RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-2, Number-4, November-2009

 

37.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(4) 185-192 (2009)

 

Nature’s scavengers: vultures

Sonika Kushwaha1, Amita Kanaujia*1 and Dhruvjyoti Basu2

1Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow , Lucknow-226007, India

2Gharial Conservation Alliance, Uttar Pradesh

*e-mail: kanaujia.amita@gmail.com

(Received: May 18, 2009; Revised received: September 15, 2009; Accepted: September 29, 2009)

 

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Abstract: The current status of vultures once again highlights the results of human follies. It is evident that the Asian vultures are disappearing faster than the dodo-and like them a victim of human activities. The toll on the vultures has been enormous. Mortalities have been recorded across many parts of India, Pakistan and lowland Nepal. They are vanishing from Indian skies at an alarming pace due to a number of reasons. Diclofenac, a widely used medicine for both humans and livestock of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory group of drugs (NSAIDS) has been identified as the main culprit for the vulture toll. The Indian Government banned Diclofenac in March 2006. A number of captive breeding centers are being established in India and other countries for the endangered species.

 

Key words: Vultures, Breeding, Natural scavengers, Incinerators

38.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(4) 193-200 (2009)

 

Long term effect of tannery effluent toxicity on crops and modulation of toxicity through zinc, iron and potassium

 

Kamlesh Nath*

Laboratory of Environmental Sciences, Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow -226 007, India

*e-mail: nathkamlesh@rediffmail.com

(Received: January 04, 2009; Revised received: June 29, 2009; Accepted: July 08, 2009)

 

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Abstract: In the fellow up experiment the residual soil of different dilutions of treated tannery effluent (T.E.)(10, 25, 50 and 100%) and for the recovery purpose protective value of 10 and 25 ppm of certain macro (potassium) and micro nutrient (Iron and zinc) with combination of 50% TE in separate pots were used. The various growth parameters, pigments, enzymes activity, total protein, total sugar and metals’ accumulation, leaf area, fresh and dry weights were studied in maize plants. The residual treatments present in soil significantly affect plant growth and plant productivity of maize while all growth parameters were found to be higher with 25 ppm of ZnSO4, K2SO4 and FeSO4 in combination with 50% TE. Pigment contents (chlorophyll, pheophytins and carotenoid) at 45th day were found to be increased in 10% and started to decrease from 25% to 100% level of TE. The protein and sugar were significantly decreased as TE increased. In recovery treatments higher sugar and protein contents were observed when 50% TE was used with 10 ppm ZnSO4 and FeSO4and 25 ppm of K2SO4. The catalase and peroxidase significantly increased but decreased with 100% concentration of TE. The chromium concentration significantly increased with increasing concentration of TE in both leaf and seed. In recovery treatments the chromium was found higher in both leaf and seed with 10 ppm ZnSO4, K2SO4 and FeSO4 when combinedly used with 50% TE. The zinc, potassium and iron concentration were decreased with increasing concentration of tannery effluent in both leaf and seed. While in 10% tannery effluent, potassium and iron were increased in both leaf and seed and zinc in seeds. Overall, in recovery treatments zinc showed highest and significant recovery in most of theparameters. Iron also showed almost similar effects to the zinc while potassium showed minimum recovery.

Key words: Fellow up-experiment,Tannery effluent, chromium (VI), pigments, amylase, catalase, peroxidase, sugar, protein, metal accumulation, Organic matter, pH, EC, CaCO3,Zinc, Iron, Potassium

39.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(4) 201-206 (2009)

 

Relative distribution pattern of tree biodiversity in landslide prone areas of east Sikkim, India

 

Laydong Lepcha1*, P. Mandal2and T.K. Misra3

1Bioinformatics Centre, Sikkim State Council of Science and Technology, Department ofScience and Technology, Gangtok-737 101, India

2 Department of Botany, North Bengal University, Siliguri-734 430, West Bengal, India

3Department of Tea Management, North Bengal University, Siliguri-734 430, West Bengal, India

*e-mail: laydsimick@gmail.com / layd_simick@yahoo.co.in

 

(Received: March 11, 2009; Revised received: September 28, 2009; Accepted: October 02, 2009)

 

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Abstract: Landslide has become one of the major natural disaster factors of Sikkim. The research made during the year 2007-2008 came along with the actual distribution pattern of tree biodiversity of four active landslide areas of east Sikkim. The areas with less tree vegetation are vulnerable regions of landslide. Alnus nepalensis D.Don is a major tree species found abundant in landslide areas. Schima wallichi D.C. Korthals and Terminalia myriocarpa Heurck and Mueller are found to be other landslide trees plant. The sustainability of ecosystem depends upon the healthy tree vegetation of the region. The plant required fertile soils for its smooth grow, but most of the soils of studied landslide areas were found to be acetic in nature with high pH value. The tree vegetation is found rare in Ganeshtok landslide areas because of its high pH value and sandy clay property. The study found that Cryptomeria japoncica (L.f.) D.Don prefers acidic and sandy clay type soil. The study propose for the treatment of forest land by adopting natural tree vegetation and it is a suitable alternative to rebuild the degrading ecosystem and to maintain the stability of land.

