RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-1, Number-1, May-2008

 

1.

Review Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(1) 1-4 (2008)

Ancient and modern medicinal potential of Boerhaavia diffusa and Clerodendrum aculeatum

 

Ahmad Najam*, Akhilesh K. Singh, and H. N. Verma

Plant Virology Laboratory, Botany Department, Lucknow University, Lucknow-226007, India

*e-mail: najam_lko@yahoo.com

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Abstract: Inhibition of virus activity in plants as well as in animals, particularly in human beings, is a subject most challenging. The virus inhibiting drugs are very rare or with low efficacy and with severe side effects. Virus infection of plants and animals takes a heavy toll even in this era of highly developed branch of ancient and modern medicine. In Ayurvedic system of medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa and Clerodendrum aculeatum plants and their extracts have been used to control viral diseases and carcinogenesis of human beings. The useful anti-cancerous and anti-viral drugs are helpful for rural health care for the human beings. Boerhaavia and Clerodendrum are economically important plants because many of their species possess medicinal properties. Almost every part of these plants is credited with some medicinal properties and is employed in traditional Ayurvedic system of natural therapy.

Key words: Boerhaavia diffusa, Clerodendrum aculeatum, Medicinal properties, Viral diseases, Virus inhibition activity

 

2.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(1) 5-8 (2008)

Responses of Lemna minor L. (duckweed) plants to the pollutants in industrial waste water

 

Kavita Singh1, Ajai Misra2 andS.N. Pandey1*

1Department of Botany, 2Department of Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007,India

*e-mail: snpandey511@gmail.com

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Abstract: The duckweed (L. minor) plants were treated with industrial waste water. Thewaste water was collected from common effluent treatment plant, Unnao, UP state, India). The pollutants analyzed in waste water, showed high values of BOD, COD, total solids and total dissolved solids. It also contained various heavy metals i.e., Cr (1.64), Cu (0.16), Fe (0.27), Ni (1.33) and Zn (0.35) mgL-1. The industrial waste water reduced biomass of plants by 50%. The chlorophyll (a, b and total) and biochemical activities (protein, amylase and catalase) were also suppressed by industrial waste water, observed at 7th day of exposure. Chlorophyll b, protein and catalase activity were found stimulatory at 25% diluted level of waste water. The activity of amylase decreased with increase in concentration of waste water. Visible symptoms of toxicity appeared in L .minor plants, as upper marginal yellowing of leaf converted into necrotic area and wilting and drying of plants. The mortality of 50% plants observed in duckweed plants at 100% supply of waste water at 7th day. Any visible symptoms were not appeared in duckweed plants at control and 25% waste water supply.

Key words: Pollutants, Industrial waste water, Lemna minor L.,Heavy metals

 

3.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(1) 9-12 (2008)

Emissions inventory of vehicles pollutants and their toxicity in National Capital Region towns around Delhi

C. Sharma1and R. Pundir2*

1Radio and Atmospheric Sciences Division National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012, India

2Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016, India

*e-mail: reenaspundir@yahoomail.com

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Abstract: Estimation of emissions of CO, NOx, PM, HC from different types of vehicles have been made for the year 1997-98 using emission factors prescribed for pre EURO norms of different kinds of towns in National Capital Region (NCR), Delhi (viz.,Alwar, Bulandshar, Faridabad, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon, Meerut, Panipat, Rewari, Rohatak and Sonipat). Meerut and Faridabad has largest number of vehicles as compare to other towns . In order to understand the effect of technological intervention, the same activity data have been subjected to EURO-1 emission norms to estimate the resultant emissions. This provided an insight on the magnitude of reduction occurred in the vehicles emission due to the implementation of EURO-1 vehicle norms in these cities .It has been found that in the EURO-1 technology same vehicles fleet would have been responsible for 70% reduction in CO and 51% reduction in HC+ NOx from car andjeeps. The toxicity of different type of pollutants have also been calculated and observed that the emission of NOx is less but its toxicity is higher as compare to other pollutants.

