RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-2, Number-2, May-2009

 

13.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 53-60 (2009)

 

Role of antioxidants in oxidativestress management

Anamika Nag*

Department of Nutrition, Isabella Thoburn College, Lucknow-226 007, India

*e- mail: nag.anamika@yahoo.com

(Received: December 24, 2008; Revised received: March 22, 2009; Accepted: May 05, 2009)

 

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Abstract: The present review literature is compiled with an aim to be acquainted with the science of free-radical generation and neutralization. Research implicates free radicals in development of a number of degenerative diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease, immune dysfunction, cataracts and muscular degener ation. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals, which start chain reactions that damage cells. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves. Antioxidants act as “free radical scavengers” and hence prevent and repair damage done by these free radicals. Antioxidants comprise many components like vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and polyphenols. The most well-known antioxidants are vitamins A, C and E, b carotene, and selenium. This review paper includes specific details of the antioxidative process and various antioxidants.

 

Key words: Oxidative stress, Antioxident, Vitamins, Free radicals

 

14.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 61-66 (2009)

 

Natural immunomodulators as an anti-HIV agent

Pallavi Gupta1, Amita Kanaujia1* and Kamal Jaiswal2

1Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, India

2Department of Applied Animal Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow- 226 025, India

*e- mail: kanaujia.amita@gmail.com

(Received: December 12, 2008; Revised received: April 10, 2009; Accepted: April 25, 2009)

 

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Abstract: AIDS (Acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome), caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an immunosuppressive disease which results in life-threatening opportunistic infections (infections that occur only in people having weakened immune system). In AIDS patients opportunistic infections weaken the already challenged immune system. India is an ancient country with rich bioheritage. This country is known for its flora and fauna worldwide. Indian flora includes multifarious herbs with medicinal value. Biodiversity of the plant kingdom has always provided a source of new drug candidates for almost all disease area. Ayurveda, one of the first and finest holistic healthcare system in the world comes from India. Ayurveda has become an indispensable branch of medicine due to its naturalistic approach. Ayurveda has galaxy of medicines with special properties through which one can attain best quality of ojas (immunity). Medicinal plants have been developed as a strong and potent immunomodulator acting on both the limbs of the immune system, specific and non-specific and also have special properties like purifying the body channels and augmenting the metabolism. Part of the benefit of the medicinal herbs appears due to their ability to naturally increase the body’s production of messenger molecules, such as cytokines, which mediate and regulate the immune system. These herbal drugs may therefore have diverse action on various aspects of the immune system and improve the quality of tissues, organs and ultimately the immune system. Modulation of herbal drugs offers a novel approaches in the treatment of a variety of diseases. Natural immunomodulators are less potent prescription immunomodulators and also less likely cause side effects. The strategies and technologies used in immunomodulation should be analyzed and the major clinical applications of immunomodulators must be reviewed to identify the leading drug classes and most promising agents currently in development.

Key words: AIDS, HIV, Ayurveda, Immunomodulator, Immunity, Virus, Syndrome, Anti-HIV agent, Cytokines

 

15.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 67-76 (2009)

 

GIS techniques for evaluating the carrying capacity of the Gomati river basin - A case study of Lucknow urban center

 

Shalini Verma*, Ajai Mishra, Saurabh Gupta and Neeraj Kumar Agarwal

Department of Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India

*e- mail: senviro@gmail.com

(Received: November 25, 2008; Revised received: March 28, 2009; Accepted: April 8, 2009)

 

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Abstract: Geomatic tools have been used as an aid to study the carrying capacity of the Gomati river basin (GRB). The GRB is rich in natural resources, large urbanization, and economic activity. The land use pattern of LUC shows that an area in 1970-1987 was covered 9170.96 while in 2004-05 it was 16270 ha, indicating a 77.4% increase in the total area, while residential use has grown dramatically in comparison to all other uses, although there has also been notable growth in commercial, industrial and public service land use. The rapid increase in population requires more drinking water and transport network. There were 904831 registered vehicles in the year 2007, and 968915 in 2008, which represents annual growth of 7.08 % in the number of registered vehicles. The amount of solid municipal waste, sewage water, air pollutants and noise level has been increased rapidly and reduce the quality of soil, water and air as well as human life. In order to facilitate future planning for the Lucknow urban center therefore, the carrying capacity of GRB is studied with reference of Lucknow urban center resources, i.e. land, water, air, noise and socioeconomic living standards. For this study, digital geographic database of Lucknow urban center is created and analyzed by GIS techniques to examine the carrying capacity of GRB.

