RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-11, Number: 7 (July), 8 (August), 9 (September) - 2018

 

39.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (7) 189-195 (2018)

 

Importance of Cedrus deodara (Roxb. Ex D. Don) G. Don: A review of its ethnobotany, phytochemical constituents and antioxidant potential

 

Dwaipayan Sinha*

Department of Botany, Government General Degree College, Mohanpur, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal-721436, India.

 

*Corresponding author e-mail: dwaipayansinha@hotmail.com

Paper received: 21.05.18; Revised received: 26.06.18;

Paper Accepted: 28.06.18; Category: Review paper

 

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Abstract: Reactive oxygen species generated within the living system are responsible for oxidative damage of bio molecules leading to a number of diseases. This leads to exploration of alternative antioxidants in foods and health supplements primarily focussing on plants and plant derived natural products. The association of plant with human dates back thousands of years ago in the Palaeolithic age and this is carried through generation to the modern age leading to emergence of the ethnobotany concept. The people of Himalayan region are largely dependent on herbs and trees for their day to day life and this practice is deeply rooted in their tradition. Cedrus deodara (Roxb. Ex D. Don) G. Don or Deodar is one such gymnosperm that grows in Himalaya and finds extensive application in day to day health care and non medicinal purpose. The plant is rich in phenolics and other bioactive compounds namely -Pinene, -Pinene, Ferulic Acid, Shikimic Acid, Gallic Acid, Myricetin, (-)-Matairesinol, protocatechuic acid, polysaccharides etc. It is also an important ingredient of ayurveda and possesses strong antioxidant potential. This paper is a compilation of up-to-date information of traditional use Cedrus deodara, its phytochemical constituents and antioxidant potential.

Keywords: Cedrus deodara (Roxb. Ex D. Don), G. Don, Ayurveda, (-) - Matairesinol, a-Pinene, antioxidant

40.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (7) 196-200 (2018)

 

Characterization of textile wastewater discharges in textile cluster of Chirala, Prakasam (Dist.), Andhra Pradesh, India

 

K. Sri Lakshmi*1, and M. Anji Reddy2

1Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, 2JNTUH, Hyderabad-500085, Telangana, India

 

*Corresponding author e-mail: sri.kamatham@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 18.05.18; Revised received: 24.06.18

Paper Accepted: 24.06.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract: Characterisation studies have been carried out on effluent discharges of 9 industries (3 mechanical dyeing textile units, 5 manual dyeing units and 1 printing unit) selected from Chirala textile industrial cluster. Triplicates of samples from each selected dyeing unit have been collected and analytical studies carried out. All 24 physico-chemical parameters including heavy metal analysis has been done. Similarly, analytical studies have also been carried out on 1 mechanical and 1 manual dyeing unit at all possible steps in the dyeing process. Results for composite effluent can be summarized as EC (4750-23900)mho/cm, , pH (7.24-7.92), TDS (1255.6-15790.5mg/l), COD (125.6-3528mg/L), BOD(25.4-855mg/L), TSS (100.3-55.2mg/L).The analytical studies reveal that the parameters BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, Sulphates, Chlorides are higher than the permissible limits prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Government of India. The BOD: COD ratio is found to be 0.2 indicating presence of more non-biodegradable matter in the effluent. The study was carried out to understand the effect of textile dyeing units on the surrounding environment. The results indicated that the levels of pollution indicator parameters are higher in the dyeing effluents.Thus, we can conclude that proper treatment of effluent is essential in order to reduce their impact on environment.

