppm chromium. The moisture % decreased as chromium concentration increased. In all parameters the decrease was significant at higher doses. Fresh weight and dry weight were higher when 10 ppm of zinc sulphate and 25 ppm of potassium sulphate and iron sulphate when combinedly used with 10 ppm of chromium. The accumulation of chromium, zinc, potassium and iron in spinach leaf treated with different concentrations of chromium. The chromium accumulation in leaf was increased with increase in chromium concentration. The zinc accumulation was decreased with increase of chromium concentration. In recovery treatments they were higher with 25 ppm of zinc sulphate and iron sulphate and potassium sulphate except potassium which was increased on 25 ppm of potassium sulphate when combinedly used with 10 ppm of chromium.

Keywords

Chromium, Spinach, Heavy metal, Zinc, Potassium, Iron

 

34.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (6) 165-171 (2018)

 

Water quality evaluation of River Sabarmati, Gujarat, India by physico-chemical and microbiological analysis

 

Krishnakumar B. Vaghela*, Devangee P. Shukla and

Nayan K. Jain

Department of Life science, School of science, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India,

*Corresponding author e-mail: kbvaghela.11@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 08.05.18; Revised received: 29.05.18; Paper Accepted: 02.06.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

Sabarmati is one of the major river in Gujarat. An attempt has been made to develop water quality index (WQI), using physico-chemical and microbiological analysis at five different sites namely Karai Dam, Gandhi Bridge, Vasna-narol Bridge, Miroli Pumping station and Vautha along the Sabarmati river basin from the year 2017 to 2018. The values of parameters were compared with environmental standards and specifically surface water quality standards as per IS: 2296-1982. The sites located in highly urban area showed the worst water quality followed by the station located in moderately urban area and lastly station located in a moderately rural area. It was observed that the main cause of deteriorationin water quality was due to the high anthropogenic activities, illegal discharge of sewage and industrial effluent, lack of proper sanitation, unprotected river sitesand urban runoff.The study revealed that there was indication of pollution in the river and hence preventive measures are required to avoid further deterioration of the river water quality.

Keywords

Physico-chemical analysis, microbiological analysis,Sabarmati river, water quality index

35.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (6) 172-176 (2018)

 

Antibacterial potential of green synthesized zinc nanoparticles of Morinda citrifolia L. against uropathogens

 

Sudhir Joshi1, Deepak Patel2,Harish Chandra3 and S.C. Bhatt1

1Department of Physics, 2Department of Chemistry

3Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, HAPPRC, H. N. B. Garhwal University ( A Central University) , Srinagar,

Garhwal-246174, Uttarakhand India

*Corresponding author e-mail: hreesh5@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 11.05.18; Revised received: 01.06.18; Paper Accepted: 04.06.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

Nanoscience or nanotechnology may contribute to medical science due its wide application in immunotechnology or diagnostic and cancer therapy. The present study was carried out to synthesized Zinc oxide nanoparticle with the help of green synthesis method i.e. phytomediated. The synthesized NPs was characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction method, Scanning Electrom Microscopy with EDX and it was found that average size of synthesized nanoparticle was 31.92 nm. The synthesized ZnO NPs was tested against six bacterial uropathogens in which three are Gram negative and three strains are Gram positive bacteria. Out of six tested bacteria two bacterial isolate does not shown activity toward synthesized ZnO NPs. However, the synthesized ZnO NPs were found active against S. typhi (10.0 ±0.0 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.0±0.1 mm), S. aureus (17.0±0.2 mm) and B. cereus (15.0 ±0.5 mm).