Key words: Carrying capacity, Gomati river basin, Natural resources, GIS techniques

 

16.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 77-82 (2009)

 

Assessment of phytoplankton population in a pond water

S. Radhakrishnan1, P. Saravana Bhavan1*, P. Vijayan2, S. Kannan1 and S. Karpagam3

1Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 641046, India

2Annamalai University Study Centre, Salem - 636001, India

3Department of Educational Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 641046, India

*e- mail: bhavanps@yahoo.co.in

(Received: February 18, 2009; Revised received: May 05, 2009; Accepted: May 10, 2009)

 

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Abstract: The phytoplankton population in relation to physicochemical parameters of Muthannankulam pond, at Coimbatore was studied for a period of six months (November, 2007-April, 2008) during winter and summer season in order to understand its suitability for inland aquaculture of fishes. The physico-chemical parameters of the pond water were as given below. Temperature was measured between 26-31oC. The pH was in the range of 6.8-7.6. The salinity falls between 0.2-0.7 ppt. The electrical conductivity was ranged between 381-565 mics cm-1. The total dissolved solid was recorded between 266-396 mg L-1. The level of dissolved oxygen was in the range of 5.5-7.7 mg L-1. The total alkalinity was observed between 129–220 mg L-1. The total hardness was measured between 147–187 mg L-1with calcium and magnesium levels of 10–48 mg L-1 and 7–37 mg L-1 respectively. The level of iron was between 0.7-2.5 mg L-1. The level of chloride was observed between 25.00-36.00 mg L-1. The levels of nitrite and nitrate were recorded between 0.15-0.22 mg L-1and 8-10 mg L-1 respectively. The content of free ammonia was found to be present in the range of 0.14–1.35 mg L-1. The concentration of fluoride was noted between 0.2-0.4 mg L-1. The levels of sulphate and phosphate were recoded between 11-26 mg L-1 and 0.03-0.06 mg L-1. All these parameters were fall with in desirable/ permissible limits. The total density of phytoplankton was observed between 1756-7337 with an overall mean average of 4292. The phytoplankton population was positively correlated with physico-chemical parameter, such as temperature, salinity, free ammonia, sulphate and phosphate, while it was negatively correlated with other parameters. In the present study, four families of phytoplankton, such as Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Myxophyceae and Euglenineae were observed. Among these Chlorophyceae remains dominant throughout the study period followed by Bacillariophyceae, Myxophyceae and Euglenineae. The Bacillariophyceae and Chlorophyceae populations suggest good productivity of the pond. Thus, the pond may be suitable for inland aquaculture of fishes if it is managed properly.

Key words: Phytoplankton, Physico-chemical parameters, Pond water

 

17.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 83-90 (2009)

 

Improved submerged fermentation of corn cob with mechanically broken oil seed cakes and decolorisation of textile dyes by enzyme extract of Pleurotus florida PF05

Ram Naraian1*, Naveen K. Arora1 and S.K. Garg2

1Department of Microbiology, Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chatrapati Sahu Ji Mahraj University, Kanpur-208 024, India

2Department of Microbiology, Dr. Ram Manohar Lahia Awadh University, Faizabad-224 001, India

*e- mail: ramnarain_itrc@rediffmail.com

(Received: November 22, 2008; Revised received: April 18, 2009; Accepted: May 02, 2009)

 

