Volume-2, Number-3, August-2009



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(3) 137-146 (2009)


Conservation status of flying mammal : Bats

Jitendra Kumar and Amita Kanaujia*

Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, India


(Received: December 26, 2008; Revised received: July 10, 2009; Accepted: July 25, 2009)


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Abstract: Bats are the only mammals that are capable of true flight. They belong to order Chiroptera, class of Mammalia.At present, there are approximately 1001 species of bats that are subcategorized as Megachiroptera (1 Family, 167 Frugivorous bat species) and Microchiroptera (16 Families, 834 Insectivorous species). They are found all over the world except the Arctic, the Antarctic and some islands. One of most unique features of bats is their modified forelimbs which support a wing membrane- Patagium (Flight adaptation). Bats play an important role in various ecosystems as they are important pollinators, seed dispersors and the most effective biological control agents of insect pests. Like many other species of wildlife, bats have also been subjected to the pressures of human population growth and development. The population decline for various species of bats have been attributed mainly to loss of habitats and persecution by humans. Approximately 25% of all species (nearly 238 species) are considered threatened by the International Union for Conservation Nature and Natural resource (IUCN), of which 29 bat species are categorized as critically endangered. Literature reveals that bats are no popular mammal and one of the least studied mammalian groups in Indian subcontinent. Besides other conservative measures, it is necessary to tackle the negative attitudes towards bats through a variety of educational activities, items and projects aimed at different strata of our society.


Key words: Chiroptera, Insectivorous, Frugivorous, Patagium, Pollinators, Critically endangered



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(3) 147-152 (2009)


Genotoxic potential of aluminum and fluoride on human peripheral blood lymphocytes

T.N. Patel*, S. Chakraborty, S. Sahoo,G. Mehta, D. Chavda, C. Patel and P. Patel

Department of Bioscience and Environmental Science, N.V. Patel College of Pure and Applied Sciences,

Vallabh Vidya Nagar - 388 120, Gujarat, India


(Received: March 06, 2009; Revised received: June 22, 2009; Accepted: July 05, 2009)


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Abstract: Aluminum (Al), the most abundant metal, is toxic especially in its trivalent form (Al+3), which represents most soluble form at different physiological hydrogen ion concentrations (pH). Endemic fluorosis is a form of chronic fluoride intoxication resulting from ingestion of excessive quantities of fluoride through drinking water. The large quantity of drinking water consumed in hot arid climates is supposed to contribute to a higher daily intake of fluoride resulting in incidence of clinical fluorosis. The aluminum industry has hazardous waste by product of fluorides and this is also certified by Environment Protection Agency. Al is known to increase the intestinal absorption of fluoride at different physiological pH. In the present investigation, the genotoxicity studies of AlCl3 and NaF independently and concurrently, was carried out on human peripheral blood lymphocyte in vitro.The study showed that NaF and AlCl3 independently were significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001) toxic in the in vitro system. The combined treatment was more profoundly toxic (p<0.01, p<0.001) when compared to individual toxicity of the chemical on various parameters studied, without metabolic activation. The results suggest that NaF and AlCl3 have a genotoxic and cytotoxic potential in human peripheral blood cultures in vitro.

Key words: Genotoxicity, Aluminum, Fluoride, Aberration, Micronuclei, Sister chromatid exchange



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(3) 153-156 (2009)


Effect of chromium on seed germination, seedling growth and its remediation with zinc in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)


Aditya Verma*, Ram Kumar and Y. K. Sharma

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, India


(Received: December 26, 2008; Revised received: June 20, 2009; Accepted: July 15, 2009)


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Abstract: High amount of heavy metals can cause harmful effects to the environment. Chromium (Cr) is the highly toxic pollutant, which constitute a risk for aquatic and terrestrial life. Increased chromium concentration in soil resulting from industrial activities is critical to crop production. Chromium containing tannery effluent inhibits the overall growth and production of the crop plants. The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of different chromium concentrations (0.05, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00 mM) and its combinations with zinc (0.20 and 0.50 mM) treatment on germination percentage, biomass yield, catalase and peroxidase activities in 15 days old cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings grown in vitro. The obtained result showed that the increasing concentration of the chromium (0.05, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00 mM) caused reduction in germination percentage, seedling growth (plumule length, radicle length and number of lateral roots), total biomass production, pigments (chlorophyll, phaeophytin and carotenoids), total protein and total sugar while the activity of antioxidants (catalase and peroxidase) increased. Application of zinc (0.20 and 0.50 mM) with high concentrations of chromium (0.20 and 0.50 mM) shows increased germination percentage, plant growth and reduces level of enzymes (catalase and peroxidase) in comparison alone concentrations of chromium.

