RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-1, Number-3, August-2008

 

23.

Review Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(3) 81-90 (2008)

Role of differentially expressed ripening related genes and promoters in banana fruit: Identified by mRNA DDRT-PCR

 

Sudhakar Srivastava and Sanjay Mohan Gupta*

Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering Lab.,

Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory,

DRDO, Haldwani-263139, India

*e-mail: smg555@rediffmail.com

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Abstract: It is now becoming increasingly evident that plants have a tight regulation of gene expression during fruit ripening which is brought about through differential expression of hundreds of genes. This review deals with the identification of several ripening related and ethylene induced/suppressed genes in banana pulp using mRNA differential display reverse transcription(DDRT-PCR). It also highlights recent developments in identifying and assigning role to various ripening related genes and promoters during ripening that may help to better understand these phenomena at the molecular level and identify candidate genes for genetic manipulation to improve the postharvest life of banana fruits.

Key words: Fruit ripening,Differential gene expression,Banana,Ripening related gene and promoters,DDRT-PCR,Ethylene signalling

24.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(3) 91-94 (2008)

Effect of chromium and tannery effluent toxicity on metabolism and growth in cowpea (Vigna sinensis L. Saviex Hassk) seedling

 

Kamlesh Nath*, Dharam Singh, Shilpa Shyam

and Yogesh Kumar Sharma

Laboratory of Environment Sciences,Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow- 226 007, India

*e-mail: nathkamlesh@rediffmail.com

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Abstract: The petridish experiment was performed using different dilution levels of treated tannery effluent (10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 %) and their corresponding concentration of chromium (VI) (2, 10, 25 and 50 ppm ) to know the effect on seed germination and seedling growth in cowpea (Vigna sinensis L. Saviex Hassk). The germination percentage decreased with increase in concentration of tannery effluent and chromium (VI). The different concentrations of tannery effluent and chromium (VI) showed reduction in seedling growth (plumule length, radicle length, number of lateral roots, fresh weight, dry weight and moisture %) and pigments (chlorophyll, pheophytin and carotenoids) with increase in concentration. Amylase activity and total sugar content also decreased, while catalase and peroxidase activities increased with increase in concentration. The lower concentration of tannery effluent dilution (10 and 20%) and chromium (VI) (2 and 10 ppm) showed significant increase in total protein content, and decrease at higher concentrations.

Key words: Tannery effluent, Chromium (VI), Amylase, Catalase, Peroxidase, Total sugar,Total protein

25.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(3) 95-98 (2008)

Accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Mn, Fe, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu) in road side trees

Shilpa Shyam*, Kamlesh Nath and Dharam Singh

Laboratory of Environmental Sciences, Department of Botany,University of Lucknow, Lucknow - 226 007, India

*e-mail: shilpa_lko@yahoo.com

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Abstract: Heavy metal contamination of urban air, soil and vegetations has become a serious environmental problem. Metal accumulation in urban areas is related to traffic. It has been found that petrol and diesel driven vehicles emit heavy metals alongwith particulate metter in to the urban environment as a result of combustion of fuel. Heavy metal concentration was analysed in ashok (Polyalthia longifolia Thw.) and peepal (Ficus religiosa ALinn.) leaves in summer, monsoon and winter season.The metal uptake by ashok and peepal plant was found in the order of Fe<Pb<Zn<Cu<Mn<Cr<Cd and Fe<Pb<Zn<Mn<Cu<Cr<Cd respectively. Analysis of data reveals that the accumulation of heavy metal was higher in monsoon season and minimum in summer in case of most heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals was found maximum in industrial areas and minimum in residential areas. The cadmium and chromium was found below the detectable limit in some cases. Data reveals that ashok plant has good metal accumulation capability than peepal plant.