Keywords: Textile industries, Characterization, Dyeing units, Environment

41.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (7) 201-203 (2018)

 

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotypes for

summer season under changing climate

 

R.A. Singh1*, I.P. Singh2, Rajesh rai1,

P.V. Singh1 and Mahesh Chandra Verma1

1C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (U.P.), India; 2K.V.K., Auraiya (U.P.) India

 

*Corresponding author e-mail: rasinghcsau@gmail.com

Paper received: 19.05.18; Revised received: 17.06.18

Paper Accepted: 21.06.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract: The present study was under taken during summer season of 2006 and 2007 at Regional Research Station, Mainpuri. The experimental soil was sandy loam with poor fertility status. The forty five varieties of groundnut were tested. The main objective was to findout the suitable genotypes for cultivation during summer season. Cultivar Co1 gave highest pod yield of groundnut by 37.90 q/ha followed by Tirupati 3 (25.40 q/ha), S 206 (25.40 q/ha), R 9251 (21.25 q/ha) and M 197 (21.25 q/ha). the other varieties produced poor pod yield in comparison to aforementioned genotypes. As regard to gross income, net income and BCR, the cultivar Co1 gave highest values by Rs. 208450/ha, Rs. 145880/ha and 1:3.33, respectively. the genotypes Tirupati 3, S 206, R 9251 and M 197 also gave considerable values of gross return, net return and BCR. The other tested cultivars did not perform considerable response.

Keywords: BCR, Profitability, Riverine tract, summer season, varieties

42.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (7) 204-207 (2018)

 

Effect of salinity on leaf weight ratio and relative growth rate in soybean (Glycine max L.)

 

Naheed Siddiqui* and M. Singh

Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow- 226007

(U.P.), India

 

*Corresponding author e-mail: drnaheedlohani@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 22.04.18; Revised received: 10.06.18

Paper Accepted: 16.06.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract: The differential impact of salinity levels recorded in the form of leaf weight ratio. The data indicates that higher salinity levels have significantly reduce leaf weight ratio in soybean varieties PS-1092 in comparison to PS-1241 and PS-1042. The loss (%) in leaf weight ratio was found 18, 19 and 30 % in variety PS-1241 incase lower level (50 mM) of salinity applied in the form of saline water in the pots once in a week. These values further enhanced in the form of leaf weight ratio to the level of 42 and 57% in PS-1241, PS-1042 and PS-1092. Similarly, relative growth rate indicates direct influence of salinity over plants growth and development. The PS-1092 variety has been observed critical in response to higher levels of the salinity. PS-1241 has shown least impact of salinity over its growth and development. In totality, higher level of salinity (150 mM) have made significant loss while reducing relative growth rate values. It was 51, 67 and 78 % loss in PS-1241, PS-1042 and PS-1092 respectively.

Keywords: Salinity, Soybeans, Leaf weight ratio, Relative growth rate, Nacl, saline soil

43.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (7) 208-210 (2018)

 

Effect of salinity stress on maize and gram and recovery by ascorbate

 

M. K. Soni1*, Naheed Siddiqui2 and Y. K. Sharma2

1C.I.S.H. Rehmankhera, Lucknow, India

2Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow-226007

(U.P.), India

*Corresponding author e-mail: manojsonilko@yahoo.com

Paper received: 26.04.18; Revised received: 22.06.18

Paper Accepted: 28.06.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract: The experiment showed the changes in the morphological parameters in maize and gram plants. Plant height showed a remarkable decreased with increasing concentration of NaCl (50mM, 100mM and 200mM) at every stage of measurements at (15, 30 and 45 days) as compared to control. At 15 days the control plant height was showed 32.5 cm but 50 mM NaCl treated plant was 30.0 cm in maize (C4 plant). The fresh and dry weights also decreased as the NaCl concentration was increased. The damage caused by NaCl was significantly reversed by ascorbate addition. All the morphological parameters studied were found to increased in ascorbate treated plants as compared to untreated plants provided with same concentration of NaCl in maize. In gram at 15 days the height was observed 13.5 cm in the control but decreased height 13.0 cm observed in 50 mM NaCl treated plant in gram (C3 plant). Similarly while control plant was 25.0 cm in height at 45 days, it decreased to 24.4, 23.6 and 21.8 cm with increasing concentration of NaCl (50, 100 and 200 mM) in gram. All the morphological parameters studied in gram and maize were found to be increased with the apply of 50 mM ascorbic acid in the plants as compared to untreated plants provided with same concentration of NaCl.

