RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-3, Number-2, May-2010

 

11.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(2) 53-56 (2010)

 

Seed parameters and morphology of Pongamea pinnata a biodiesel yielding plant in Bhadravathi town, Karnataka

 

B. Ananthnag1*, E. T. Puttaiah2 and Neethu Patil3

 

1Department of Environmental Science, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta - 577 451, India

2SJBIT, Kengeri, Bangalore - 560 006, India

3Vice-Chancellor,Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, India

*e-mail: ananth_acc@mail.com

(Received: August 02, 2009; Revised received: December 25, 2009; Accepted: December 28, 2009)

 

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Abstract: Biodiesel, a promising renewable fuel consisting of the alkyl esters of fatty acids, can be synthesized via the transesterification of various vegetable oilsbiofuel is the name of a clean burning alternative fuel produced from domestic, renewable resources and it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend and can be used in compression ignition (diesel) engines with no major modifications. India’s contribution to the world’s carbon emission has increased proportionally. Vehicular pollution is estimated to have increased eight times over the last two decades in India. Considering all the aspects available among non-edible tree bearing oil (TBO) seeds. The oil obtained from the seeds of Pongamia pinnata holds promise as fuel used as alternative for diesel. These have a variety of uses, but the economic exploitation of these plants has remained neglected for long time. Survey ofPongamia pinnata plant species at the study area was conducted during Jan-Sep.2007 to know the density of the species and impact of morphological characteristics on the yield efficiency of both the species. Since, lot of wasteland (4631 ha) is found in the study area (Bhadravathi taluk), recognition of the potential use of these species as a source of biofuels and in wasteland reclamation has got numerous scopes. This paper reflects on the ecological and economical benefits from the implication of Pongamia pinnata as an energy source in the study area.

Key words: Biofuels, Energy source, Wasteland, Pongamia pinnata

12.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(2) 57 -58 (2010)

 

Antibacterial assay of some natural products

S.K. Sahoo1*, Aditya Verma2 and A. R. Saxena3

1Department of Botany, S.B.S.D.B.P.G. College, Amari Dullahpur, Ghazipur-233 001, India

2Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow- 226 007, India

3Department of Botany, D.A.V.P.G.College, Azamgarh-276 001, India

*e-mail: drsantoshksahu@yahoo.in

(Received: August 22, 2009; Revised received: November 20, 2009; Accepted: December11, 2009)

 

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Abstract: Twelve samples of plant products have been extracted with 50% ethanol and the extracts but through a wide biological screen of tests for their antibacterial activity against Enterobacter sp and Kelbsiella sp. Ten samples exhibited antibacterial activity but the fungitoxic principle of Clitoria ternatea Linn. proved to be the most active antibacterial compounds forming the largest inhibition zone in our experimentation.

 

Key words: Antibacterial, Enterobacter sp, Kelbsiella sp., Clitoria ternatea,

13.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(2) 59-64 (2010)

 

Influence of metal ions on growth and enzyme profile of

white-rot fungus Pleurotus florida ITCC 3308

Ram Naraian1*, Siya Ram2, Jatin Srivastava3, Jitendra Kumar4, K.P. Singh5 and S. K. Garg6

1Department of Microbiology, Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chhatrapati

Sahu Ji Mahraj University, Kanpur-208 024, India

2School of Biotechnology, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida, Gautam Budh Nagar-201 308, India

3Department of Environment science, Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chatrapati

Sahu Ji Mahraj University, Kanpur-208 024, India

4Department of Chemical Engineering, Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur-208 002, India

5Department of Microbiology, ChhatrapatiSahu Ji Mahraj Medical University, Lucknow, 226 003India

6Department of Microbiology, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Awadh University, Faizabad-224 001, India

*e-mail: ramnarain_itrc@rediffmail.com

(Received: January 28, 2010; Revised received: April 10, 2010; Accepted: April 28, 2010)

 