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Abstract:Five mechanically broken oil seed cakes viz., cotton seed cake (CSC), soybean seed cake(SSC) mustard cake (MC), neem seed cake (NC) and ground nut cake (GNC) were tested as nutrient additives. The consequence of these cakes supplemented with corn cob as basal substrate were evaluated to conclude the growth rate, biomass yield, laccase and peroxidase production by Pleurotus florida PF05 during submerged fermentation up to 10 days. Five diverse concentrations of cakes checked in four replicates were 0.2, 0.6, 1.0, 3.0 and 4.0% (v/v). Utmost growth rate, biomass yield, laccase and peroxidase production were at lower concentrations of seed cakes. Mustard cake as the best cake enhanced the growth rate, biomass yield and enzyme activities, while, cotton seed cake was the next best cake. The NC was found to least effective. The activities of the both enzymes were moderately higher on 10th day in contrast to 7th day. The lessening order of laccase production was as: MC (435.2 UL-1), CSC (393.8 UL-1), SSC (387.6 UL-1), GNC (261.6 UL-1) and NC (176.3 UL-1) while, for the peroxidase production it was as MC (74.12 UL-1), SSC (67.44 UL-1), CSC (63.45 UL-1), GNC (38.51 UL-1) and NC (11.54 UL-1). Finally the culture extracts having higher enzyme units were tested for decolorisation of two textile dyes basic rhodamine and acid scarlet-3R, showed significant competence. Increasing the concentration of extract, decolorisation was amplified dynamically. The highest87 and 93% decolorisation was recorded in 10% extract treatment to respective dye solutions.

Key word: Submerged fermentation, Pleurotus spp., Oil seed cake, Enzyme extract, Textile dye

 

18.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 91-94 (2009)

 

Growth and biochemical responses of tomato irrigated with industrial effluent

Shadma Naaz and S.N. Pandey*

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow - 226 007, India

*e- mail: snpandey511@gmail.com

(Received: December 16, 2008; Revised received: April 18, 2009; Accepted: April 25, 2009)

 

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Abstract: Industrial effluent collected from outlet of industries, discharged after treatment. The analytical results of effluent showed high values of total solids, hardness with a slightly alkaline pH, contained high concentration of chromium (1.03 mg L-1) and nickel (0.89 mg L-1). The concentration of Zn (0.46 mg L-1) and copper (0.21 mg L-1) in industrial effluent was below the standard limits. The diluted (25 and 50%), undiluted (100%) effluent were used to irrigate the 30 days old tomato plants grown in Gomti upland alluvial soil to study their effects on growth and biochemical responses of Lycopersicon esculentum var. crystal. Dry matter yield and biomolecules (total chlorophyll, protein and sugar contents) was found to be increased with increase in concentrations of the effluent upto 50%, which declined at the exposure of undiluted waste water (100%). Visible symptoms of toxicity appeared on plants exposed with industrial effluents such as stunted growth, chlorosis in young leaves turned necrotic at severity, and showed reduced leaves size and their irregular shape. The usage of industrial effluent was not found suitable for irrigational purposes needs proper treatment before use.

Key words: Biomolecules, Sugar, Lycopersicon, Industrial effluent

 

19.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 95-98 (2009)

 

Biochemical alteration in glucose content in blood of Anabas testudineus (bloch) due to the effect of pesticides

 

Mamta Sinha1 and Renuka Sharan2

1Department of Zoology, G.B.M. College, Gaya - 823 001, India

2Department of Zoology, College of Commerce, Patna, India

*e- mail: mamtasinha1967@gmail.com

(Received: December 10, 2008; Revised received: April 08, 2009; Accepted: May 02, 2009)

 

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Abstract: In the present work an attempt has been made to study the alteration in the plasma glucose level in a fresh water air breathing fish, Anabus testudineus (Bloch) exposed to three pesticides namely metacid, malathion and lindane under 24, 48 and 72 hr of exposure periods. The treatment of above mentioned pesticides cause a significant fall in the plasma glucose level on exposure to longer duration of lindane and malathion. While in the case of metacid treated fishes an exposure to longer duration depletion in the plasma glucose was insignificant. The blood glucose level in the control fishes range between 94.80 to 98.70 mg 100 mL-1. In the case of exposure to lindane for 24, 48 and 72 hr to LC50 dose of pesticide, the level of blood glucose recorded was 72.47 mg 100 mL-1 (24% fall), 70.47 mg 100 mL-1 (26% fall) and 66.67 mg 100 mL-1 (30% fall) less than the control value. In the case of malathion for 24, 48 and 72 hr to the LC50 dose of pesticide, the level of blood glucose recorded was 84.93 mg 100 mL-1 (14% fall), 89.43 mg 100 mL-1 (9% fall) and 76.8 mg 100 mL-1 (22% fall) from the control value. While in the case of metacid for 24, 48 and 72 hr to LC50 dose of pesticide the level of blood glucose recorded was 90.17 mg 100 mL-1 (8% fall), 95.7 mg 100 mL-1 (2% fall) and 97.23 mg 100 mL-1 (1% fall) from the control value. The required quantity of metacid to constitute LC50 dose for 24, 48 and 72 hr of exposure was19.28, 13.18 and 9.2 mgL-1 respectively. While those of malathion and lindane was 16.22, 9.88 and 8.91, 12.16,8.92 and 7.24 mgL-1 respectively. The safe concentration of metacid was 8.56 mgL-1 while the quantity of malathion for safe concentration was 7.97 mgL-1 and the quantity of lindane for safe concentration was 5.02 mgL-1

