RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-3, Number-3, August-2010

 

21.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(3) 105-112 (2010)

 

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae salicifolia L. ) plant: As source donor of cold tolerant genes for improving high altitude agriculture during cold stress

 

Sanjay Mohan Gupta* and Zakwan Ahmed

Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering Lab, Defence Agricultural Research Laboratory, DRDO, Haldwani - 263 139, India

e-mail: smg555@rsediffmail.com

(Received: April 02, 2010; Revised received: July 25, 2010; Accepted: August 02, 2010)

 

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Abstract: Cold stress is a major environmental factor limiting the geographical locations suitable for growing plants and periodically account for significant losses in plant productivity. Cold stress cause losses worth hundreds of million dollars each year due to reduction in crop productivity and crop failure that also threaten the sustainability of agricultural industry. It is now well known that the stress signal is first perceived at the membrane level by the receptors and then transduced in the cell to switch on the stress responsive genes for mediating stress tolerance. Understanding the mechanism of stress tolerance along with a plethora of genes involved in stress signaling network is important for crop improvement. Modern biotechnology has the tools to develop cold tolerant varieties, which enhance the productivity and profitability of farming. The present article examines the use of cold tolerant genes of Seabuckthorn plant for the development of cold tolerant transgenics in vegetables crops. Such crops may not only bring additional areas under cultivation but also help in optimizing productivity in high altitude and remote areas without any additional cost.

Key words: Abiotic stress, Cold stress, Cold tolerant genes, High altitude agriculture, Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene, Seabuckthorn plant, Hippophae salicifolia

22.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(3) 113-114 (2010)

 

The first cytotaxonomic report in two forms of

Charavulgaris complex (Div. Charophyta)

 

Vijay Kumar Singh*1 and B.R. Chaudhary2

 

1Department of Biotechnology, CSJM University, Kanpur - 208 024, India

2Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Banaras Hindu University Varanasi - 221 005, India

e-mail: vijaysbhu@gmail.com

(Received: March 08, 2010; Revised received: July 15, 2010; Accepted: July 28, 2010)

 

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Abstract: The chromosome count (n=14) has been reported for the first time in two forms of Chara vulgaris complex (i.e for C. vulgaris f. crispa and C. vulgaris f. excelsa ). Total form % for C. vulgaris f. crispa was 28.30 and for C. vulgaris f. excelsa was 30.09 . The karyotype of C. vulgaris f. crispa include one median, , six sub median and three sub-terminal centromeres and the four remaining ones seem to possess terminal centromeres while in C. vulgaris f. excelsa six chromosomes are characterized by sub-median, five by sub-terminal and the remaining three by terminal centromeres.

 

Key words: Chara vulgaris complex, Chromosom number, Karyotype

23.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(3) 115-122 (2010)

 

Soil microarthropod population responses as evaluation indices for afforestation practices in laterite wastelands

Sonalika Das, Saswati Mukhopadhyay and V.C. Joy*

Soil Ecology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan – 731235, India

e-mail: vcjoy11@visva-bharati.ac.in, vcjoy12@rediffmail.com

(Received: April 04, 2010; Revised received: July 12, 2010; Accepted: July 15, 2010)

 

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Abstract: Impact of afforestation in improving the biological activity of soil in tropical laterite wastelands was compared from the population responses of soil microarthropods and the zone of preference of Collembola to soil nutrients. The soil microarthropod fauna predominated by detritivorous and fungivorous groups are functionally very important components of soil food web. The study was conducted in selected afforested stands of Cassia siamea (Lamk.), Shorea robusta (Gaertn), Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) and Acacia auriculiformes (A.Cunn. ex. Benth) trees. Microarthropod density was more in the soil of C. siamea and D. sissoo ascompared to the area dominated by S. robusta and A. auriculiformes during all the seasons. Collembola was the major group in all the sites and Collembola and Acari together formed more than 80% of total population. High density of soil micro-arthropods during monsoon months followed by significant decline in the dry seasons (p<0.05) showed their sensitivity to soil parameters. A similar trend of distribution of Collembola was observed in a mature stand of C. siamea trees also. The nutrient status showed clear difference between soils, C. siamea and D. sissoo were nutrient-rich but S. robusta and A. auriculiformes were nutrient-poor sites. Except soil temperature, all parameters were positively correlated with the population, and significantly for EC, organic carbon and moisture content (p<0.05); the negative relation of Collembola with temperature was also valid (p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis ascertained cumulative effect of soil parameters (p<0.02) on population buildup. The zone of preferences of Collembola to soil factors was evident from their abundance; the number was less at high temperature and at low moisture, abundant at more or less neutral pH and moderate EC, but preferred high OC and low nitrate N. The present results showed that C. siamea and D. sissoo trees are more suitable than A. auriculiformes and S. robusta trees for restoration of soil health in eroded laterite wastelands.

