Volume-3, Number-1, February-2010



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(1) 1-6 (2010)


Species diversity of Gunung Merapi National Park, Java, Indonesia following 2006 eruption


 Priyono Suryanto1,2*, Mohd Zaki Hamzah2, Mohamad Azani Alias2 and Azmy Mohamed2


1Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University - 55281, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

2Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia



(Received: August 13, 2009; Revised received: December 25, 2009; Accepted: December 28, 2009)


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Abstract: Vegetation succession after a volcanic eruption is relatively a rare phenomenon, and the study on the subject matter is rather limited. A study was carried out at the Gunung Merapi National Park (GMNP) with the objectives of determining species diversity and distribution, two years after eruption. Five plots (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5), each with the size of 50 x 20 m were established. The stand distribution pattern was calculated by use of agglomeration and dispersion index, and growth trend of dominant species was measured by correlation between density, diameter and height. The studies show that the importance value index (IVI) of most species was very low, with only the following species adaptive to the post-eruption environment of GMNP, namely Acacia decurrens, Acacia villosa, Cincona rubecea, Erythrina hypaporus, Euophorbia ciacembus, Ficus kubeba, Psidium guajava, Palotus sp, Pinus merkusii, Schima wallichii and Trema sp. The dominant species in the area are A.decurrens and P.merkusii. The distribution of pattern of A.decurrens can be categorized as clumpy, with the index of dispersion (IE) of >1.27 and R0, whereas P.merkusii is distributed in regular (IE » 1.27 and R >2.15) and random patterns (IE » 1.27, R< 2.15). The relationship between density and diameter of A.derurren are inversely proportional at P1, P2, P3 and P4). Similarly, the relationship between density and height of the species at P1, P2, P3 and P4 are inversely proportional.

Key words: Catastrophic eruption, Species distribution, A. decurrens, P. merkusii


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(1) 7 -12 (2010)


Air pollution induced changes in photosynthetic pigments and accumulation of heavy metals in medicinal plant neem (Azadirachata indica)

Shilpa Shyam


Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow - 226 007, India



(Received: June 05, 2009; Revised received: October 24, 2009; Accepted: November 15, 2009)


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Abstract: Vegetation naturally cleans the atmosphere by absorbing gases and particulate matter through leaves as plant leaf act as a persistent absorber when exposed to the polluted environment. Road side plants are good bio-indicators of air pollution. Analysed data reveals that TSPM and RSPM level was exponentially higher during winter and summer season. The concentration of SO2 and NOx was greatly influenced by the automobile emission. Higher concentration was found in commercial area while NOx concentration was found higher than SO2. In our study chlorophyll and carotenoid content in all season in neem was highest at residential area and least at commercial area, while phaeophytin was highest at residential area and lowest at industrial area. Phaeophytin content was maximum in summer (in residential area) and minimum in monsoon (industrial area). The protein content was lowest at winter in residential area and higher in monsoon at industrial area. The activity of peroxidase was highest at commercial area in winter and lowest in monsoon at industrial area. During summer in neem leaves average concentration of Pb, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu in residential areas was 21.58, 6.95, 82.43, 11.65 and 6.22 µg g-1 dry weight respectively. During mansoon and winter average concentration of Pb, Mn, Fe, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu was 19.67, 14.66, 126.63, 0.14, 0.09, 17.56, 11.95 and 11.17, 15.18, 119.96, 0.08, 0.11, 17.75 and 9.67 µg g-1 dry weight respectively. At locations of commercial area average concentration of Pb, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu during summer was 28.36, 6.90, 108.11, 12.87 and 10.32 µg g-1 dry weight respectively. During mansoon concentration of Pb, Mn, Fe, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu was 16.18, 16.40, 136.65, 0.10, 0.12, 22.14 and 11.98 µg g-1 dry weight respectively. In winter average concentration of metals in the similar order was 14.69, 14.94, 118.21, 0.13, 0.10, 16.95 and 11.23 µg g-1 dry weight respectively. Average concentration of Pb, Mn, Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu and Cd at industrial locations during summer was 25.06, 5.10, 119.97, 0.98, 7.92, 8.96 and 0.99 µg g-1 dry weight respectively. During monsoon concentration of Pb, Mn, Fe, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu was 23.24, 15.14, 139.80, 0.08, 0.12, 22.22 and 12.35. In winter the concentration of Pb, Mn, Fe, Cd, Cr, Zn and Cu was 10.66, 15.16, 111.68, 0.11, 0.10, 16.81 and 11.34 µg g-1 dry weights respectively.