Key words: Anabus testudineus, Metacid, Malathion, Lindane and pesticide

 

20.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 99-102 (2009)

 

Status of phytoplankton in chaurs of Begusarai north Bihar

Swapna Choudhary*, Uttam Kumar and Utpal Kumar

S.K. Mahila College, Begusarai - 851 101, India

*e- mail: schoudhary2007@yahoo.co.in

(Received: January 05, 2009; Revised received: April 28, 2009; Accepted: May 04, 2009)

 

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Abstract: The phytoplankton population of the Kaual chaur (Teloria) plays a significant role in determining the pattern of fluctuation and yield of total plankton. Members of Chlorophyceae (Green algae) were presented throughout the study period from 2006 to 2008. The maximum density 420and 390 µL-1 were recorded in winter in both the years, respectively. Minimum growth 205and 190 µL-1 were recorded during monsoon in 2006 to 2008 respectively. Spirogyra, oedogonim, closterium, chlorella and cosmerium were the dominant genera. The maximum number of Cyanophyceae (Myxophyceae) was in summer in both the years (125 and 120 µL-1 respectively) and minimum number was in winter with 95 and 92 µL-1 respectively for 2006-07 and 2007-08. The dominant species were Anabaena sp., Microcystis sp. and Oscillatoria sp. While Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms) were found maximum 65 and 63 µL-1 in summer and minimum during winters in both the years 42 and 40 µL-1 in 2006-07 and 2007-08 respectively. The most dominant species were Fragilaria sp. and Navicula sp.

Key words: Phytoplankton, Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Bacillariophyceae

 

21.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 103-104 (2009)

 

Waterloss as a respiratory parameter for effect of juvenile hormone subsequently fumigated larvae of Corcyra cephalonica (st.)

 

Sandhya Jadhav*

Department of Zoology, New Arts Commerce and Science College, Ahmednagar - 414001, India

*e- mail: dr_sandhyajadhav@rediffmail.com

(Received: December 16, 2008; Revised received: April 22, 2009; Accepted: May 1, 2009)

 

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Abstract: In the present study, the effects of juvenile hormones (JH) with subsequent fumigation on water loss were measured in different larval stages.The total water loss and rate of water loss in carbon tetrachloride fumigated larvae was more than that of normal larvae. In JH treated larvae rate of water loss was less than normal andthe fumigated insects. The larvae fumigated after JH treatment showed some increase as compared to only JH treated larvae. But the loss was always less than that of the normal and fumigated insects. Sixth instar larvae is an exception where total water loss and rate of water loss were increased with JHs and they further increased in larvae, treated with hormones and fumigant. Water loss in above treatment was even more than in the fumigated larvae. JH treated fumigated larvae showed more water loss than only JH treated larvae but it was less than the normal and fumigated insects.

Key words: Water loss, Juvenile hormones, Fumigation, Corcyra cephalonica

22.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 105-110 (2009)

 

Population of zooplankton in relation to physico-chemical parameters of a seasonal pond

R. Poongodi1, P. Saravana Bhavan1*, P. Vijayan2, S. Kannan and S. Karpagam3

1Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 641046, INDIA

2Annamalai University Study Centre, Salem-636001, INDIA

3Department of Educational Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore -641046, India

*e- mail: bhavanps@yahoo.co.in

(Received: February 4, 2009; Revised received: May 2, 2009; Accepted: May 6, 2009)

 