Keywords: Maize, Gram, Salinity, Ascorbic acid, NaCl

44.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (8) 212-221 (2018)

 

A review on lignin degradation

 

N. Uma maheswari* and S. Rubini

PG and Research Department of Microbiology, S.T.E.T Womens College, Sundarakkottai, Mannargudi-614 001, Tamilnadu, India

 

*Corresponding author e-mail: umasamyamf@gmail.com

Paper received: 27.06.18; Revised received: 19.07.18

Paper Accepted: 22.07.18; Category: Review paper

 

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Abstract: In nature, cellulose, lignocelluloses and lignin are major source of plant biomass; therefore, their recycling is indispensable for the carbon cycle. Each polymer is degraded by a variety of microorganisms and then variety of composting, it produce a battery of enzymes that work synergically. In the near feature, processes that use lignocellulolytic enzymes are based on microorganisms could lead to new environmentally friendly technologies. Organic material is converted to carbon dioxide, humus, and heat by compost microorganisms. It is assumed that humus is formed mainly from lignin. Thus, lignin is not totally mineralized during composting. The elevated temperatures found during the thermophilic phase are essential for rapid degradation of lignocellulose. Complex organic compounds like lignin are mainly degraded by thermophilic microfungi and actinomycetes. The optimum temperature for thermophilic fungi is 40 - 50C which is also the optimum temperature for lignin degradation in compost. Three enzymes include lignin peroxidase (Lip), manganese peroxidase (Mnp), and laccase, etc. This study reviews recent advances in the various biological treatments that can turn these three lignocelluloses biopolymers into alternative fuels. Accessory enzymes such as H2O2-generating oxidases and degradation mechanisms of plant cell-wall components in a non enzymatic manner by production of free hydroxyl radicals (OH) are also discussed.

Keywords: Lignin, cellulose, biodegradation, lignolytic enzymes

45.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (8) 222-227 (2018)

 

Effects of ultra-high diluted (UHD) potentised homeopathic medicines on pea (Pisum sativum L.) - a hydroponics study under plant growth chamber

 

Manasa Kumar Panda*1, Aradhana Basu1, Raj K. Manchanda2, Anil Khurana2, Debadatta Nayak2 and Nabin Kumar Dhal1

1Environment and Sustainability Department, CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar- 751 013,Odisha, India

2Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, Ministry of AYUSH, Govt. of India, Janakpuri, New Delhi-110058, India

 

*Corresponding author e-mail: pandamanasa20@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 16.06.18; Revised received: 17.07.18

Paper Accepted: 19.07.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract: Ultra high dilution is the dilution in which the medicine is diluted to very lower concentrations to reduce the toxicity of the concentrated homeopathic medicine. A plant growth chamber study of ultra-high diluted (UHD) potentised homeopathic medicine on the seed germination, and the growth of pea seedlings was carried out. Experiments were carried out using homoeopathic medicine, Arsenicum album of different potencies like 6C, 30C, 200C on the plant models, pea (var. Arkil).Different growth parameters including germination percentage shoot length, root length-, wet weight, dry weight and biochemical parameters including photosynthetic pigments, total protein content, and all antioxidant enzymes like- Superoxide dismutase(SOD), Catalase(CAT), Guicol Peroxidase(GPX), Ascorbate peroxidase(APX), Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), Glutathione reductase(GR), Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), Root Oxidase (RO), Ascorbic acid, Phenol content were analysed. The role of UHD potentised homeopathic medicines in promoting germination and growth can act as stimulating agents. A significant effect on germination rate was observed in ultra-high diluted (0.1%) homeopathic medicine of 200C potency for pea. In pea growth as well as biochemical parameters were significant in 30Cand 200C potency respectively.