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Abstract: The present task was conducted to investigate the effect of four metals including cadmium (Cd2+), manganese (Mn2+), copper (Cu2+) and zinc (Zn2+) on the growth rate, mycelial biomass yield and enzyme profile of white-rot fungus Pleurotus florida ITCC 3308. To study the influence of metals, different concentration (10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 mM) were used. Variable concentrations of metals considerably responded to the several parameters of the study. The highest radial growth rate noted was 6.3 mm d-1 which was followed by 6.1mm d-1 respectively due to the addition of Mn2+ and Cu2+ at their 10 mM level. Maximum 5.379 g L-1 fresh biomass was yielded by the addition of 10 mM Mn2+ and it was followed by the 5.256 g L-1 in the presence of 10 mM of Cu2+. The lower concentrations of Cu2+ and Mn2+ induced the growth rate and biomass, while it was reduced by increasing the concentrations. The influence of the metals was also tested on the laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) profile of fungus. Both extracellular lignolytic laccase and MnP enzymes were appreciably influenced in presence of metal compounds. Among the metals tested Cu2+ and Mn2+ have positively responded and amazingly influenced the activity of both enzymes. The lower concentrations (10 and 20 mM) of Cu2+ and Mn2+ induced the laccase and MnP activities while, Cd2+ and Zn2+ affected negatively. The highest laccase and MnP activities recorded were 392 and 389 U L-1 respectively with Cu2+ and Mn2+ metals at their 20 mM concentration. However, unsupplemented (control) sets represented 276 and 46 U L-1 of laccase and peroxidase activity correspondingly. It was also observed that increasing the concentrations activity was simultaneously reduced.

 

Key words: Pleurotus spp., Growth rate, Laccase, Mn peroxidase, Metal ions

14.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(2) 65-68 (2010)

 

Seroprevalence of typhoid in Dehradun valley (Uttarakhand), India

Harish Chandra1*, Beauty Singh2, Jatin Srivastava3 , Rajendra Prasad2 and A.R.Nautiyal4

 

1Department of Biotechnology, G.B.Pant Engineering College, Ghurdauri, Pauri Garhwal, India

2Department of Microbiology, Gayatri College of Biomedical Science, Near Ballupur Chowk, G.M.S. Road, Dehradun, India

3Depatment of Environmental Science, Institute of Biotechnology and Biological Sciences,C.S.J.M. University Kanpur, India

4High Altitude Plant Physiology Research Centre, H.N.B.Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal, India

 

*e-mail: hreesh5@gmail.com

(Received: November 09, 2009; Revised received: February 10, 2010; Accepted: March 08, 2010)

 

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Abstract: Typhoid fever is a systemic infection with the bacterium Salmonella enterica serotype typhi. This highly adapted, human-specific pathogen has evolved remarkable mechanisms for persistence in its host that help to ensure its survival and transmission. The fever is characterized by the classic prolonged fever, sustained bacteraemia without endothelial or endocardial involvement, and bacterial invasion of and multiplication within the mononuclear phagocytic cells of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and peyer patches of the ileum. Typhoid fever constitutes a major global health problem. Implementation of adequate food handling practices and establishment of safe water supplies are the important steps for the development of an effective prevention program. In present study 443 suspected cases of typhoid were analyzed by Widal test andblood culture methods. Out of 443 blood samples, 254 samples were of male persons out of which 42 samples were found positive for typhoid whereas 49 samples were found positive in case of 189 blood samples of female patient. However, 14 samples were blood culture positive out of 443 samples.

Key words: Typhoid, Widal test, Blood culture, Bacteraemia

15.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(2) 69 -70 (2010)

 

Impact of distillery effluent on seed germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum), mung bean (Vigna radiata) and pea (Pisum sativum)

 

Radhika Agarwal1*, Sneh Lata2 and Meera Gupta3

 

1Deptt. of Chemistry, Ideal Institute of Tech., Govindpuram,Ghaziabad - 201 301, India

2Deptt. of Botany, M.M.H. Post Graduate College, Ghaziabad - 201 001, India

3Deptt. of Chemistry, JSS Academy of Technical Education, Noida - 201 301, India

 

*e-mail: raradhikaagarwal9@gmail.com

 

(Received: January 09, 2010; Revised received: April 22, 2010; Accepted: April 28, 2010)

 

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Abstract: A laboratory experiment with wheat (Triticum aestivum), mung (Vigna radiata) and pea (Pisum sativum) as test crop was conducted to evaluate the wastewater quality of distillery effluent. Different dilutions of effluent like 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% was taken and studied the effect on speed of germination, peak value, germination value and germination percentage on different crops. The high value of total dissolve solid (TDS) (9385 mg L-1), total suspended solid (TSS) (10,990 mg L-1) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (16780 mg L-1) indicates the high inorganic and organic load. When the concentration of distillery effluent increases from 0-100% there was continuous decrease in all the four parameters was found. Based on the tolerance to distillery effluent, the crops studied have been arranged in the following order: Wheat> mung> pea. These results show that these changes are crop specific so care should be taken before using it for irrigation purposes.