 

Key words: Soil microarthropods, Collembola, Afforestation, Laterite wastelands, Soil nutrients, Zone of preference

24.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(3) 123-132 (2010)

 

Impact of community intervention on grass stock at gunung merapi national park (Southern), Java, Indonesia

 

Priyono Suryanto1,2*, Mohd Zaki H.2, Azani M.A.2 and Azmy Mohamed2

 

1Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University-55281, Yogyakarta - Indonesia

2Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia

e-mail: psuryanto@ugm.ac.id

(Received: Februry 21, 2010; Revised received: July 25, 2010; Accepted: July 28, 2010)

 

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Abstract: Gunung Merapi National Park (GMNP), a new national park, was known its ecological functions and the local community is very much depending on the area. The main objective of this study was to determine the intervention level of the local community on the grass stock and create a scheme to minimalize the intervention at GMNP. A line plot sampling method was applied based on the distance between the village (Kaliadem and Jambu) and the national park. Therefore, the sampling area was divided into five zones which are Zone I, II, III, IV and V. The existing stand was analyzed using the biodiversity index while distribution of species was calculated by agglomeration and dispersion index, the similarity in the pattern of the ecosystem was analyzed using hierarchical clustering and the intervention of the local community was determined using the intervention index.The scheme was created using the allometric model. The result showed that the diversity index for trees in GMNP is very low with the number of trees between 1-3 species. Meanwhile, the distribution pattern of the trees at all zones is clumped with Dispersion Index (IE) more than 1.27 or Agglomeration Index (R) less then 2.15. The ecosystem at zones II, III and IV possesses a similarity, whereas zones I and V have a trend in forming the ecosystem which is different from the other zones. Based on intervention index at GMNP area involved on going local community intervention. Three schemes were labelled as scheme 1 (implemented zone system GMNP version), scheme 2 (intensification traditional zone) and scheme 3 (synergistic schemes 1 and 2).

Key words: National park, Diversity, Community, Intervention, Scheme opportunity

25.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(3) 133-138 (2010)

 

Impact of copper toxicity on black gram and its remedial approach for minimization of metal toxicity

 

Dharam Singh1*, Neelam Shakya1, Dileep Kumar Katiyar1, Anju Verma1, Ram Narayan2 and Rahat Niyazi1

 

1Department of Environmental Sciences, IBSBT, CSJM University, Kanpur-208024, India      

2Department of Microbiology, IBSBT, CSJM University, Kanpur-208024, India

e-mail: ds_envi@rediffmail.com

(Received: January 09, 2010; Revised received: July 27, 2010; Accepted: July 29, 2010)

 

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Abstract: In present study growth and metabolism was evaluated on black gram (Vigna mungo L) in petridish culture experiments at graded levels of copper (0.5, 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1as CuSO4) were investigated under controlled laboratory condition. The control and 0.5 mg L-1 Cu applications showed increase in seedling growth as plumule and radicle length, fresh and dry weight, moisture percentage, SVI, chlorophyll, pheophytin, carotenoid and protein contents were increased and less phytotoxicity percentage, respectively. The seeds germination percentage, plumule and radicle length, SVI, fresh and dry weight, moisture percentage, pigments and protein contents were gradually decreased and increase phytoxity percentagewith increase in copper concentration. While application of potassium was increased the seed germination percentage, plumule and radicle length, SVI, fresh and dry weight, moisture percentage, pigments and protein were increased and decrease phytoxity percentage. The control and low level supply of (0.5 mg L-1 Cu treated seedling) showed better seedling growth, pigmentand protein contents. The level of potassium by copper application was invariably reduced toxicity in all the cases of plant seedlings tissues.

Key words:Black gram, Copper, Potassium, Growth, Chlorophyll, Protein

26.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(3) 139-142 (2010)

 

Sunthrin-25 induced biochemical alterations in fresh water fishes, Channa Punctatus at lethal exposure

 

K. Zahra and A.K. Vishwakarma

 

Department of zoology, Bipin Bihari (P.G.) College,Jhansi (U.P.) India

e-mail: zoology_fish2007@yahoo.com

(Received: March 22, 2010; Revised received: July 15, 2010; Accepted: July 22, 2010)

 