Key words: Accumulation, Heavy metals, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu, Air pollution

 

26.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(3) 99-102 (2008)

A Histopathological study to evaluate hepatotoxic effect of chloremphenicol, zidovudine and RISUG in albino rats

 

Jyotsna*1,2, V. Gupta1 and R.K. Singh2

1Department of Zoology, Lucknow University,

Lucknow - 226 007, India

2Division of Toxicology, C.D.R.I., Lucknow - 226 001, India

*e-mail: jyotsnagaur@yahoo.com

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Abstract:Many drugs and chemicals causes disruption of its structural integrity may inhibit physical, biochemical activities and liver diseases. The liver is important organs in the body because of their involvement in biotransformation and excretion of xenobiotic respectively. Liver is a main storage and metabolizing centers of toxicants in the animals. The aim of present study was to evaluate the toxic effect of three drugs on liver, including antibacterial chloramphenicol, anti-aids azidothymidine (zidovudine) andmale infertility RISUG(reverse inhibition of sperm under guaidence) drugsin Charles Fosterstrain of albino rats. Chloramphenical,zidovudine were administered orally to rats at the dose levels of 560, 240 mg kg-1 body weight respectively for 5 days,while RISUG, 0.5mg/ 0.03ml DMSO were implanted in each vas deferens of rat. Significant histopathological degeneration changes, swelling of hepatocytes were observed due to chloramphenicol and zidovudine but no any cell damages were observed in RISUG treated rats.

Key word: Histopathology, Albino rats, Chloramphenicol, Zidovudine and RISUG

27.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(3) 103-108 (2008)

Bioaccumulation of heavy metal in crops irrigated with secondary treated sewage waste water in surrounding villages of Varanasi city

Abhishek Mukherjee* and Virendra Kumar Mishra

Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi -221005, India

*e-mail: mukherjeeda2003@yahoo.co.in

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Abstract: The contamination of agricultural products with heavy metals resulting from waste water irrigation has become an important concern throughout the world due to potential adverse effects of heavy metals on human health. The present study was conducted to investigate the level of heavy metal in irrigation water, soil and some vegetables like spinach and cauliflower grown in the adjacent areas of sewage treatment plant (STP). People in this area utilize treated sewage for irrigation for the last two decades. The field study was conducted at three sites in the adjacent areas of Bhagwanpur (STP), 10 MLD, Varanasi, Samples of irrigation water, soil and edible portion of palak (Spinach oleraceae) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) were collected during summer and winter season and analyzed for Pb, Cu., Zn, Cd and Cr. The data generated show elevated level of some heavy metals in all environmental media, suggesting a definite adverse impact on the environmental quality of the disposal area. Heavy metals in irrigation water were higher than the internationally recommended (WHO) maximum permissible limit set for agricultural use for all heavy metals. Similarly the heavy metal concentration in soil below the Indian standard for all heavy metals, but the maximum value of Cr recoded during summer was higher than the standard (13.95 mg kg-1). However in edible portion of spinach Cd, Cu and Cr concentration (5.93, 28.15 and 12.02 mg kg-1respectively, in Madarva) was higher than the permissible limits of Indian standard while in the edible portion of cauliflower Cr, and Cd (5.95 and 1.96 mg kg-1 respectively, in Madarva) were higher than the permissible limits. The study revealed highly significant variation (p> 0.005) among different sites. There was positive and significant correlation between heavy metal concentration in secondary treated sewage and soil. This correlation was also significant between metal concentration in treated sewage and concentration in different plant parts. The study points to the fact that the use of treated and untreated waste water for irrigation has increased the contamination of Cd, Cu and Crin the edible portion of vegetables causing potential health risk in the long term from this practice.