Key words:Distillery effluent, Wastewater, Wheat, Pea, Mung

16.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(2) 71 - 78 (2010)

 

Characterization of biological activity of a drug ledakrin

[1-Nitro-9-(3-dimethylaminopropylamino)-Acridine] on Allium cepa

B.K. Roy*, Sanjay Kumar and Shashi K. Arya

 

Laboratory of Cytogenetics, Center of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, India

 

*e-mail: bkroy@bhu.ac.in

(Received: November 09, 2009; Revised received: February 10, 2010; Accepted: March 08, 2010)

 

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Abstract:Exposure of Allium cepa roots with 0.05-0.125 ppm concentrations of ledakrin led to changes in uptake, accumulation and also affected DNA and protein syntheses at 1-24 hr pre and 1-9 datspost incubation periods. The uptake in root triggered maximum at 0.1 ppm and 24 hr exposure. Roots excreted 10% of the accumulated amount during first day and further varied from 2 to 0.2% during rest of the post-incubation periods. Accumulation and distribution was at the peak in meristematic tissues and further come down to a small amount due to gradual metabolic depletion at the end of the experiment. With increasing concentration and time of incubation, inhibition of DNA synthesis increases and precedes the inhibition of protein synthesis at 0.05 and 0.1 ppm during 1st and 2nd day respectively. Exposure with higher concentration (0.125 ppm) proved as lethal dose. The quick uptake of the drug and its effects on biological activity as evidenced in meristematic cells of A. cepa root at different doses and incubation periods indicate similarities with human and bacterial cells, where it was demonstrated as an anti-tumor agent. Taking these results into account Allium test can be considered as a potential alternative tool for screening of bioactivity and clinical evaluation of this compound or any drug.

 

Key words:Ledakrin, Allium cepa L., DNA, Protein, Anti-tumor

17.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(2) 79 - 80 (2010)

 

Effect of various primer and their levels on germination

percentage of rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Rakesh Pandey1, Ahmad Najam1* and H.N. Verma2

 

Plant Virus Laboratory, Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow– 226007, India

2Jaipur National University,Jagatpura,Jaipur-302025, India

*e-mail: najam_lko@yahoo.com

(Received: November 29, 2009; Revised received: February 21, 2010; Accepted: March 19, 2010)

 

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Abstract: The significant benefit arising from seed priming have been explored in the present investigation. Five known primers [FYM+ Neem cake, plant protein roots of Boerhaavia diffusa and leaf of Clerodendrum aculeatum (BD+CA), BD, CA and PEG] with their low, moderate and high concentration were used to observe the significant impact on germination, seedling growth and biochemical changing during rice plant growth. However, the highest germination percentage was recorded with the application of BD + CA- 500 ppm.

Key words: Rice, Primers, Growth parameters, Bioenhancer

18.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(2) 81-88 (2010)

 

Geomorphic evolution of Gangotri glacier area Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

Ajai Mishra*

 

Department of Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007, India

 

*e-mail: ajaimishra2007@yahoo.co.in

(Received: January 25, 2010; Revised received: March 15, 2010; Accepted: April 18, 2010)

 

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Abstract: Satellite remote sensing coupled with extensive field investigations has enabled to delineate and map the landforms associated with the Gangotri glacier area. The glacier is situated in Uttrakashi district of Uttarakhand Himalaya and shows the presence of a unique set of geomorphic landforms such as transverse glaciers, lateral moraines, recessional moraines, debris cone, pillar like structures, kame terraces, outwash plain and valley terraces. It is observed that the landforms also get modified by the secondary processes such as gravity fall, slope failure and material brought by heavy monsoonal rain. At this stage, the transverse glaciers act as an important agent to carry all the material into the valley. These transverse glaciers are well identified on the satellite data and vary in size from 3 to 20 km long. So, the main glacier and its transverse tributary glaciers together constitute the Gangotri group of glaciers. Kirti, Meru, Gganohim are the transverse glacier which feed the main glaciers from the left, and Raktwarn, Chaturangi, Swachand and Minandi do the same from the right.These lateral glaciers have receded concurrently with the retreat of the trunk glacier. At present, the tributary glaciers are contributing the material due to gravity sliding during heavy monsoonal rains, which dam the fluvial channels and forms lakes and bursting of lakes, leading to flood. The catastrophic floods are thus responsible for the landscape modification in these areas and tributary glaciers act as an agent of reshaping and modification of the landforms. Thus, the landforms and landscape readjust according to the new set of conditions created by the transverse glaciers, and finally get modified. The lateral moraines are the excellent source of information about past glacier size and extent. With the help of satellite data, four stages of lateral moraines can be easily identified in this area and their lateral continuity has been traced for several kilometers down stream of Bhagirathi river, showing the past spatial extent of the Gangotri glacier. Therefore, to study the landforms and their genesis is of prime importance to develop a geomorphic model of the area.