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Abstract: The zooplankton population in relation to physico-chemical parameters of Vedappatti pond, at Coimbatore was studied in order to understand its suitability for utilizing inland aquaculture. The following ranges of water quality parameters were recorded: Temperature, 26.6-33oC; total dissolved solids, 268-395 mg L-1,pH, 7.0-7.8: salinity, 0.06-0.84 ppt; total alkalinity, 126-246 mg L-1,total hardness, 122-190 mg L-1, dissolved oxygen, 3.2-7.7 mg L-1, calcium, 12-52 mg L-1, magnesium, 13-28 mg L-1,iron, 0.84-2.95 mg L-1, free ammonia, 0.16-0.38 mg L-1, nitrite, 0.09-0.12 mg L-1, nitrate, 5-13 mg L-1, chloride, 27-39 mg L-1, fluoride, 0.4-1.00 mg L-1, sulphate, 11-21 mg L-1and phosphate, 0.02-0.04 mg L-1.In the present study, 18 species of zooplankton belong to four major type cladocera, rotifera, copepoda and protozoa were recorded. Among these cladocerans were found dominant followed by rotifers copepods, and protozoan members. Zooplankton population was found in increasing trend during winter months, whereas, the reverse trend was seen during summer months. A maximum of 5211 nos. L -1 zooplankton was observed during winter month and a minimum of 1453 nos. L-1 was during summer month with an overall mean average of 3709 nos. L-1 . The result indicates the fact that water quality was favouring zooplankton growth during winter months. Therefore, it could be utilized for inland aquaculture practices.

Key words: Pond, Zooplankton, Water quality

 

23.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 111-114 (2009)

 

Assessment of portable ground water quality in Chinhat, Lucknow, India

Neeraj Kumar Agarwal*, Ajai Mishra, Saurabh Guptaand Shalini Verma

Department of Geology, University of Lucknow - 226 007, India

*e- mail: neeraj15d@rediffmail.com

(Received: November 15, 2008; Revised received: April 18, 2009; Accepted: April 28, 2009)

 

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Abstract: Exploitation of ground water resources were reported due to the increasing the demand for water in domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors. The quality of ground water is commonly affected by waste disposal and land use pattern. It can also become contaminated by the disposal of fluids through wells and other terrains through sinkholes directly into aquifers. The quality of groundwater is deteriorating at a faster pace due to pollution ranging from septic tanks, land fill leachates, domestic sewage, agricultural runoff/ agricultural fields and industrial wastes. Attempts have been made to understand the impact of industries on ground water quality of Chinhat area, Lucknow. Ten sampling sites were selected and pre-monsoon samples of water were collected and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters. The results revealed that only two parameters fluoride and nitrite are present in higher concentration than permissible limit. The pH value of the water samples ranged from 7.5 - 8.6. In some places the water was found slightly alkaline. The ground water samples were free from colour and odour. The concentration of chloride ion varies from 21.30 - 71.60 ppm, while fluoride concentration varies from 0.81 - 1.6 ppm. The alkalinity value varies from 366 - 561 ppm. The total hardness varies from 25 -125 ppm. The nitrate values range from 21 - 62 ppm, At all the sampling sites chromate and Ferrous content is absent.

Key words: Ground water, Nitrogen, Fluoride, Total hardness, Alkalinity

 

24

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 115-118 (2009)

 

Responses of antioxidative defense system to water

stress in two black gram genotypes

B. Gupta1, G.C. Pathak1, D.K. Pandey2 and N. Pandey1*

1Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow - 226 007, India

2Department of Life Sciences, Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow - 226 010, India

*e- mail: nalini_pandey@rediffmail.com

(Received: December 11, 2008; Accepted: April 22, 2009)

 

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Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxidative stress and plant antioxidant system of two black gram varieties (Vigna mungo L.) in response to water stress. Water stress was imposed 20 days after emergence by withholding supply till 8 days. Water stress increased H2O2, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), electrolyte leakage (EC), proline and ascorbic acid (Asc) concentration in leaves of stressed plants, but decreased chlorophyll (Chl), relative water content (RWC) and stomatal opening. Water stress increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR).Var. DPU-88-31 showed lower decline in Chl, RWC, and increase in H2O2, TBARS, EC, proline and ascorbate contents and higher increase in SOD, APX and GR as compared to var. IPU-94-1.