Key word: Heavy metal, Seavage waste water, Cadmium, Copper, Chromium, Zinc, Lead, Bioaccumulation

 

28.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(3) 109-112 (2008)

Accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu and Fe) in various parts of Zea mays treated with asbestos effluent

 

Amar Nath Giri*1, Aditya Verma2, Shiv S. Yadav2, Shikha Chaudhary2 and Y.K.Sharma2

1Environment Management System, NFCL, Nagarjuna road, Kakinada - 533 003, India

2Department of Botany, University of Lucknow,

Lucknow - 226 007, India

*e-mail: goswami818@yahoo.com, amarnathgiri@nagarjunagroup.com

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Abstract:The treated asbestos effluent was collected from asbestos industry. Different concentrations i.e. control (0%), 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% were prepared from asbestos effluent. Maize (Zea mays) was grown in sand pot culture. All metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe and Co) concentration was increased with increasing concentration of treated effluent of asbestos industry in tissues of root, stem and leaves. The heavy metals concentration was significantly increased in root on 40, 60, 80 and 100% of concentration of asbestos effluent. The plant tissue analysis in our experiment shows higher accumulation of heavy metals in different plant parts with the application of asbestos effluent, although the level of accumulation varied from part to part. The higher accumulation of heavy metals in roots than aerial parts can be explained as heavy metals remains bound in the roots that is why did translocation from roots to leaves.

 

Key words: Asbestos effluent, Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, Iron and Cobalt

29.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(3) 113-116 (2008)

Feeding practices and dietary pattern of young children in rural area

 

Neelam Kumari* and Ajai Goswami

Govt. Girls Post Graduate College Ghazipur, V.B.S. Purvanchal University, Jaunpur, India

*e-mail: neelamkumari080@gmail.com

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Abstract: Children below three years of age constitute a little over 15% of our total population. They undoubtedly are most crucial segment of our population due not only to their sheer number but also because during these formative years foundations are laid for adult life. Moreover the quality of our future human resource is going to be determined largely by these children. Nutrition is a major factor in bringing out the maximum potentiality that one is endowed with both physically and mentally. The infants and pre-school children are extremely vulnerable. A study was conducted in the western skirt of Lucknow (Malihabad and Kakori Block), Uttar Pradesh. Three-hundred and forty four children up to three years old were selected from low-income households in the study area. Pre-tested, structured interviews were conducted to collect information on child-related factors from the households. The calorie adequacy of diet, showed a highly significant effect on a child’s current as well as past nutrition status. The results of this study indicate a strong influence of socio-economic status and parental care on the food intake, which are the two major causes for malnutrition among children in developing countries

Key words: Children, Breast feeding, Nutrition

 

30.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(3) 117-118 (2008)

Raising of virus resistance inducing activity of Clerodendrum aculeatum leaf protein using bio-enhancer of biological origin

 

Ahmad Najam*1, L.P. Awasthi2 and H.N.Verma1

1Plant Virology Laboratory, Botany Department, Lucknow University, Lucknow- 226 007, India

2Department of Plant Pathology, Narendra Dev University of Agri. and Tech., Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229, India

*e-mail: najam_lko@yahoo.com

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Abstract: In the present investigation, attempts were made to enhance the virus resistance inducing activity of C. aculeatum leaf extract protein in combination with certain bio-enhancer of biological origin. Maximum percent inhibition was reported at 1:5 dilution in all the cases whether CA-SRIP used alone or CA-SRIP+BE (5% and 10%) combination .CA-SRIP+BE (5%) showed better response than CA-SRIP+BE (10%).

 

Key words: Clerodendrum aculeatum (CA), Systemic resistance inducing protein (SRIP), Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Sunnhemp rosette virus (SHRV), Bioenhancer

31.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(3) 119-122 (2008)

Enhancement of efficacy in management and control of yellow leaf curl viral disease in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) using a herbal product GUJCO VIRCON

 

Yogesh K. Sharma*, Priyanka Sharma and Savitri Singh

Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow- 226 007, India

*e-mail: yogesh_s26@yahoo.com

(Download full paper)

 