Key words: Emission, EURO-1, Pollutants, Vehicles

4.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(1) 13-16 (2008)

Hepatotoxic effect of Cu (II) in freshwater fish, Channa punctatus: A histopathological study

 

Dharam Singh1,2*, K. Nath2, Y.K. Sharma2 and S. P. Trivedi1

1Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India

2Laboratories of Environment Sciences, Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007,India

*e-mail: ds_envi@rediffmail.com

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Abstract: It is known that copper is an essential trace metal for living organisms and plays a crucial role in many biological enzyme systems that catalyze oxidation/reduction reactions and have molecular oxygen as a co-substrate. However, if copper is present at relatively high concentrations in the environment, toxicity to aquatic organisms can occur. Liver is a main storage and metabolizing center of toxicants in the animals including fishes. Disruption of its structural integrity may inhibit physical and biochemical activities in fish. In the sparkle of above fact present study was carried out to asses the hepatotoxic effect of Cu (II) in fish Channa punctatus. For this purpose fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentration (0.36 mg/l) of Cu (II) (taken as CuSO4) for 15, 30 and 45 days of exposure periods. Chronological histopathological damage such as swelling of hepatic cells, hepatocellular necrosis, vacuolization, inflammation and hepatic cell damage were observed in fishes exposed to Cu (II).

Key word: Histopathology, Channa puntatus, Liver, Copper sulphate

5.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(1) 17-20 (2008)

Study of plants in relation to ambient air quality in Lucknow city, Uttar Pradesh

Abha Chaudhary, Shikha Chaudhary and Y.K. Sharma*

Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow-226007, India

*e-mail: yogesh_s26@yahoo.com

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Abstract: Rapid industrialization and urbanization has led to continuous deterioration of air quality which is a major environmental problem in many urban centres in both developed and developing countries. Air pollution is characterized by high concentration of suspended particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur. If their concentration beyond tolerance limits in plants. They diversely affect the plants , human health , animals and even the meteorology of the globe. The experiment was performed to studythe effect of air pollution load inLycopersicon esculentum,, Solanum melongena and Capsicum annum. The total chlorophyll and carotenoids were found to be reduced at Site 1 and Site 2 as compared to the control. The catalase and peroxidase activity were increased with increase in different air pollutants concentration.

Key words: Total chlorophyll, Carotenoid, Catalase, Peroxidase

6.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(1) 21-24 (2008)

Biodiversity and current status of some dicot plants in Lucknow district of Uttar Pradesh

Sonia Saini1, Rajni Shukla2, S.S.Yadav2, Aditya Verma2 and Yogesh Kumar Sharma2*

1JNPG College, Lucknow India

2Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, India

*e-mail: yogesh_s26@yahoo.com

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Abstract: Biodiversity refers to variety and variability among living organisms, ecosystem and ecological complexes. It represents the variety of genes, species and ecosystems found on our planet. The species are quickly disappearing because of gradual changes in climatic conditions, human encroachment and other human influences.The loss of the earth’s biodiversity is one of the most promising environmental issues for the new millennium.The present study is concerned with climatic changes between 1992 and 2002 in Lucknow district and their influenceson species distribution and their abundance.Climatic data for the period show temperature rise and fall in ascending years in summer and winter, respectively. The field survey revealed an alarming change in the number and distribution of certain plant species. The main plant species gradually reduced in the area were -Andrographic peniculata (Acanthaceae), Boerhaavia diffusa (Nyctaginaceae), Centella asiatica(Umbelifereae), Cissampelos pareira (Menispermaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae), Tribullus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) and Oroxylum indica (Bignoniaceae).

Key words: Biodiversity, Climate, Dicot plants

 

7.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(1) 25-28 (2008)

Growth and biochemical responses of nickel toxicity on leguminous crop

(Lens esculantum) grown in alluvial soil

Sanghpriya Gautam* and S.N. Pandey

Botany Department, Lucknow University, Lucknow-226007, India

*e-mail: Just2pr@yahoomail.com

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Abstract: Plants of lentil (Lens esculentum) were grown in alluvial soil (loamy sand texture), irrigated with graded Ni levels. The effect of low (0.01ppm) and high Ni levels (0.5, 5 and 50 ppm) observed on growth and biochemical responses (chlorophyll, protein, catalase and amylase). Low Ni supply level (0.01) increased growth, chlorophyll, protein contents and stimulated the activity of enzymes (catalase and amylase) over control. While, at higher Ni concentrations, all the biochemical activities were suppressed in lentil plants. Protein content in lentil increased with increase in concentration of Ni. Ni at 50 ppm level, supplied for 20 days, significantly reduced dry matter yield by 25%, total chlorophyll content by 23%, catalase by 33.2% and amylase activity by 91% over control. Therefore, low Ni level stimulated growth and metabolic activities, but toxic at it’s higher concentrations.