Key words: Chromium, Cucumis sativus, Biomass, Pigments, Catalase, Peroxidase



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(3) 157-164 (2009)


A mathematical modeling of fluid flow through a Wavy Walled square pipe in environmental studies: Non-orthogonal coordinates

Akhilesh Tripathi and Sunil Datta*

Department of Mathematics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, India


(Received: January 15, 2009; Revised received: July 15, 2009; Accepted: July 25, 2009)


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Abstract: In this paper we consider the steady flow of a viscous fluid through a rectilinear pipe bounded by four sinusoidally varying plates in same phase with opposite plates separated by a mean distance 2 h. For the non-varying rectilinear pipe with rectangular cross section, the classical velocity profile for the fully developed flow is well known. In the present research an attempt is made to analyze the flow in a generalized non-orthogonal coordinate system that renders the wavy pipe as plane walled pipe. Continuity equation and Navier-stokes equations are presented in the generalized coordinate system and simplified through use of small perturbation under small Reynolds number approximation. Flow characteristics such as centerline velocity have been evaluated and discussed .The results of the paper have possible applications in flow of air pollutants in stakes and waste water through pipes and also in life sciences.

Key words: Wavy pipe, Navier-stoke equations, Small Reynolds number, Perturbation


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(3) 165-166 (2009)


Identification and purity test of drotaverine HCI

Om Prakash*1, S. Saraf1 and M. Rahman2

1Department of Industrial Chemistry, Integral University, Lucknow

2Department of Pharmacy, BBDNIT&M Lucknow

*e-mail: om_7740@

(Received: January 05, 2009; Revised received: June 21, 2009; Accepted: July 05, 2009)


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Abstract:Pain is an ill-defined, unpleasant sensation, usually evoked by an external or internal noxious stimulus. Pain may be acute or chronic, renal colic pain and labour pain is most common and chronic pain generally not contolled by Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)and more potent drug needed to controll pain drotaverine HCl is one of the antispasmodic drug acts by phosphodiesterase-IV inhibition to reduces the pain sensation. The purity and potency of drotavrine is an major factor to reduce the dosing frequency, toxicity and other related side effects. The potency of drotaverine HCl is found to be 98.8% and major peaks obtained in IR spectra at same frequencies as that of standard.


Key word: Phosphodiesterase-IV, Drotaverine HCl, Colic pain, Labour pain


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(3) 167-172 (2009)


Removal of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from water by aquatic macrophytes


Jatin Srivastava*1,Nandita Singh2, Harish Chandra3 , Dharam Singh1 and A.R. Nautiyal4

1Department of Environmental Sciences, Chatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur - 208 024,India

2Eco-Auditing Division, National Botanical Research Institute - Rana-Pratap Marg, Lucknow - 226 001,India

3Department of microbiology GIBMS, Dehradun, India

4High Altitude Plant Physialogy Research Center, H.N.B. Garhwal University Srinagar Garrhwal- Uttarakhand



(Received: February 21, 2009; Revised received: July 14, 2009; Accepted: July 25, 2009)


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Abstract: Monoculture of seven aquatic macrophytes viz., Marcellia spp., Pistia stratiotes, Ipomea aquatica, Hydrilla verticillata, Trapa natans, Chara najas and Ludwigia repens were investigated in mesocosms for the removal of soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) and other nutrient ions to improve water quality. The testing medium (amended water) containing higher concentrations of SRP 10 mg L-1, NO31- 10 mg L-1, Ca2+ 30 mg L-1, and K1+ 15 mg L-1was treated with individual plant species. Significant reduction of SRP from the water was observed by all the species especially C. najas and H. verticillata. The plant tissue P concentration was found maximum in C. najas followed by H. verticillata, and P. stratiotes with a value 1.15, 1.04 and 1.05 mg g-1dwt respectively. The overall performance indicates that the submerged aquatic macrophytes are potential accumulator of P. However, no single species was found to have a complete mitigation of nutrients from water.

