Volume-2, Number-1, February-2009



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(1) 1-6 (2009)


Recognition of antilymphocyte and antihemocyte sera by crab (S. serrata) hemocytes exposed to arsenic


Sanjib Saha, Mitali Ray and Sajal Ray*

Aquatic Toxicology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata – 700 019, India



(Received: September 02, 2008; Revised received: February 05, 2009; Accepted: February 08, 2009)


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Abstract: Scylla serrata (Crustacea: Decapoda) is a potential aqua crop and economically important edible species, widely distributed in the intertidal mud flat of Sundarbans Biosphere Reserves of West Bengal, India. S. serrata is considered as one of the large groups of crab in Sundarbans mangrove swamp. Crabs occupy diverse habitats and their strategy of survival is correlated to multidimensional immune responses and crabs including S. serrata inhabiting in biounsafe environment are under constant threat of physiological stress caused by diverse xenobiotics including arsenic. A series of polyclonal antisera were raised in rabbit against crab hemocytes and murine lymphocytes. For agglutination response control hemocytes and hemocyte expressed to 1 ppm expressed almost similar reactivity against antihemocyte sera. However exposure to 2 and 3 ppm of sodium arsenite resulted a shift from the control data is indicative of arsenic induced alteration of hemocyte surface. Gradual increase of concentration of sodium arsenite in the medium of the treatment sets resulted a progressive shift of agglutination response from the control sets of hemocytes reacted with murine antilymphocyte sera.Maximum equivalence zone of agglutination of murine lymphocytes and hemocytes indicated a possible sharing of epitopes between two phylogenetically distinct species. Shift in agglutination reaction under exposure of sodium arsenite expressed a possible modulation in antisera mediated hemocyte agglutination reaction of S.serrata. Situation may lead to a possible alteration of immune status. Chronic arsenic exposure is indicative to steady decline of S. serrata in natural habitat of Sundarbans.

Key words: Scylla serrata, Antisera, Agglutination, Sodium arsenite



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(1) 7-10 (2009)


Study on present status of vulture (Gyps spp.) fauna in some regions of Bundelkhand, India


Sonika Kushwaha* and Amita Kanaujia

Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow - 226 007, India




(Received: September 10, 2008; Revised received: January 08, 2009; Accepted: January 11, 2009)


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Abstract:The status of vultures in and around Indian sub-continent has suddenly come into the spotlight. The vultures are considered nature’s most efficient scavengers (the quickest, cheapest, easiest), are on the verge of extinction. There are nine species of vultures found in India: king vulture (Sarcogyps calvus), cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus), griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus), Himalayan griffon vulture (Gyps himalayensis), long-billed vulture (Gyps indicus), slender-billed vulture (Gyps tenuirostris), white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis), egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), and bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus). Vulture declines were first documented at Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan. Subsequently, the crash in populations was documented across the country. The study shows that the vulture population is declining due to habitat lost as well as disturbance in their food chain due to human interferences (cutting of trees and using the feeding sites for construction work). The study strongly recommends reviewing the legal status in provincial wildlife legislation in order to provide appropriate protection to these declining species. There needs to be develop a protected area for the effective conservation of valture species.

Key words: Gyps vulture, Bundelkhand region, Diclofenac, Visceral gout, Scavengers. 



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(1) 11-12 (2009)


Antibiotic nature of an alkaloid and flavonoids from Solanum dulcamara L.


Padma Kumar* and Seema Bhadauria

Laboratory of Tissue Culture and Secondary Metabolites, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302 004, India



(Received: September 01, 2008; Revised received: January 21, 2009; Accepted: January 28, 2009)


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Abstract: The alkaloid b-solamarine (mp 2500 C) from Solanum dulcamara Linn have shown pronounced activity against selected fungi (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Candida albicans) and crude flavonoids have shown activity against bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogens, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus). Free flavonoids were found active against P. mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus but no activity was observed against E. coli and E. aerogens. However bound flavonoids were found active against all the four bacteria tested. Maximum amount of alkaloid was isolated from roots (0.032 mg g-1 dry wt), followed by stem (0.027 mg g-1 dry wt), leaves (0.022 mg g -1 dry wt), flowers (0.005 mg g -1 dry wt) and berries (0.001mg g-1 dry wt).