Key words: Air pollution, SO2, NOx, Chlorophyll, Phaeophytin, Carotenoid, Protein, Peroxidase, Heavy metals


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(1) 13-16 (2010)


Growth and metabolism in response to Ni exposure by Cicer arietinum L. (Gram) plants


Shailly Misra*, P.K.Tandon and Kumkum Mishra


Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow - 226 007, India


(Received: September 09, 2009; Revised received: December 14, 2009; Accepted: December18, 2009)


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Abstract: Effects of nickel on the growth and metabolism of gram were studied in the seedlings of gram (Cicer arietinum L.). The plants were exposed to different concentrations of nickel (0.25,0.50 and 1.0 mM) and selected parameters of growth and metabolism were followed. Excess supply of nickel resulted in the induction of toxicity symptoms and overall reduction in growth of plants. The root length( 4.50,4.10 and 3.79 cm ), shoot length (16.00,14.00 and 10.16 cm), fresh weight ( 2.75,2.10 and 1.55 g ) and dry weight ( 0.23,0.20 and 0.16 g ) showed reduction at 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 mM nickel concentration respectively. The chlorophyll content as found decreased (1.52,1.35 and 0.92 mg g-1 FW) at 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 mM nickel concentration compared to the control levels.Total protein ( 5.14, 3.36 and 2.37 % FW ) and sugar (27.50,17.50 and 7.50 mg g-1)content were reduced at increasing doses of nickel (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 mM ). However, the activity of enzymes, catalase ( 10.85, 22.28 and 36.91 m mole H2O2 split mg-1 protein) and peroxidase ( 3.57, 7.28 and 10.97 units mg-1 protein ) were increased with increasing concentration of nickel (0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 mM ) in comparison to the control levels.

Key words: Nickel, Gram, Growth, Metabolism


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(1) 17 -20 (2010)


Removal of colour in distillery effluent (spent wash) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and pseudomonsas fluorescens

Pratibha Singh*, Ashima Srivastava, Roli Verma, N.N. Janhavi, Meera Gupta, Himanshu Singh and N.Kumara Swamy


Department of Chemistry, JSS Academy of Technical Education, Noida 201 301,India


*e-mail: pratibha­


(Received: November 12, 2009; Revised received: January 15, 2010; Accepted: January 18, 2010)

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Abstract: Distillery producing alcohol from molasses is considered to be one of the most polluting agro-based industries. Especially the problem of spent wash disposal is accentuated by its high temperature, deep colour and acidic nature with obnoxious odour. The awful colour of distillery waste is due to molasses and charred sugar like caramels, melanoidins and decomposition product like hydroxyl methyl furfural. As the physical and chemical methods of effluent treatment are cost ineffective, the emphasis has shifted to biological method to decolorize the effluent. In the present study effect of treatment with microorganisms viz., Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Pseudomonas fluorescens was tested on effluent for colour removal. P. chrysosporium showed 22.3% colour removal and 14.14% COD reduction over that of P. fluorescens. However, sequential treatment by P. chrysosporium and P. fluorescens showed relatively better results in COD and colour removal by 79.55 and 92.53% than any of the individual microorganisms. A high correlation was observed between the physico-chemical parameters studied. Increase in EC and decrease in pH seems to be a function of reduction in COD, TSS, TDS and colour. Mineralization of organic matter resulted in formation of organic acids and inorganic compounds to bring down the pH. The study clearly demonstrated that sequential microbial treatment can enhance substrate biodegradation due to the improvement in bioavailability of substrate through various metabolic activities of microorganisms and thus con be gainfully exploited for spent wash decolourization.