Key words: Ecosystem, Biodiversity, Landslide, pH, Vegetation, Sustainability

40.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(4) 207-210 (2009)

Xylene degradation using methylotrophs

P. Ashwini and Priya Iyer*

Department of Biotechnology, Women‘s Christian College, Chennai-600 006, India

*e-mail: brajuraj@yahoo.com

(Received: May 24, 2009; Revised received: September 22, 2009; Accepted: October 05, 2009)

 

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Abstract: Methylobacterium species was isolated from Marina beach and the growth of the isolated organism was standardized by maintaining the organism at various conditions like pH, temperature and concentration of the substrate. Methylobacterium species was checked for its ability to degrade xylene. It has been found that Methylobacterium species can degrade xylene within 16 days and the degradation was maximum at 1% of xylene concentration with pH 6 and temperature at 28°C. On further incubation, it was found that xylene enhances the growth of the Methylobacterium spp and the number of cell aggregates increased.

Key words: Xylene, Methylotrophs, Degradation, Hydrocarbons

41.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(4) 211-214 (2009)

 

Effect of river water pollution on hematological parameters of fish, Wallago attu

Brijendra Pratap Singh* and P. K. Tandon

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India

*e-mail: p.brijendra@gmail.com

(Received: April 14, 2009; Revised received: September 02, 2009; Accepted: September 18, 2009)

 

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Abstract: The blood parameters have been used as sensitive indicator of stress in fish exposed to different water pollutants and toxicants, such as metals, biocides, pesticides, chemical industrial effluents, etc. These metallic ions are the probable major cause of the physiological abnormalities in fish. The toxicity of hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, chlorine and heavy metals in river water was found to be very harmful to fishes and water animals to some extent is also responsible for fish mortality. The haematological parameters of the fish, Wallago attu (Padhan) from the river Suheli and the river Gomti were studied and compared. The changes in the morphological appearances of the fishes were observed such as the difference in colour and length. The fish from the Suheli river was found to be healthier as compared to the one collected from the river Gomti which was observed to be thinner, darker and unhealthy in appearance. The various haematological parameters taken into study were Hb, RBCs, WBCs, TLC, ESR, PCV, CT, MCV, MCHC, MCH, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocytes. The Hb % and RBCs were found to be increased in Suheli river fish as compared to the fish from the river Gomti. The WBCs and ESR were found to be lesser in the fish of the river Suheli as compared to Gomti. The TLC and PCV values were significantly higher in Suheli fish than that of Gomti fish. The fish from Suheli showed the significantly lesser values for MCV, MCHC and MCH as compared to the fish from Gomti river.The neutrophils and monocytes were found to be comparatively higher for Suheli fish than that for Gomti fish however the values of lymphocytes were found to be higher for Gomti as compared to the fish as found in Suheli river. The study revels that the blood parameters are a sensitive indicator of stress on fishes exposed to different water pollutants and toxicants, such as biocides, pesticides, industrial effluents and heavy metals.

 

Key word: Wallago attu, Hb, RBCs, WBCs, TLC, ESR, PCV, CT, MCV, MCHC, MCH, Neutrophils, Lymphocytes, Eosinophils, Monocytes

 

42.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(4) 215-218 (2009)

 

Evaluation of some higher plants for the control of ripe fruit rot and die-back diseases of chillies

 

S.K. Sahoo*1, Aditya Verma2 and A.R. Saxena3

1Department of Botany, S.B.S.D.B.P.G. College, Amari Dullahpur, Ghazipur, India

2Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow- 226 007, India

3Department of Botany, D.A.V.P.G.College, Azamgarh, India

*e-mail: drsantoshksahu@yahoo.in

(Received: April 07, 2009; Revised received: September 22, 2009; Accepted: September 29, 2009)

 

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Abstract: The antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of some higher plants evaluated against colletotrichum capsici involved in ripe fruit root and die-back disease of chillies. On screening the ethanolic extracts of different plant parts of 45 higher plants for their antifungal activity by “modified paper disc technique”. The ethanolic extract of leaf of Holoptelia integrifolia (Roxb.) planch exhibited maximum toxicity against the test fungus inhibiting the mycelial growth upto 100%.

 

Key words: Higher plant, Antifungal activity, Ripe fruit rot, Die-back disease

43.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(4) 219-222 (2009)

 

Effect of IAA on flowering responses, metabolites and enzymes in Cucumis sativus

 

Gopal Tewari*, Manoj Kumar Soni, Sandeep Kaur and Y.K. Sharma

 

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India

*e-mail: tewarigopal@gmail.com

 

(Received: May 17, 2009; Revised received: October 12, 2009; Accepted: October 18, 2009)

 