Keywords

Nanoscience, antibacterial, M. citrifolia

36.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (6) 177-181 (2018)

 

Morphological and antioxidant responses of Suaeda monoica on phytoextraction of paper mill effluent

 

Zakir Hussain Malik and K. C. Ravindran*

Phytoremediation Lab, Department of Botany, Annamalai University,

Annamalai Nagar – 608 002, India,

*Corresponding author e-mail: drkc_ravi@rediffmail.com

 

Paper received: 03.05.18; Revised received: 28.05.18; Paper Accepted: 01.06.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

Environmental pollution by heavy metals and salinity is a serious problem worldwide, increasing in parallel with the development of human technology. The present study aimed to examine the response of halophytic species Suaeda monoica to oxidative stress posed by paper mill effluent. Plants have been grown for 120 days with an irrigation solution of 250 ml of 75% raw paper mill effluent. The results showed that the plant growth and antioxidant activities were increased with the accumulation of heavy metal concentrations from paper mill effluent treated soil. Survey results indicated that shoot length, total number of leaves, leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight were significantly increased in Suaeda monoica cultivated in paper mill effluent treated soil. Similarly increased level of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione were also observed which reflects the level of tolerance and detoxification strategy of halophyte against heavy metal and salinity. The results suggest that Suaeda monoica adapts to heavy metals and salts with better growth and antioxidant defense and can be utilised in the phytoextraction of heavy metals from paper mill effluent contaminated areas.

Keywords

Paper mill effluent, Heavy metals, Suaeda monoica, Morphology, Antioxidant

37.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (6) 182-185 (2018)

 

Effect of tannery effluent on pigments of spinach and recovery by using zinc, potassium and iron

 

Kamlesh Nath1, B. P. Singh2, M. K. Soni2, Dharam Singh3 and Y.K. Sharma2

1E.C.S., A.R. P. Ltd. Lucknow, 226012, India

2Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, India

3Department of Environmental Science, I.B.S.B.T., C.S.J.M. University, Kanpur-208002, India

*Corresponding author e-mail: nathkamlesh@rediffmail.com

 

Paper received: 23.04.18; Revised received: 26.05.18; Paper Accepted: 29.05.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

Experiment shows effect of tannery effluent treatment on chlorophyll content of spinach at 45th and 90th day. Total chlorophyll, chlorophyll ‘a’ and chlorophyll ‘b’ decreased gradually from control to 100% tannery effluent at both 45th and 90th day. In recovery treatment 25 ppm of potassium sulphate and iron sulphate caused higher chlorophyll contents both at 45th and 90th day. While 10 ppm of zinc sulphate and 25 ppm of zinc sulphate also induced higher chlorophyll at 45th and 90th day respectively. Pheophytin (Total, ‘a’ and ‘b’) and total carotenoid content decreased at 45th and 90th day as the tannery effluent concentration increased. In recovery treatments pheophytin (Total, ‘a’ and ‘b’) and total carotenoids were higher in 25 ppm of zinc sulphate, iron sulphate and potassium sulphate at 45th and 90th day.

Keywords

Chlorophyll, Pheophytin, Carotenoids, Tannery effluent, zinc, iron and potassium

38.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (6) 186-188 (2018)

 

Effect of salinity stress on productivity of soybean (Glycine max L.)

 

Naheed Siddiqui* and M. Singh

Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow- 226007 (U.P.), India

*Corresponding author e-mail: drnaheedlohani@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 12.04.18; Revised received: 19.05.18; Paper Accepted: 22.05.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract

The differential salinity levels (50, 100 and 150 mM) have down regulated acquisition of total number of flowers emerged, pods formed and also seed numbers. The salinity has also reduced pod formation process which has resulted eventually in the form of loss of total number of seeds at maturity. The variety PS-1241 somehow has been responding in a superior way with the reflection on lower losses in flower number emerged, pods formed and seeds found at maturity compared to others. The loss in flower emergence was detected from 11 - 28%, 10- 33% and 16-38% in case treated with lower (50 mM) and higher (150 mM) saline solutions. The variety PS-1241 had shown an edge over rest of the two varieties in relation to floral emergence, pod formation process followed by seed setting during salinity stress.

Keywords

Salinity, Soybeans, Flowering, seed setting, pods formation, Nacl, saline soil

 

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