Key words: Distillery, Waste, Molasses, Effluent treatment, Melanoidins, Decolourization, Microorganisms


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(1) 21 -26 (2010)


Growth, accumulation and biochemical responses induced by cadmium in Jatropha curcas L.


Fauzia Siddiqui and P.K. Tandon


Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Lucknow-226 007, India



(Received: April 14, 2009; Revised received: November 26, 2009; Accepted: December 08, 2009)


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Abstract: Jatropha curcas L. attracting considerable global interest due to its potential use as a biofuel crop as well as its potential to grow in any type of soil type. The phytotoxicity imposed by cadmium (Cd) and its detoxifying responses of Jatropha curcas L. have been investigated. J. curcas L. exposed to various concentrations of cadmium (0, 10, 25, 50, 100 mM) and accumulated good amount of cadmium in various plant parts with increasing concentration.Effect on biomass, photosynthetic pigments and protein level were evaluated as gross effect, while lipid peroxidation reflected oxidative stress cadmium induced lipid peroxidation with increase in metal concentration. Toxic effects of cadmium on plant were reflected by the reductions in photosynthetic pigments, protein at higher concentrations. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were monitored as plants primary and metal detoxifying responses. Enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase showed stimulation at lower concentrations except catalase which showed declining trend. Initially, cysteine, and non-protein thiols was found increased at lower concentrations, which depleted with increase in concentration. However plant showed progressive increase in proline content at all concentrations. The study concludes that plant could grow under cadmium stress and protect themselves from phytotoxicity of Cd by altering various metabolic processes.

Key words:J. curcas,Biofuel,Cadmium , Antioxidant , Cysteine, Nonprotein thiols and proline contents, Photosynthetic pigments


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(1) 27 -32 (2010)


Groundwater quality in Tirupur, Tamilnadu, India: A pilot-assessment

C. Seenivasan, P. Saravana Bhavan*, S. Radhakrishnan and M. Kamalakannan


Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 641 046, India



(Received: November 10, 2009; Revised received: February 10, 2010; Accepted: February 12, 2010)


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Abstract:Tirupur is a well known town of south India for its garments and dyeing industries.There is a growing concern that the potable water sources are getting deteriorated day by day. Therefore, in order to assess thegroundwater quality, water samples were taken from six bore wells (Gandhi Nagar,Odakkadu, Kongu Nagar, Old bus stand, Periyarcolony and Thennampalayam) and sixopen wells (Velliyangadu, College road,Kangayam road, Karuvampalayam, Rakiyapalayam and Sevanthampalayam) for a period of six months from October, 2007 to March, 2008. These water samples weretested for water quality parameters, such as temperature (T), pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca), total dissolved solids (TDS), nitrate (NO3), chloride (Cl),silica (Si) and phosphate (PO4). Among these parameters TA, TH, Ca, TDS, NO3 and Cl were found to exceeded from prescribed desirable Indian standards (200, 300, 75, 500, 45 and 250 mg L-1 respectively, BIS, IS: 10500: 1991). Therefore, these parameters are considered as most polluted. Analyses of regression revealed that TA, TH, Ca and NO3 showed negatively correlated between stations, where as TDS and Cl showed positively correlated. Among twelve stations tested samples of eight stations (Odakkadu, Kongu Nagar, Old bus stand, Periyar colony, Thennampalayam, Velliyangadu, College road and Karuvampalayam) were found to exceed from the desirable limits. There were three sampling stations (Gandhi Nagar, Kangayam road and Sevanthampalayam) where five of the above said water quality parameters were found to exceed from the desirable limits. There was only one sampling station, Rakiyapalayam which exceeds the desirable limits with four of the above said water quality parameters. Moreover, TH, TDS and Cl were recorded to above the desirable limit of Indian standard in all the sampling stations. Ca and NO3 were found to above the desirable limit in eleven sampling stations. TA was recorded to above the desirable limit in nine sampling stations. However, the pH recorded was within desirable limits (6.5-8.5) in all the sampling stations. The overall observation suggests that the ground water quality was less desirable for consumption in these places of Tirupur town. It is suggested that the deterioration of ground water quality was mainly due to contamination by man-made sources, like household let-outs and effluents from dyeing industries. Therefore, steps need to be taken urgently to ensure effective water resource management in Tirupur.