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Abstract:Fish live in very intimate contact with their environment and are very susceptible to physiochemical changes which may be reflected in their blood components. Any changes caused by toxicants alter the homeostasis as affecting the blood parameters and functions of liver of the fishes. By studying the effect of biochemical parameters like enzymes it can be possible to identify environmental problems before the health of fishes of the aquatic system altered. This study assessed the effect of cypermethrin (25 %EC) (Trade name – Sunthrin -25) on certain enzyme activities in fresh water teleosts, Channa punctatus. The LC50 values of cypermethrin were estimated by Direct interpolation method. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs. values for cypermethrin (25% EC) were determined to be 0.0102 ml l-1, 0.0092 ml l-1, 0.0080 ml l-1 and 0.0065 ml l-1 respectively. For biochemical investigation fishes were divided into (1) control group without toxicant and (2) Treated groups treated with 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs. LC50 values of cypermethrin (25%EC) and measured the activity of Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase, Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase, Serum alkaline Phosphatase and Serum Acid Phosphatase. The results showed that the activity of S.G.O.T. in treated group was 61.6, 68.47, 76.33 and 85.63 IU l-1 after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs. respectively. The activity of S.G.P.T. was increased significantly (P<0.05) as compared to untreated control. It was 62.8 IU l-1 at 24 hrs. but 90.8 IU l-1 at 96 hrs. The values of serum ALP in control group was approximately 74.0-76.0 IU l-1 but in treated group it was two fold increased. The activities of treated serum ACP were also progressively 5-7 times increased. All these enzymes showed significant elevation (P<0.05) when compared to untreated control group.

 

Key words:Channa punctatus, Sunthrin-25, SGOT, SGPT, SALT, SACP

 

27.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(3) 143-146 (2010)

 

Preliminary study on the physico-chemical aspects of mangalore coastal pollution

Francis Andrade*, H.B. Aravinda˛ and E.T. Puttaiah1

ąDepartment of Environmental Science, Kuvempu University, Shankeraghatta, Shimoga - 577 451, Karnataka, India

2Department of Civil Engineering Bapuji Institute of Engineering and Technology Davangere-577 004 Karnataka, India

3Department of Environmental Science, Kuvempu University, Shankeraghatta, Shimoga - 577 451, Karnataka, India

 

e-mail: andradefm@rediffmail.com

(Received: March 28, 2010; Revised received: July 26, 2010; Accepted: July 28, 2010)

 

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Abstract: Mangalore coast is known for its scenic beauty.This coast is located on the western side of the western ghats. This coast is stretched to about 22 Km and the main occupation of the people living nearby is fishing. The coastal water nowadays are being polluted due to the pumping of huge quantity of industrial waste, from the nearby chemical factories, Iron ore company, oil refineries and the municipal sewage waste. This pollution load is discharged in to the sea either directly or through the major west flowing rivers of the region,namely- Nethravathi and Gurupura.Tthe present study include bothbiodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutent. The physico-chemical parameters of the samples collected revealed vast deviation from the standards.The preliminary study carried out during 2007 by considering 6 randomly selected study sites S1 to S6, which are subjected to heavy input of pollution load.The various parameters of water analysis data in the study sites have revealed difference from one site toanother. pH values observed during pre-monsoon season varies from 7.10 to 7.96.Duringmonsoon it varies from 8.01 to 8.66.During post-monsoon it varies from 6.79 to 8.02. Total hardness varies from 4.1to 6700 mg L-1. BOD varies from 0.98to 19.10 mg L-1. DO ranges from 3.59to7.98 mg L-1.These values prompt to carryout further research to substantiate using standard methods.

 

Key words: Coast, Mangalore,Water analysis, Pollution

28.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(3) 147-152 (2010)

 

Long term effect of chromium toxicity on crop plants

with remedial approach of certain nutrients

 

Kamlesh Nath1, Poonam Misra1 and Dharam Singh2

 

1Laboratory of Environmental Sciences, Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow -226 007, India

2Department of Environmental Sciences, IBSBT, CSJM University, Kanpur-208024, India

e-mail: nathkamlesh@rediffmail.com

(Received: January 21, 2010; Revised received: July 02, 2010; Accepted: July 08, 2010)

 