Key words: Solanum dulcamara, Flavonoid, Antimicrobial activity, b-solamarine


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(1) 13-16 (2009)


Effect of airborne fly ash deposition on morphology and biochemical parameters of Medicago sativa L. and Brassica juncea


S. Chakraborty1*, R. Solanki1, J. Dave1, S. Rana1, R.N. Kumar1 and

 T. Bhattacharya2

1Department of Biological and Environmental Science, N.V. Patel College of Pure and Applied Sciences, V.V. Nagar – 388 120, India

2Department of Environmental Science and Technology,

Institute of Science and Technology for Advanced Studies and Research,

 V. V. Nagar – 388 120, India



(Received: October 18, 2008; Revised received: February 11, 2009; Accepted: February 15, 2009)


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Abstract: In the present study the impact of air-borne fly ash deposition was assessed in two major crops, Medicago sativa and Brassica juncea grown in the eastern parts of Gujarat. Significant effects in the morphological and biochemical parameters were observed between the affected and the unaffected plants. Shoot length decreased from 120to 75cm in Medicago sativa L, and from 144 to 86 cm in Brassica juncea. Number of branches had a 50% decline along with noticeable decreased growth in length and breadth of lamina. Protein concentration in M. sativa increased from 130 to 662 mg g-1. Carbohydrate concentration was fairly stable. Chlorophyll concentration suffered moderately. However Ascorbate concentration increased from 34.19 to 46.42 mg g-1 in M. sativa and from 42.57 to 72.73 mg g-1 in B.juncea.

Key words: Medicago sativa L. and Brassica juncea, flyash, morphological and biochemical observations


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(1) 17-20 (2009)


Urbanization and land use pattern in Mathura district:

A case study


Anil Kumar Misra1, Ajai Mishra1*, Sanjay Shukla2, Saurabh Gupta1 and Shalini Verma1

1Department of Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India

2Department of Geology, B.S.N.V.P.G. College, Lucknow-226001, India



(Received: September18, 2008; Revised received: December 25, 2008 ; Accepted: January 15, 2009)


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Abstract: Mathura is one of the oldest and world famous cities of India. Now a days this city is facing the problems related to urbanization. The emigration from rural to urban areas and urban population growth have augmented the fast spreading urbanization in comparison to their available resources to meet out the demand of its accelerated population growth. The district has an area of 3,329.40km2 and its population was 20.70 lakhs in 2001. The average density of the district was 621 persons km-2. In 2001 the sex ratio was 841 females per 1000 males. In the same period, the literacy rate was 61.46 %(approximately 76 % male and 43 % female). The landuse pattern of the district shows a striking change. The forest land, barren land, agriculture land and pasture land area were decreased rapidly day by day due to urbanization.

Key words:Urbanization, Landuse pattern,Demographic profile, Physiography


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(1) 21-24 (2009)


Categorization of groundwater quality in Patancheru mandal of Medak district, Andhra Pradesh, India


P. Madhusudhana Reddy*

 Departmentof Geology, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University,

Hyderabad-500 033, India



(Received: October 23, 2008; Revised received: February 05, 2009; Accepted: February 10, 2009)


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Abstract: Hydrogeochemical investigations, which are significant for the categorization of groundwater quality, have been carriedout in the groundwaters of Patancheru Mandal area of Medak district, Andhra Pradesh, India. 25 groundwater samples were collected from different villages and analyzed to estimate some of the chemical parameters, such as pH, specific electric conductance, total dissolved solids, Cl, SO4, F and dissolved oxygen. The salinity levels in more than 40% of samples were showing low quality and hence were not suitable for drinking. The chloride and sulphate concentrations in some samples were in medium quality. Even the dissolved oxygen levels in almost all the samples were showing medium quality. It was observed that in the villages where samples were collected the groundwaters were contaminated with one element or other. Granite rocks cover majority of the study area with dolerite dykes and deccan traps in few areas. But the fluoride levels were under suitable condition for drinking. The lithology was not showing similarity with hydrochemistry. However it was noted that the quality was found deteriorated mainly with the industrial activity in the study area.

Key words: Categorization, Groundwater, Geochemistry, Industrial activity


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(1) 25-30 (2009)


Heavy metals assessment of wetlands around

Peenya industrial area, Bangalore, India


Aboud S. Jumbe* and N. Nandini

Department of Environmental Science, Bangalore University,

Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore-560 056, India



(Received: October 29, 2008; Revised received: February 18, 2009; Accepted: February 22, 2009)