Key words:Tirupur, Potable water quality, Bore wells, Open wells, Dyeing


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(1) 33 -40 (2010)


Combinatorial effect of low temperature and IAA on flowering responses, metabolites and enzymes in Cucumis sativus


Gopal Tewari*, Manoj Kumar Soni, Ram Kumar, Sandeep Kaur and Y.K. Sharma


Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India


(Received: August 25, 2009; Revised received: December 15, 2009; Accepted: December19, 2009)


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Abstract: The combined effect of IAA and low temperature exposure at the seed germination stage, on the process of floral induction in cucumber was analyzed in this experiment. The low temperature exposure to the seeds decreased the days to anthesis of both male and female flowers to 43.25 and 52.25 respectively. Similarly, the average nodal position bearing first male as well as female flower also decreased as compared to control on providing low temperature and/or IAA, alone or in combination at seed germination stage, the reduction being more noteworthy when IAA and low temperature were given in combination. The total No. of female flowers formed, however, increased with the application of low temperature and IAA and, consequently, the ratio of male flowers to female flowers decreased with the increasing concentration of IAA, the reduction being more when low temperature was provided with IAA. The sucrose content was 240.0 µmol/gm fresh weight in control which declined to 237.5, 235.0 and 233.7 µmol g-1 fresh weight in plants which were treated with 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1 IAA respectively at seed germination stage. Exposure to low temperature, however, increased the sucrose content. The application of IAA, on the other hand, resulted in the increase in the starch content during both pre-flowering stage as well as flowering stage. The application of IAA also resulted in a gradual increase in the protein content, and this increase was more when IAA and low temperature were given in combination. However, in contrast to starch, the protein contents were found to be increased when plants experienced a shift from pre-flowering to flowering stage. Application of IAA at seed germination stage, however, decreased the activity of sucrose synthase, the decline being proportional to the concentration of IAA applied. Activity of acid invertase, though, showed a tendency just reverse to that of sucrose synthase. At both, the pre-flowering and flowering stages, low temperature exposure of seeds resulted in a decline in the activity of acid invertase while application of IAA at seed germination stage caused an increase in the activity of the enzyme in a concentration dependent manner. The activity of IAA oxidase at pre-flowering stage was significantly lowered in all the treatments as compared to control with the reduction in the activity being proportional to the concentration of IAA applied. A reduction in the activity of IAA oxidase was observed in all the plants when they experienced a shift from pre-flowering to flowering stage. Polyphenol oxidase, though, showed a trend just opposite to that shown by IAA oxidase. At flowering stage, again just opposite to the IAA oxidase, the activity of polyphenol oxidase increased from that in pre-flowering stage in all the plants. The highest activity during flowering stage was recorded in plants that were raised from seeds treated with 100 mg L-1 IAA at low temperature (0.252 DOD g-1 fresh weight). There was, however, not significant alteration in the peroxidase activity in all the treatments over control; though the peroxidase activity increased slightly on the application of IAA and low temperature as compared to control at both pre-flowering and flowering stages.