Key words: Vigna mungo L., Electrolyte leakage, Lipid peroxidation, Reactive oxygen species, Water stress

 

25.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 119-124 (2009)

 

Phytotoxic response of nickel on plant growth and metabolism in pea (Pisum sativum) and use of iron as an ameliorant

 

Aditya Verma* and Y.K. Sharma

Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow - 226 007, India

*e- mail:aditya_kobe@yahoo.co.in

(Received: December 26, 2008; Revised received:April 05, 2009; Accepted: April 10, 2009)

 

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Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different concentrations of nickel and their amelioration by applying various iron concentration on pea seedlings (Pisum sativum – var. Arkel). To see the detrimental effects of nickel on pea seedlings 200, 400 and 600 µM concentrations were applied. The concentrations of nickel (200, 400, 600 µM) with iron (200 and 500 µM) showed promotery effects on seedling germination. Germination percentage, fresh and dry weight, plumule and radicle length and lateral roots showed reduction at 200, 400 and 600 µM nickel concentrations. But in combination with 200 and 500 µM iron concentrations these parameters showed positive growth. Chlorophyll and phaeophytin contents were found to be decreased in nickel concentration in comparison to control and recovered in treatments of iron. Total carotenoid level was increased in lower nickel concentrations, but in recovery treatments it remained approximately uniform. The activity of amylase was decreases with increase of nickel application however the activity of catalase and peroxidase increases with increasing nickel concentration. Total protein and sugar content were decreases with increasing concentration of Ni. Overall the recovery treatment of iron showed significant recovery in most of the parameters.

Key words: Phytotoxic, Promotery, Nickel, Iron, Chlorophyll, Phaeophytin, Carotenoid

 

26.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 125-130 (2009)

 

Impact of urbanization on drinking water quality in Lucknow and its management

Shashank Shekhar Mishra*, Ajai Mishra and Reetanjali Singh

Centre of Advanced Study in Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow - 226 007, India

*e- mail: enviroshashank@rediffmail.com

(Received: December 05, 2008; Revised received:April 11, 2009; Accepted: April 26, 2009)

 

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Abstract: Present study emphasizes the impact of urbanization on drinking water quality supplied by municipal corporation and its possible management. Sampling was performed at 20 different locations of municipal water supply in 2005 and 2009 to cover the entire city including areas connected with the filtration plants and other areas where direct or indirect ground water supply is practiced. These samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical, heavy metal and bacteriological properties. The data of year 2000, 2005 and 2009 were compared to know the change in water quality due to rapid increase in population. The various parameters i.e. pH, conductivity, chloride, alklinity, total hatdness, calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++), fluoride (F), sulphate (SO4), phosphate (P), nitrate (N), COD, coliform, residual chlorine and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) shows that the water quality is deteriorated day by day due to poor management. In 2009, the level of all physico-chemical parameters and concentration of heavy metals were increased if compared with data of year 2000. However all parameters at maximum places are under the permissible limits if WHO and BIS but If this trend is continued they will cross the permissible limits very soon. The concentration of chloride, fluoride, chromium and iron were found higher than permissible limits or they were stand at borderline. The treated water quality at some places is quite satisfactory. However the water received at the users end is severely contaminated and causes potential health risk to the users in many areas. Except this the concentration of chromium and iron were found higher in various places.

Key words: Physico-chemical, Bacteriological properties, Water resource, Heavy metals, Management

 

27.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(2) 131-135 (2009)

 

Growth and metabolic effects of B deficiency in red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Kashmiri) grown in sand culture

 

D.K. Pandey1,2 , B. Gupta1, G.C. Pathak1and N. Pandey1*

1Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, India

2Department of Life Sciences, Amity School of Engineering and Technology, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow - 226 010, India

*e- mail: nalini_pandey@rediffmail.com

(Received: December 11, 2008; Revised received:April 16, 2009; Accepted: April 22, 2009)

 

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Abstract: Response of red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Kashmiri) to boron (B) deficiency (0.0033 and 0.033 mg B L-1) was explored in sand culture under glass house condition. Boron deprivation of plants in sand culture led to growth reduction and development of visual symptoms, most characteristics of which were reduction in leaf size, marginal chlorosis of young leaves and browning of leaf tips and terminal shoots. The young leaves of the B deficient plants showed marked accumulation of phenols, reducing and non-reducing sugars, starch and decreased concentration of ascorbate and chloroplastic pigments chl a, chl b and carotenoids. The deficiency of B increased activities of enzymes- ribonuclease (RNase), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and acid phosphatase (AcPh).

Key words: Boron deficiency, Carbohydrate, Phenols, Ascorbate, Phaseolus vulgaris L.

 

 

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