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Abstract: The wetland ecosystem in the Peenya industrial area forms part of the Madhavara lake serieslocated within the Vrishabavarthy basin in the outlying western zone of the city. In this study, an attempt was made to carry out baseline in-situ analysis of wetlands located within the largest industrial district in Bangalore known as the Peenya industrial area. Assessment of heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were done in the selected area.In Karihobanahalli lake, the average trend in heavy metals concentrations in the Pre- monsoon 2006 period followed the pattern: Pb > Fe > Co > Cr > Mn > Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni while in Shivapura-Nalakadarenahalli lake it was in the following pattern: Co > Fe > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn > Mn > Cd > Cu. The Post-monsoon period 2006 had different order of concentrations in Karihobanahalli lake as follows: Cr > Co > Pb > Fe > Ni >Mn > Cu > Zn > Cd while in Shivapura-Nalakadarenahalli lake the pattern followed the following order: Fe > Pb > Co > Ni > Cr > Mn > Cu > Zn > Cd. In the Pre-monsoon period of 2007, the trend was in the following order for Karihobanahalli lake: Co > Fe > Ni > Cd > Mn > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cu while in Shivapura-Nalakadarenahalli lake the trend changed towards Pb >Fe > Co > Cd > Ni > Cr > Mn > Cu > Zn. It is concluded thatcadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) andlead (Pb) for both the wetland systems are above tolerance limits. Cobalt was also extremely above the tolerance limits. The Pb levels have even breached the general standards for discharge of environmental pollutants in inland surface waters (0.1 mg L-1). Chromium discharge in Karihobanahalli lake is also above the permissible limits for discharge of environmental pollutants (2.0 mg L-1)

Key words: Heavy metals, Lakes, Microwave digestion, Atomic absorption spectrophotometer



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(1) 31-32 (2009)


Biochemical changes in serum protein profile in albino rats after alcoholic fruit extract of Momordica cochinchinensis


Anant P. Vajpeyi*, P.K. Singh, Anil K. Gupta , Manish Kumar, Manish K. Sharma, Seema Kumari and Seema Choudhary

Department of Zoology, School of life Sciences, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Khandari Campus, Agra - 282 002, India



(Received: October 10, 2008; Revised received: February 14, 2009 ; Accepted: February 16, 2009)


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Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of alcoholic fruit extract of Momordica cochinchinensis on serum protein profile of albino rat. Alcoholic fruit extract of Momordica cochinchinensis (200 mg kg-1body weight) has been given orally to albino rats for the period of 7,15,30,45 and 60 days respectively.Results showed a significant (p<0.01) increase in serum total protein, albumin and total globulins and non-significant increase in A/G ratio in rats. Increase in serum protein after the administration of alcoholic extract of Momordica cochinchinensis in albino rates was due to increase in number of m-RNA molecule and their attachment to the ribosome’s and thus increase protein anabolism.

Key words: Momordica cochinchinensis, Serum protein profile


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(1) 33-36 (2009)


Influence of gamma radiations on levels of kaempferol in cultures of Pisum sativum

Padma Kumar*

Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan Jaipur - 302 004, India



(Received: September 10, 2008; Revised received: February 15, 2009 ; Accepted: February 18, 2009)


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Abstract: Genetically pure seeds of Pisum sativum variety pusa harbhajan were inoculated under aseptic conditions on revised murashige and Skoog’s medium supplemented with 1 ppm of 2,4-D and 1% agar. Four weeks old cultures were exposed to gamma radiations for three hr in replicates of five. Dose of radiations selected for treatment were 2000, 2400, 2800 and 3200 R. Cultures of different dose were harvested after four weeks, dried and subjected to extraction for flavonoids by well established method. Kaempferol was identified through TLC, PTLC MP and IR spectral studies whereas quantitative estimation was carried out using spectrophotometric method. Maximum amount (0.10 mg g-1) was observed in the sample treated by 2800 R, followed by sample treated by 2400 R, 3200 R (0.05 mg g-1) and 2000 R (0.03 mg g-1). However remarkable increase in kaempferol content was observed when compared with control (0.008 mg g-1) in all doses of gamma radiations.

Key words: Flavonoid, Gamma radiation, Pisum sativum ,Tissue culture


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(1) 37-40 (2009)


Effect of media on growth, sporulation, and production of perithecia of blast pathogen Pyricularia grisea


R.K. Srivastava1, R.P.Bhatt2, B.B.Bandyopadhyay3 and J.Kumar1*

1Department of Plant Pathology, G.B.P.U.A and T.,

Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, 263145, India

2Department of Botany H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, 246174, India

3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, G.B.P.U.Aand T Hill Campus Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal, 249199, India



(Received: August 17, 2008; Revised received: February 10, 2009 ; Accepted: February 15, 2009)


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Abstract: The growth characteristics of Pyricularia grisea (Cook) sacc (teleomorph , Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr, the blast pathogen of more than 50graminicious hosts, including rice and small millets,can be easily studied on artificial medium. For this, oat meal agar medium is widely used for in vitro culture as well as sporulation of P. grisea, which however is quite expensive. Therefore, a study was designed to develop and evaluate cultural characteristics of P. grisea isolates obtained from Eleusine coracana (finger millet) on media derived from rice and finger millets, viz. rice leaf agar, ragi leaf agar, and ragi flour agar. Growth characteristics such as vegetative growth, sporulation and production of perfect stage were recorded and compared with those obtained on oat meal agar. Results revealed that ragi flour media recorded better growth and sporulation of P.grisea at 28oC and pH 7.5 than other three media. Abundant perithecia were produced on ragi flour media at 20-220C when compared to other media. The study revealed that ragi flour media was the cheapest and effective medium, and a good replacement of the expensive oatmeal agar medium for the growth, sporulation and production of perithecia of P.grisea under artificial conditions.