Keywords: Potentised, homeopathic medicine, Ultra high diluted (UHD), potency, Hydrponiocs, Plant growth chamber

46.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (8) 228-234 (2018)

 

A critical review on phytochemical and medicinal properties of Aegle marmelos and Adhatoda vasica

 

M. Kannahi* and P. Nisha

PG and Research Department of Microbiology, Sengamalathayar Educational Trust, Womens College,

Mannargudi 614001, Tamilnadu, India

 

*Corresponding author e-mail: Kannahiamf@ gmail.com

 

Paper received: 26.06.18; Revised received: 27.07.18

Paper Accepted: 30.07.18; Category: Review paper

 

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Abstract: It has been established that up to 25% of the drugs prescribed in conventional medicines are allied directly or indirectly to natural substances mostly of plant origin. Hence, during the last few decades there has been an increasing interest in the study of medicinal plants and their long-established use in different countries. However, today it is compulsory to afford scientific testimony as to whether it is reasonable to use a plant or its active principles. As far as contemporary drugs are concerned they must be further characterized after their pharmacological screening by studying the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, including toxicity. Therefore the present communication constitutes a review on the medicinal properties, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, pharmacokinetic and toxicity of an Indian medicinal plant, justicia adhatoda. a wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from j.adhatoda which possesses activities like antitussive, abortifacient, antimicrobial, cardiovascular protection, anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and other important activities. Aegle marmelos family rutaceae is an alleged ayurvedic medicinal tree commonly known as the bael. It is medium sized tree growing throughout the forest of India of altitude 1200 meter. It is found all over India, from sub-Himalayan forest, Bengal, central and south India. It is considered to be a holy tree in India. Various parts of this plant such as leaves, roots, seed, bark and fruit, possess anti-microfilarial, antifungal, immunomodulatory, anti-proliferative, wound healing, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, hypoglycaemic, antidyslipidemic, anti-fertility, and insecticidal activity. Various phytopharmacological evaluations have been reported in this writing for the important potential of the Aegle marmelos.

Keywords: Justicia adhatoda, pharmacological activities, pharmacokinetic, phytochemistry, toxicity. Aegle marmelos, Pharmacological Properties

47

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (8) 235-238 (2018)

 

Chromium toxicity in Spinacia oleracea L. and recovery of damage by Zn, K, and Fe

 

Kamlesh Nath1, B.P. Singh2, M.K. Soni3, D. Singh4 and Y.K. Sharma2

1E.C.S., A.R.P. Ltd. Lucknow, India

2Department of Botany, Lucknow, University, Lucknow-226007, India; 3C.I.S.H. Rehmankhera, Lucknow, India

4Department of Environmental Science, I.B.S.B.T., C.S.J.M. University, Kanpur-208002, India

*Corresponding author e-mail: nathkamlesh@rediffmail.com

 

Paper received: 22.06.18; Revised received: 21.07.18

Paper Accepted: 24.07.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract: Experiment shows the effect of chromium on pigments of spinach at 45th and 90th day. Chlorophyll and pheophytin contents of spinach at 45th day decreased significantly but total carotenoid was observed with increased chromium concentration. In recovery treatments chlorophyll and pheophytin contents were observed higher with 10 ppm of zinc sulphate, iron sulphate and 25 ppm of potassium sulphate when combinedly used with 10 ppm of chromium. Chlorophyll contents at 90th days were increased with 0.5 ppm chromium and then started to decrease with increase in chromium concentration. At 90th day pheophytin increased from 0.5 to 2 ppm, which started to decrease from 5 ppm of chromium onwards, while total carotenoids decreased with increase in chromium concentration. Pheophytin a was higher with 10 ppm of zinc sulphate, iron sulphate and potassium sulphate whereas pheophytin b was higher with 10 ppm of zinc sulphate, 25 ppm of potassium sulphate and iron sulphate in combination with 10 ppm chromium. Carotenoids were higher with 10 ppm zinc sulphate, potassium sulphate and 25 ppm of iron sulphate along with 10 ppm of chromium treatment.