Key words: Growth, Biochemical activities, Toxicity, Nickel

8.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(1) 29-32 (2008)

Toxicity of distillery effluent on seed germination, seedling growth and metabolism in Pisum sativum

 

Ranjeet Singh Baghel*

Department of Environment Science, Lucknow University, Lucknow-226007, India

*e-mail: ranjeetsinghbaghel@gmail.com

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Abstract: Different concentrations of distillery factory treated effluent were used in petridish culture experiments to investigate its effect on seed germination and seedling growth in Pisum sativum. The higher concentration of the different elements (already present in effluent), BOD and COD affected the seed germination, seedling growth and ultimately plant growth and yield. The seed germination and seedling growth were significantly reduced with increase in concentration of the distillery effluent. It adversely affected seedling growth (radicle and plumule size), number of lateral roots, total chlorophyll, total amylase, fresh weight, dry weight and moisture content while catalase and peroxidase increased due to stress caused by distillery effluent.

Key words: Distillery effluent, Toxicity, Seed germination, Chlorophyll, Amylase, Catalase, Peroxidase

9.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(1) 33-36 (2008)

Effect of asbestos effluent on morphological and biochemical parameters in Zea mays

 

Amar Nath Giri*

Environment Management System, NFCL, Nagarjuna Road, Kakinada, India

*e-mail: amarnathgiri@nagarjunagroup.com, goswami818@yahoo.com

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Abstract: The treated asbestos effluent was collected and its different concentrations i.e.0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% were prepared using distilled water. Maize (Zea mays) plants were grown in sand pot culture and plant growth parameters were recorded at 50th and 90th days. Germination percentage was decreased with increasing concentration of treated effluent of asbestos industry. At 100% it showed 30% inhibition than control. The maize plant height, No. of nodes bearing male inflorescence, size of male inflorescence, No. of nodes bearing first female inflorescence, size of cob, total leaf area (cm²), RWC of leaf, fresh and dry weights were also decreased with increasing concentration of treated effluent of asbestos industry. The antioxidants enzymes (Catalase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase and ribonuclease) were increased with increasing concentration of treated effluent of asbestos industry.

Key words: Asbestos, Chlorophyll, Catalase, Peroxidase,Acid phosphatase, Ribonuclease, RWC

10.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(1) 37-42 (2008)

Screening of wheat genotypes for their susceptibility to boron deficiency

D.K. Pandey and N. Pandey*

Botany Department, Lucknow University, Lucknow - 226 007, India

*e-mail: nalini_pandey@rediffmail.com

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Abstract: Sand culture experiment was conducted in glass house to screen six wheat varieties for their relative susceptibility and tolerance to boron deficiency. Performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes subjected to boron (B) deficiency were evaluated with respect to foliar symptoms of B deficiency, dry matter yield, tissue B concentration, grain yield, total chlorophyll, malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation) concentration and polyphenol oxidase (DOPA oxidase) activity. Wheat genotypes responded differently to B deficiency. Wheat var. HD- 2874 was found to be least susceptible and var. DL-153-2 and HD-2733 were highly susceptible to B deficiency. The wheat varieties HD-2781and HD-2687 were moderately susceptible and var. HD-2868 was mildly susceptible to B deficiency. Based on their susceptibility to B deficiency the varieties could be arranged in the order DL-153-2>HD-2733>HD-2781>HD-2687>HD-2868>HD-2784.

Key words: Boron deficiency, Screening, Wheat genotypes

11.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(1) 43-44 (2008)

Cytogenetic effect of Bavistin on root meristem cells of Allium cepa

Kiran Gupta, Kumkum Mishra*, S.P. Singh, Shefali Srivastava, Sumati Gaumat and Sunil Dixit

Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow – 226007, India

*e-mail: dr_kumkum@rediffmail.com

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Abstract: Cytological changes in Allium cepa root tip cells induced by Bavistin were observed. Mitotic index and root length decreases with increase in concentration and duration, however, various types of abnormalities increases. These abnormalities are chromosome breaks, c-metaphase and stickiness in metaphase and multipolar arrangements of chromosomes, laggard, diagonal and bridges in anaphase.

 

Key words: Allium cepa, Mitotic abnormalities, Chromosomal abnormalities, Bavistin, Fungicide

 

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