Key words: Vernalization, Low temperature, IAA, Acid invertase, IAA oxidase, Pre-flowering, Protein, Cucumis sativus, Male and female flowers, Anthesis


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(1) 41-44 (2010)


In vitro antimycotic study of essential oils against lipophilic yeast like fungus Malassezia


Meenakshi Sharmaand Richa Sharma*

 Laboratory of Mycology and Microbiology, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302004, India




(Received: November 22, 2009; Revised received: January 28, 2010; Accepted: February04, 2010)


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Abstract: Potential inhibitory effect of Citrus lemon (lemon) and Citrus sinensis (orange) on lipophilic, yeast like fungus, Malassezia furfur which causes Pityriasis versicolor, chronic superficial fungal disease of the skin have been studied by using two different methods: disc diffusion and microdilution methods. In screening of lemon and orange oil by disc diffusion method, the diameter of inhibition zone was found to be 50and 20 mm which was greater than inhibition zone of reference antibiotics i.e gentamycin and streptomycin of 16.5 and 17 mm respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of lemon and orange oil against Malassezia furfur was found to be 0.8 and 2.2 µl ml-1. These findings support the use of Citrus lemon (lemon) and Citrus sinensis (orange) oil as a traditional herbal medicine for the control of Pityriasis versicolor infection of skin.


Key words: Pityriasis versicolor, Skin, Malassezia furfur, Citrus lemon and Citrus sinensis oils


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(1) 45-48 (2010)


Studies on effect of mercury in two verities of rice (Oryza sativa L.)


Poonam Misra


Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India




(Received: June 11, 2009; Revised received: December 11, 2009; Accepted: December 14, 2009)


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Abstract: Mercury in excess doses caused Necrosis, distorted leaves, brown and damaged root system in both rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties i.e Ratna and Sarju-52 and cowpea (Vigna unguiculaia L. Walp) seedlings. Shoot system was found to be less cylindrical than control and show some abnormality at highest dose of mercury (4.0mM). At lowest dose of mercury, the root length was significantly decreases about 17.78% over control. The shoot seems to be more sensitive to mercury than the root in var. Ratna. 1.0 mM dose of mercury significantly activated the activity of catalase enzyme in seedlings. Various doses of mercury significantly reduced the level of total chlorophyll concentration in both the varieties of rice seedlings. The sugar content was reduced at excess dosed of Hg. At lowest concentration of mercury sarju-52, showed stimulation in the concentration of sugar, while at highest concentration of mercury the experimental seedlings exhibited inhibition in sugar content. Mercury drastically affected the concentration of protein in these two varieties of significant decrease in protein content was found with all treatments of mercury except 1.0 mm dose of this metal in rice var. rattan. Mercury also inhibited the activity of other important iron enzyme peroxidase in var. Ratna. However, other rice var. sarju-52 showed enhancement in the activity of this enzyme with excess doses of the same metal.

Key words: Vigna unguiculaia, Oryza sativa, Mercury, catalase, sugar, chlorophyll, protein, Peroxidase


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(1) 49-52 (2010)


Effect of Cd on antioxidative system in Phaesiolus mungo and its interaction with certain micronutrients


Ram Kumar*, Aditya Vermaand Y.K. Sharma


Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, India




(Received: October 13, 2009; Revised received: January 16, 2010; Accepted: January 19, 2010)


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Abstract: In this study, the effect of cadmium (Cd) and its interaction with phosphorus (P) and copper (Cu) on lipid peroxidation, electrolye leakage percentage, catalase, peroxidase, pigment, fresh weight and dry weight in black gram (Vigna mungo var. PU35) were investigated. The experiment was conducted in the wire house condition. Clay pots with total area of 310 cm2 per pot containing soil and compost into 3:1 ratio were used for growing the seed of black gram. The plants were treated with solution containing six Cd level as 3 CdSO4.7H2O (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 1.0 and 2.0 mM L-1) for 30 days. At the lowest Cd level the concentration of malondialdehyde were decreased, electrolye leakage percentage increased at higher concentration, whereas the content of carotenoids, fresh weight and dry weight were increased at lowest concentration of Cd. The activity of catalase were increased at all Cd level, while the activity of peroxidase decreases at lower level of Cd while increased at higher level of Cd. The results evidence the importance of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system in response to cadmium toxicity in black gram.

Key words: Vigna mungo, Peroxidation, Electrolye leakage percentage, Catalase, Peroxidase, Pigment, Copper, Phosphorus, Cadmium