Keywords: Chlorophyll, Pheophytin, Carotenoid Chromium, Spinach, Zinc sulphate, Potassium sulphate and Iron sulphate

48.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (8) 239-242 (2018)

 

Effect of benzyladenine (BA) treatment on flowering response and metabolites in cucumber

 

Gopal Tewari*,

Manoj Kumar Soni, Sandeep Kaur and Y.K. Sharma

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India

 

*Corresponding author e-mail: tewarigopal@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 16.05.18; Revised received: 21.07.18

Paper Accepted: 24.07.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract: The results of experiment performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of BA given for varying durations on flowering response in cucumber. The days to anthesis and nodal position bearing first flower was highest in control for male flowers which gradually reduced as the increasing concentration of BA was applied. The total no. of male flowers however showed an increasing trend over control with the BA application. However the maximum no. of male flowers was formed in plants having been applied 50 M BA for 72 hours (25.9), a significant increase over control. Pollen fertility, however, showed a declining trend with the increasing application of BA. The formation of female flowers was, however, delayed on the application of BA with the days to anthesis of female flowers increasing with the increasing concentration and duration of BA application. While the first female flower in control appeared in 56.20 DAS, this value significantly increased to 64.20 and 67.93 in plants given 50 M BA for 48 and 72 hours respectively. Similarly the average nodal position bearing the first female flower also increased with the application of BA. Total sucrose content during pre-flowering stage was highest (235.7.0 mol/gm fresh weight) in control but on treatment with BA it decreased to a significantly low value of 205.0 mol/gm fresh weight in plants treated with 50 M BA for 72 hours. The concentration of BA and the time period it was applied for have had a cumulative effect on the sucrose content too. Starch content also decreased over control with the increasing concentration and duration of BA application. In control the pre-flowering starch content was highest at 0.395 mg/gm fresh weight while it decreased to 0.370, 0.350 and 0.345 mg/gm fresh weight in plants given 0.5, 5.0 and 50 M BA respectively for 24 hours, the last two exhibiting a significant decline from control. Total protein content, however, increased over control with the increasing concentration and duration of BA application. The increasing duration of BA application also had the enhancing effect on protein content. Likewise the significantly highest content of protein at pre-flowering stage was observed in 50 M BA /72 hours treated plants (70.65 g/gm fresh weight). The total protein content increased to 58.95 g/gm fresh weight at flowering from 50.70 g/gm fresh weight at pre-flowering stage in control, it significantly increased to 78.50 g/gm fresh weight in 50 M BA/72 hours treated plants at flowering.

Keywords: Male flower, Female Flower, Benzyladenine (BA), Sugar, Starch and Protein

49.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (9) 243-246 (2018)

 

Liquid PGPR inoculants - New agronomic practice for

sustainable cultivation of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

 

G. Manimekalai* and M. Kannahi

PG and Research Department of Microbiology, S.T.E.T Womens College, Sundarakkottai, Mannargudi-614 001,

Tamilnadu, India

 

*Corresponding author e-mail: manistet@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 30.07.18; Revised received: 25.08.18