Abstract: In a farmer field cum laboratory experiment the efficacy of a herbal preparation GUJCO VIRCON regarding management and control of the tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) disease, spreading through the vector whitefly - Bemisia tabaci, was tested in sub-tropical climatic conditions of Lucknow having alluvial soils. It was observed that three foliar sprays of GUJCO VIRCON(4ml L-1 aqueous dilution -test treatment)) with usual insecticide spray, starting at 35 days after transplanting the seedlings at the interval of 10 days in moderately infected plants were most effective. It resulted into approximately 50% more fruits in comparison to lone insecticide sprayed plants. The increase in yield over the normal untreated uninfected plants was 25% as per performance of the genotype on records. It showed that the extract also worked as nutrient supplement, other than the viral control. The decrease in untreated plants over combined treatment of insecticide and GUJCO VIRCON was approximately 68%. The evaluation of resistance of the crop against the virulence was morphological, biochemical and yield parameters based. The levels of various pigments were not significantly deteriorated, indicating thereby unaltered photosynthetic activity in treated plants. The pathogen stress defensive enzymes like catalase, peroxidase etc. were found increased in untreated plants as compared to treated plants, showing that the treatments controlled the pathogen attack before onset of the infection, without any alteration in antioxidative resistance. The treated plants did not show apparent symptoms of the disease. Their growth was as normal as the uninfected, healthy and untreated normal plants on record.

Key words: TYLCV, GUJCO VIRCON, Bemisia tabaci fruit yield

 

32.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(3) 123-128 (2008)

Qualitative assessment of municipal and ground water of Lucknow city

Shashank Shekhar Mishra* Ajai Mishra and Reetanjali Singh

Centre of Advanced Study in Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, India

*e-mail: enviroshashank@rediffmail.com

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Abstract: The study was performed to know the status of water quality of Lucknow city, U.P., India. The samples were collected for the analysis of the water quality at source of supply and also at the receiving end. The samples of municipal water supply and ground water were collected from 20 and 17 different locations of city respectively. The investigation were performed in year 2005 and 2008, which covers the whole entire city including areas connected with the filtration plants and other areas where direct or indirect ground water supply is practiced. These samples were analyzed to know the status of physico-chemical, bacteriological properties and also for the presence of heavy metals in them. Treated water quality at source is quite satisfactory only at Aishbagh Water Works. However the water received at the users end is severely contaminated and potential to health risk for the users in many localities. The data obtained for assessment of water quality (for both municipal water supply and ground water) in both year reveal that quality of water is deteriorate day by day. Nearly all parameters were found in higher concentration in year 2008 if compared to year 2005 including heavy metals.

Key words: Physico-chemical, Bacteriological properties, Heavy metals, Water

 

33.

Original Paper

 

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 1(3) 129-133 (2008)

Study of temperature stress on seed germination, seedling growth and biochemical parameters and recovery of damage by using Ascorbate

Manoj Kumar Soni*

Central Institute of Sub-Horticulture (CISH), Rehmankeda, Lucknow

*e-mail: manojsoni_lko@yahoo.com

(Download full paper)

 

Abstract:Present experiment was performed in laboratory at different temperature levels (35 and 40oC) on maize and gram (for 7 and 14 days of exposure). The seed germination was decrease with increase of temperature in both seeds. In one and two week old seedlings of maize and gram were observed for seed germination, morphological (plumule length, radical length, number of lateral roots) and physiological (fresh wt., dry wt. and moisture %) parameters. The pigment, amylase, protein and sugar contents were also analyzed. The pigment, amylase, protein and sugar contents were decrease with increase of temperature, although catalase and peroxidase activity were increase. After one week ascorbate (50 mM) was added in petridishes for the recovery purpose. This ascorbate application promote the plumule length, radical length, number of lateral roots, fresh wt. dry wt. and moisture (%), pigment, protein and sugar content, but catalase and peroxidase activity decreases.

Key words: Temperature, Germination, Maize, Gram, Ascorbate, Biochemical

 

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