 

Key words: Gangotri glacier, Landforms, Transverse glaciers, Lateral moraines

 

19.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(2) 89 - 92 (2010)

 

Changes in the properties of sodic soil after vermicompost application and cropping

Alka Upadhyay* and S.N.Pandey

 

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India

 

*e-mail: alka_lu@yahoo.co.in

(Received: January 11, 2010; Revised received: April 05, 2010; Accepted: April 28, 2010)

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Abstract: Amelioration of sodic soils by chemicals amendments requires high capital input. Cultivation of salt tolerant plants in problem soils may improve the quality of soil. An experiment was performed to examine the changes in sodic soils after cropping following the incorporation with organic amendments. Results indicated an increase in soil organic matter from 0.14 to 2.49% and decrease in pH from 9.54 to 8.15, electric conductivity (EC) from 0.44 to 0.38 dSm-1, sodium ions from 4.76 to1.12 meq/100g of soil and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) from 33.45 to 8.54, suggesting qualitative improvement of soil, amended with vermicompost.

 

Key words: Sodic soil, Reclamation, Vermicompost, Soil fertility, Ammi majus L.

 

20

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(2) 93 - 103 (2010)

 

Assessment of water quality of river Suheli and Gomti

 

Brijendra Pratap Singh* and P.K. Tandon.

 

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India

 

*e-mail: p.brijendra@gmail.com

(Received: November 19, 2009; Revised received: February 18, 2010; Accepted: March 08, 2010).

 

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Abstract: The water sample collected from the various sampling points of rivers Suheli and Gomti were analysed at specific time intervals in the month of January, May and August in year 2007 and 2008. In the month of January, thesites of Suheli river from the Kaima region to Road bridge showed an increasing trend in pH whereasthesitesofGomtirivershoweda markeddecrease in pH values from Gaughat to Pipraghat. In the month of January, the sites of Suheli river and Basantpur village showed the highest value for conductivity whereas the sites of Gomti river from Gaughat to Pipraghat showed an increasing trend in conductivity. In the month of January, May and August, the sites of Suheli river, Basantpur village and the Kaima region showed the maximum and minimum turbidity respectively whereas the sites of Gomti river from Gaughat to Pipraghat showed an increasing trend in turbidity. In the month of August, the sites of Suheli river and Road bridge showed the highest dissolved oxygen and Basantpur village showed the lowest dissolved oxygen value in the year 2007 but in the year 2008 the Kaima region showed the highest dissolved oxygen and Tiger haven showed the lowest dissolved oxygen values where as the sites of Gomti river showed the significantly decrease values of dissolved oxygen from Gaughat to Pipraghat in both the years. In the months of January, May and August, the sites of Suheli river and Basantpur village showed the highest value for BOD and Kaima region showed the lowest value for same whereas the sites of Gomti river showed an increasing trend in BOD from Gaughat to Pipraghat. In the months of January, May and August, the sites of Suheli river from Kaima region to Basantpur village showed an increasing trend in COD while substantially dropped COD at Suheli barrage whereas the sites of Gomti river from Gaughat to Pipraghat also showed an increasing trend in COD. In the months of January and May, the sites of Suheli river from Kaima region to Suheli barrage showed an increasing trend in TDS whereas the sites of Gomti river also showed the increasing values of TDS from Gaughat to Pipraghat.

 

Key words: pH, Conductivity, Turbidity, DO, BOD, COD, Hardness, Chlorides, Alkalinity, TDS

 

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