Paper Accepted: 29.08.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract: The ability of tested rhizobacterial isolates (Azotobacter sp, Pseudomonas sp, Enterobacter sp and Bacillus sp) along with a strain of root nodule bacteria (Rhizobium spp.) to exhibit some PGP-properties was evaluated in vitro conditions. The main PGP-properties, namely the ability to solubilize-P and production of IAA, as well as production of siderophores and HCN were examined. Additionally, field trials were conducted on sandy loam soil at Edaiyarnatham, Mannargudi during summer seasons to study the effect of co-inoculation with Rhizobium either individually or together with other PGPR on nodulation, some plant growth characters, peanut yield. The in vitro experiment revealed that all of the tested microorganisms were apparently able to trigger PGP-properties. Phosphate solubilization was the common feature of the employed microorganisms. Enterobacter sp. Rhizobium sp displayed the lowest capacity. The ability of the microorganisms to produce indole compounds showed that Azotobacter sp was more effective in IAA production and followed by Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus sp. Capacity of Azotobacter and Pseudomonas to secrete ferric-specific ligands (siderophores) and HCN was detected, while Rhizobium failed to produce such compounds. Bacterization of peanut seeds with liquid inoculants of PGPR exerted considerable improvement in seed germination. Among various combinations, combined inoculations of beneficial organism (T4- 30%RDF+30%Vermicompost+PGPR) increased nodule number, and yield parameters and similar to ( T1 100% RDF) treatment. So, the present study revealed the combined inoculations of PGPR with vermicompost helps to better peanut growth, yield and reduce the use of the chemical fertilizer.

Keywords: PGPR, Rhizobium, Vermicompost, Peanut

50.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (9) 247-249 (2018)

 

Field screening of paddy genotypes against leaf folder,

Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee (Pyraustidae: Lepidoptera)

 

Chhavi* and Pawan K. Sharma

Department of Entomology, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Palampur

176062 (H.P.), India

 

*Corresponding author e-mail: chhavi.reflection@gmail.com

 

Paper received: 24.07.18; Revised received: 21.08.18

Paper Accepted: 24.08.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract: Field experiments were conducted to screen forty three genotypes along with a susceptible check under unsprayed conditions to identity the resistance/ tolerance against rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis at Rice and Wheat Research Centre, Malan, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur during 2015 and 2016. Genotypes were evaluated based on the standard evaluation system for rice with a scale of 0-9. Among forty three genotypes screened along with susceptible check (TN-1), the mean per cent damaged leaves ranged between 8.20 to 41.45 per cent in kharif 2015 with minimum per cent damaged leaves in genotypes HPR-2662 (8.20%) and maximum per cent damaged leaves were recorded in TN-1 (41.45%). During kharif 2016, the mean minimum and maximum damaged leaves were noticed in HPR-2719 and TN-1 having 8.62 and 50.38 per cent damaged leaves, respectively. Out of forty three genotypes, thirty three genotypes were found moderately resistant, nine as moderatey susceptible and one as susceptible. None of the genotypes was found to be free from leaf folder damage.

Keywords: Paddy, Leaf folder, Genotypes, Resistance

51.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (9) 250-254 (2018)

 

Physico-chemical characteristics of various soils in relation to leaf growth in Jatropha curcus plant

 

Sapna LaVerne1*, P.K.Tandon1 and Vibhuti Rai2

1Dept. of Botany, 2Dept. of Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, India

 

*Corresponding author e-mail: sapna.laverne@rediffmail.com

 

Paper received: 11.07.18; Revised received: 19.08.18

Paper Accepted: 23.08.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract: Soil is a vital part of successful agriculture and is the natural source of the nutrients that are used by the plants for their growth. The nutrients move from the soil into plants through a vascular system where water carries the nutrients to different parts of the plant. Nutrient cycling, water regulation and other soil functions are normal processes occurring in all ecosystems. The quality of soil plays a very critical role in the plant growth as different varieties of soils occur in nature. The physico-chemical aspect of soil is dependent on a number of factors as the inorganic component is derived from degradation of rock masses which varies in chemical composition to a great extent. The present paper discusses these aspect in relation to the leaf growth of Jatropha curcus, an important oil producing plant.

Keywords: Soil, Jatropha curcus, and Plant leaves

52.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (9) 255-261 (2018)

 

Isolation and characterization of hexavalent chromium

reducing bacteria from electroplating effluent samples

 

Sakale S.S.* and Chitanand M.P.