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Abstract: Seeds of cucumber,Cucumis sativus L., variety Jyoti Green Long, were exposed in different concentrations of IAA (0 – as control, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1), for varying durations (24, 48 and 72 hr). After two weeks five seedlings from each petridish were transplanted in pots. The days to anthesis were highest in control for both male and female flowers, which gradually reduced as the increasing concentration of IAAwas applied. Similarly, the average nodal position bearing first flower was highest in control which consistently decreased with increasing concentration and duration of IAA treatment. The total No. ofmale flowers showed a declining trend with the increasing application of IAA. However, percentage of pollen sterility were increased in plants raised from seeds that were applied with 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1 IAA for 24 hrrespectively. Number of female flowers formed, was markedly increased over control with the elevation of IAA concentration. Total sucrose content during pre-flowering stage was highest (240.0 µmol g-1 fresh weight) in control but on treatment with IAA it decreased to significantly lower value of 197.5 µmol g-1 fresh weight in plants grown from seeds treated with 100 mg L-1 IAA for 72 hr. There was a decline in the sucrose content as well when flowering took place in all the plants. The highest concentration of starch at pre-flowering stage was observed in plants raised from seeds that were given 100 mg L-1 IAA for 72 hr (0.350 mgg-1 fresh weight), a significant difference from control. The starch content, however, was lowered at the flowering stage as compared to pre-flowering stage in all the plants. Total protein content, also, increased over control with the increasing concentration and duration of IAA application. During pre-flowering stage the sucrose synthase activity consistently decreased as compared to control with the increasing concentration of IAA. Activity of acid invertase, though, showed a trend just opposite to that of sucrose synthase. At pre-flowering acid invertase activity was 104.24 µmol g-1 fresh weight in control which increased to 116.25 µmol g-1 fresh weight when 25 mg L-1 IAAwas applied to seeds for 24 hr. In contrast to the activity of IAA oxidase, the activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) as well as of peroxidase increased in both the conditions – when plants switched from pre-flowering stage to flowering stage and also when IAA was applied, the concentration and duration again show a cumulative effect.

Key words: IAA, Acid invertase, IAA oxidase, Pre-flowering, Protein, Cucumis sativus, Male and female flowers, Anthesis

 

44.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(4) 223-230 (2009)

 

Flow through a pipe bounded by four sinusoidally varying with opposite plates differing in phase byand separated by a constant mean distance

Akhilesh Tripathi* and Sunil Datta

Department of Mathematics,University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India

*e-mail: nivelesh@rediffmail.com

(Received: April 07, 2009; Revised received: September 15, 2009; Accepted: September 18, 2009)

 

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Abstract: In this paper we consider the steady flow of a viscous fluid through a rectilinear pipe bounded by four sinusoidally varying with opposite plates differing in phase byand separated by a mean distance. For the non-varying rectilinear pipe with rectangular cross section, the classical velocity profile for the fully developed flow is well known. An attempt here is made to analyze the flow in a generalized non-orthogonal coordinate system that renders the wavy pipe as plane walled pipe. Continuity equation and Navier-Stokes equations are presented in the generalized coordinate system and simplified through use of small perturbation under small Reynolds number approximation. Flow characteristics such as centerline velocity have been evaluated and discussed. The results of the paper have possible applications in developing and designing environment pollution control related equipments and also in modeling.

Key words: Wavy pipe, Navier-Stoke equations, Small Reynolds number, Perturbation

 

45.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 2(4) 231-234 (2009)

 

Studies on effect of mercury in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings

 

Poonam Misra* and P.K. Tandon

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow -226 007, India

*e-mail: dr.poonammisra@yahoo.com

(Received: December 19, 2008; Revised received: August 11, 2009; Accepted: August 18, 2009)

 

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Abstract: Petridish culture experiment was carried out to know the phytotoxic effect of different concentration of mercury on (1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mM) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Chlorosis was found to be most common symptom of mercury toxicity. Brown coloration in root, reduction in their number and size and damage of root tip were also observed during the course of time. A periodical change from green colour to yellow was seen in leaves at excess dose of mercury in both seedlings. Both negative and positive effects were observed on the chlorophyll content in wheat and maize seedlings at different doses of mercury. Concentration of chlorophyll ‘a’ induced at lowest dose of mercury in maize plant. While at 2.0 and 4.0 mM dose of mercury, plant showed reduction in concentration of chlorophyll ‘a’. A dose dependent increase in pheophytin over control was observed in the leaves of maize plants. Mercury also increased carotenoid content in maize plants at lower doses (1.0 and 2.0 mM). However, at 4.0 mM Hg, carotenoid content was found to lower. A dose of 1.0 and 2.0 mM of this metal wheat seedlings showed an inhibitory effect on sugar concentration, while at 4.0 mM dose of mercury stimulated the content of sugar. Graded level of mercury in both seedling caused enhancement of protein content. Maximum enhancement of protein was found at higher dose of mercurous chloride. Catalase activity decreases significantly in both seedlings after treatment with different doses of mercury. Inhibitory effect on the activity of peroxidase enzyme increases at higher doses of mercury in wheat plants. Activity of amylase in wheat plant at seedling stage was found to be decreased with increase in the concentration of mercury.

Key words: Mercury, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Catalase, Peroxidase, Pigments, Sugar, Protein

 

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