Key words: Aquatic macrophyte, Monoculture, Mesocosm, Soluble reactive phosphate (SRP)



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(3) 173-178 (2009)


Effect of water pollution on Pistia stratiotes in river Suheli of Dudhwa National Park and river Gomti of Lucknow city


Brijendra Pratap Singh* and P.K. Tandon

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India


(Received: March 02, 2009; Revised received: July 24, 2009; Accepted: August 04, 2009)


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Abstract: Aquatic vascular plants play an important role in the uptake, storage, and recycling of metals. The uptake of metals depends on redox potential, chemical form of element and on the life form of the macrophytes. Pistia stratiotes a free-floating aquatic macrophyteabsorb elements mainly through the roots. Effect of polluted water form the different experimental sites of Suheli and Gomti river were studied in plant Pistia stratiotes. Remarkable changes wereobserved in plant growth in water streames. The plants showed brown coloration signifying the damage of total chlorophyll content attibutable to the deficiency of nutrientions, which are essential for photosynthesis.

Key words: Pistia stratiotes, Metals, Pigments, Catalase, Peroxidase, Sugar



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(3) 179-180 (2009)


Antagonistic reactions of rhizosphere microflora towards moth bean root rot pathogen

Deepali Chaturvedi*

Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow (U.P.),India


(Received: February 18, 2009; Revised received: July 22, 2009; Accepted: August 03, 2009)


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Abstract: Growth of a root through soil causes marked shift in the microbiological equilibrium, both quantitatively and qualitatively known as rhizosphere. Rhizosphere play an important role by affecting the associative or antagonistic microorganisms present in the rhizosphere of host resulting in reducing the soil borne diseases. Moth bean(Vigna aconitifolia), which is attacked by large number of pathogens resulting in varying degree of losses in terms of production ,is an important crop of arid zone.Macrophomina phaseolina,has been reported as the most devastating pathogen found invariably associated with bean seeds. So, these studies were carried out to throw light particularly in relation to soil microbes responsible for their associative and antagonistic effect on the pathogen in the vicinity of host plants roots. Different species of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes were isolated from rhizosphere of moth bean crop, screened invitro in order to check their antagonistic properties against M.phaseolina.So that, soil borne diseases and their related pathogens can be managed by making changes in the dense and dynamic community of microbes in rhizosphere.

Key words: Rhizosphere, Moth bean, Root rot, Antagonistic effect, M. phaseolina



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(3) 181-184 (2009)


Effect of low temperature on flowering response and biochemical changes during the process of floral induction in Cucumis sativus


Gopal Tewari*, Sandeep Kaur, Manoj Kumar Soni and Y.K. Sharma

Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow - 226 007, India


(Received: January 08, 2009; Revised received: July 27, 2009; Accepted: August 03, 2009)


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Abstract: Seeds of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), variety Jyoti Green Long, were exposed to low temperature (4C) for 0 (as control), 24, 48 and 72 hr and then allowed to germinate and grow in normal conditions for two weeks inside the laboratory. After two weeks five seedlings from each petridish were transplanted in pots and their development patterns up to anthesis were observed using morphological and biochemical (metabolites and enzyme activity) parameters. It was observed that exposure of seeds to low temperature had a profound effect on the flowering response in cucumber.Except the pollen sterility and the total No. of female flowers formed, all the morphological parameters studied viz. days to anthesis of male and female flowers; number of node bearing 1st male or female flower, total male flowers formed and ratio of male flowers to female flowers were decreased as compared to control, when low temperature was given for 24 and 48 hr; but different effect was observed on exposing to low temperature for 72 hr. The sucrose and starch content was found to increase with an increase in the duration of low temperature exposure to seeds up to 48 hr, beyond which it decreased significantly at 72 hr exposure, both at pre-flowering and flowering stages while the total protein content showed a different trend though. The activity of sucrose synthase increased significantly with increase in duration of low temperature up to 48 hours beyond which it decreased when compared to control. Similarly the activity of sucrose synthase decreased from pre-flowering to flowering stage in plants raised from seeds that were exposed to low temperature for 24, 48 and 72 hr respectively. Activity of acid invertase showed a trend just opposite to that of sucrose synthase. IAA oxidase showed a definite reduction in the activity with the increased duration of low temperature exposure. While at pre-flowering stage it was highest in control, the activity decreased significantly in plants which were raised from the seeds subjected to low temperature for 24, 48 and 72 hr respectively. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity also increased markedly when plants experienced transition from pre-flowering to flowering stage. A similar trend to that of PPO was observed in case of peroxidase activity.

Key words: Male flowers, Female flowers, Pollen sterility, Sucrose synthase, Acid invertase, IAA-oxidase, Polyphenol oxidase, Peroxidase