Department of Microbiology, N.S.B. College, Nanded-431601, Maharashtra, India

 

*Corresponding author e-mail: sagar_sakle@yahoo.com

 

Paper received: 17.07.18; Revised received: 22.08.18

Paper Accepted: 29.08.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract: Hexavalent chromium is a heavy metal useful in electroplating method carried out in stainless steel industries. Cr (VI) is toxic, non-degradable and easily bio-accumulated in food chains in water bodies by discharging of effluent of electroplating steel industries due to which environment gets seriously affected. In present study, nineteen chromium resistant bacteria were isolated from effluent samples of electroplating steel industries. All isolates were studied for their MIC of Cr (VI). Four isolates having MIC of 1300g/ml were selected for further studies. Chromium reduction efficiency of all four isolates was studied. Effect of different parameters like incubation period, inoculum size, concentration of Cr (VI), pH, temperature and agitation on efficiency of Cr (VI) reduction were determined. 1, 5-Diphenyl Carbazide (DPC) method was used to estimate reduction of Cr(VI). Result showed that Chryseomicrobium amylolyticum JC16 could reduce 100% toxic Cr (VI) to non toxic Cr (III) form within 48 hrs at pH-7 and at 30oC. Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and Cellulosimicrobium funkei W6122 showed maximum reduction of Cr(VI) up to 98% and 84% respectively at pH-7and at 40oC. Staphylococcus arlettae ATCC 43957 showed 71% reduction at pH-8 and at 30oC. All these four isolates showed co tolerance and multi heavy metal tolerance to copper and nickel.

Keywords: Electroplating, Stainless Steel, Hexavalent Chromium reduction, 1,5-Diphenyl Carbazide method

53.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 11 (9) 255-261 (2018)

 

Toxicological effect of nickel and its interaction with boron on germination, growth and biochemical parameters in Pisum sativum seedlings

 

A. Verma*

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India

 

*Corresponding author e-mail: adi_kobe@yahoo.co.in

 

Paper received: 14.06.18; Revised received: 17.08.18

Paper Accepted: 20.08.18; Category: Original paper

 

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Abstract: The experiment was carried out to explore the detrimental effect of nickel stress and nickel interactions with boron in pea seedlings. The pea seedlings were raised in petridish for 15 days in different concentrations of nickel (100 M, 200 M, 400 M and 600 M). Combination of boron (50 and 100 M) with nickel (200, 400 and 600 M), was also given for the recovery of damage occurred in pea seedlings. Various morphological parameters were recorded during and at the end of 15 days of the experimentation. Germination percentage decreased with increase in the level of nickel in applied solution from 88.88 % in control to 44.44% in 600 M. The combination of boron (50 and 100 M) increased the germination when used with the higher concentration of nickel 200 M, 400 M and 600 M. Plumule and radicle lengths, and number of lateral roots also showed the decreased trend. In recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 M) plumule and radicle lengths, and number of lateral roots showed remarkable increase in comparison to alone nickel treatments. Fresh and dry matter yields were decreased as compared to control but moisture percentage was lowest in 200 M nickel in comparison to other nickel concentrations. In recovery treatment of boron (50 and 100 M) in 200 M, 400 M and 600 M nickel fresh matter yield and moisture percentage were increased in comparison to nickel alone, but their was slight decrease in dry matter yield. Total protein and sugar contents were decreased with increasing concentration of nickel. In recovery treatments when boron (50 and 100 M) were applied with 200 M, 400 M and 600 M nickel, protein contents were observed higher in case of recovery treatments of boron. Boron recovery treatments showed higher sugar contents than iron recovery treatments. In 200 M nickel and 50 M boron sugar content was found maximum (5.42 g/mg) than in other recovery treatments.

Keywords: Pea, Nickel, Boron, SVI, GRI, Moisture %, Protein, Sugar, Heavy metal toxicity, Recovery

 

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