Key words: Pyricularia grisea, Magnaporthe grisea, Media, Growth, Sporulation


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(1) 41-48 (2009)


Amelioration of tannery effluent toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus) based on nutrient application


Kamlesh Nath*, Dharam Singh, Aditya Verma and Y.K. Sharma

Laboratory of Environmental Sciences, Department of Botany,

University of Lucknow, Lucknow -226 007, India



(Received: September 28, 2008 ; Revised received: January 18, 2009 ; Accepted: January 24, 2009)


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Abstract: In the pot culture experiment different dilutions of treated tannery effluent (T.E.) i.e. 10, 25, 50, 100 % were selected to study the toxic effect on radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plant. For the recovery of plant damage, protective value of 10 and 25 ppm of certain macro (potassium) and micro nutrient (Iron and zinc) were also used in the form of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4), potassium sulphate (K2SO4) and iron sulphate (FeSO4) and added in 50% T.E. in separate pots. Finally the experiment was setup with the various treatments i.e.Control (distilled water), 10% T.E., 25% T.E., 50% T.E., 100% T.E., 50% T.E.+10 ppm ZnSO4, 50% T.E.+25 ppm ZnSO4, 50% T.E.+10 ppm K2SO4, 50% T.E.+25 ppm K2SO4, 50% T.E.+10 ppm FeSO4 and 50% T.E.+25 ppm FeSO4. The various growth parameters, pigments, enzymes’ activity, total protein, total sugar and metals’ accumulation were analyzed in each treatment at the end of 90th day while pigments, enzymes’ activity, total protein and total sugar contents were also observed at 45th day. The different concentrations of T.E. showed significant increase in leaf area, fresh and dry weights at lower concentration (< 25%) while they decreased at 50% concentration of T.E. The pigments (chlorophyll, pheophytin and carotenoids) were decreased with increase in concentration of T.E. The lower doses of T.E. (10% at 45 days) slightly increased chlorophyll b, pheophytin a and total carotenoid pigments content. The total sugar and protein contents were also significantly decreased while catalase and peroxidase activity showed significant increase with rise in concentrations of T.E. The concentration of chromium was increased with increase in T.E.t concentration in plant leaf and root, while the other elements i.e. Zn, K, Fe were decreased with increase in T.E. concentration in both parts. The zinc, potassium and iron sulphate treatments led to recover the damage caused by all parameters. The concentration of chromium was also found to be decreased in recovery treatments in comparision to50% T.E. treatment. Overall, in recovery treatments Zinc showed highest and significant recovery in most of theparameters. Iron also showed almost similar effects to the zinc while potassium showed minimum recovery.

Key words: Tannery effluent, chromium (VI), pigments, amylase, catalase, peroxidase, sugar, protein, metal accumulation, Raphanus sativus L.



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(1) 49-51 (2009)


Varietal resistance programme of the diseases for improving productivity and recovery of sugarcane in Uttrakhand


S. Singh*, P. K. Singh, S. Kashyap and Munna Lal

Sugarcane Research Station (G. B. Pant, University of Agriculture and Technology, Pant Nagar) Kashipur, U.S. Nagar- 244713, India



(Received: September 30, 2008 ; Revised received: February 10, 2009 ; Accepted: February 15, 2009)


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Abstract: This paper deals with increasing sugarcane productivity through varietal resistance programme of the diseases for improving the yield and recovery of sugarcane in Uttrakhand. Sugarcane being a tropical plants but it can grown commercially since long time in sub-tropical from immemorial having good growth and per unit areas of cane production through development activities including promising healthy resistant varieties of seed nurseries along with recommended doze of fertilizers, plant protection measures against pest and diseases. The suitable varietal combination of environmental conditions to improve the scope for varietal selection possesses a fairly yielding capacity, good sugar content and adequate disease resistance including the red-rot isolates according to their regional adaptability having continuous flow of rigorous testing in the field conditions. Of these practices, the verietal resistance should be followed through the whole programme for the nine suitable vars. Co.S.8436, 96268, 98247, 767, 8432, 97264, Co.Se.96436, U.P.0097 and Co. Pant 99214 to improve theproductivity and recovery of sugarcane in Uttrakhand.

Key words: Sugarcane, Varietalresistance, Diseases, Red-rot