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Abstract: This study was performed to explore the toxic effect of chromium on crop plants and also to know the long term effect of Cr toxicity in Cr contaminated soil with remedial approach of certain nutrients. In the Pot experiment different dilutions of Cr+6 i.e. 0.5, 2, 5, 10 ppm were selected to see the toxic effect and for the recovery of plant damage 10 and 25 ppm of ZnSO4, K2SO4 and FeSO4 were used. Raphanus sativus were grown as first crop of experiment while Zea mays grown as a follow-up crop (grown in residual soil of Radish crop). In Raphanus sativus all leaf parameters increased gradually as the chromium concentration increased. In recovery treatments all the leaf parameters were higher when treated with 10 ppm of chromium in combination with 25 ppm of ZnSO4, FeSO4 and 10 ppm of K2SO4. All root parameters except root length were lowered gradually as the chromium concentration increased. At 45th and 90th day chlorophyll content (total, ‘a’ and ‘b’) decreased as the chromium concentration was increased. Pheophytin contents and total carotenoid decreased gradually from control to 10 ppm chromium at 45th day. Pheophytin contents at 90th day increased in 0.5 ppm chromium and started to decrease from 2 ppm to 10 ppm chromium. Total carotenoid at 90th day showed same pattern. While in Zea mays all growth and plant productivity parameters decreased gradually from control to 10 ppm chromium except dry weight, moisture %, and length of cob. All parameters showed recovery 10 ppm of chromium in combination with 25 ppm of ZnSO4, K2SO4 and FeSO4 if compared with their 10 ppm combinations. Chlorophyll contents (total, ‘a’ and ‘b’) increased significantly with increased concentration of chromium at 45th day but decreased significantly at 90th day. Pheophytin (total, ‘a’ and ‘b’) and total carotenoids which were increased as the chromium concentration increased significantly at 45th day while at 90th day total pheophytin and carotenoid contents were significantly decreased as chromium concentration was increased. In recovery treatments at 90th day they were observed higher with 10 ppm of K2SO4, FeSO4 and 25ppm of ZnSO4 when used with 10 ppm of chromium.

 

Key words: Raphanus sativus, Zea mays, Pheophytin, Chlorophyll, Carotenoid, Chromium, Zinc, Potassium, Iron

 

29.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(3) 153-158 (2010)

 

Effect of benzyl adenine (BA) on flowering responses, metabolites and enzymes activity in Cucumis sativus

 

G. Tewari*, S. Kaur, M. K. Soni and Y.K Sharma

 

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow - 226 007, India

e-mail: tewarigopal@gmail.com

(Received: January 28, 2010; Revised received: July 29, 2010; Accepted: August 05, 2010)

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Abstract: The effect of different concentrations of Benzyl adenine (BA), given for varying durations at seed germination stage, on floral induction in cucumber were explored in this experiment. Seeds of Cucumis sativus L. were soaked in different concentrations of BA (0.5 µM, 5.0 µM and 50.0 µM) in petridishes with varying durations (24, 48 and 72 hr). The days to anthesis were highest in control for male flowers (49.66) which gradually reduced as the increasing concentration of BA was applied to the seeds. The average nodal position bearing first male flower was highest in control which consistently decreased with increasing concentration and duration of BA treatment. Pollen sterility showed an increasing trend with the increasing application of BA. The formation of female flowers was, however, delayed on the application of BA, with the days to anthesis of female flowers increasing with the increasing concentration and duration of BA application. Total sucrose content during pre-flowering stage was highest in control, but on treatment with BA it decreased to a significantly low value of 205.0 µmol g-1 fresh weight in plants raised from the seeds that were treated with 50 µM BA for 72 hr. The starch content, was lowered at the flowering stage as compared to pre-flowering stage in all the plants. The total protein content, increased over control with the increasing concentration and duration of BA application to the seeds. During pre-flowering stage the sucrose synthase activity consistently decreased as compared to control with the increasing concentration of BA. At pre-flowering, acid invertase activity was 103.38 µmol g-1 fresh weight in control which increased to 114.00 µmol g-1 fresh weight when 0.5 µM BA was applied to the seeds for 24 hr. At the pre-flowering stage, the activity of IAA oxidase increased as compared to control with the increasing concentration of BA. The increased duration of BA treatment also increased the IAA oxidase activity. The maximum activity of PPO at pre-flowering as well as at flowering stage was recorded in plants that were developed from the seeds treated with 50 µM BA for 72 hr. The highest peroxidase activity was also recorded in plants to which 50 µM BA was applied at seed germination stage for 72 hours, at both pre-flowering stage and flowering stage.

 

Key words: IAA, PPO, Peroxidase, Acid invertase, Sucrose, Flowering, Pollen sterility

 

30

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(3) 159-162 (2010)

 

Phytotoxic effect of mercury on mustard (Brassica compestris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seedlings

 

Poonam Misra*

 

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow -226 007, India

 

e-mail: dr.poonammisra@yahoo.com

(Received: January 28, 2010; Revised received: July 27, 2010; Accepted: August 04, 2010)

 

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Abstract: Decrease in the number of roots, Leaf tip damage, brown coloration and reduced size of lamina was observed at increasing doses of mercury in both seedlings. Supply of 1 and 2 mM of mercuric chloride caused increase in the activity of catalase enzyme in mustard plants. While, at highest doses of this metal, catalase enzyme showed adverse effect. Activity of catalase was found 2 to 7 fold higher in cowpea plant due to supply of different doses of Hg. With increasing supplementation of mercury significant decrease was observed in both plants. Peroxidase also showed similar results with 1.0 and 2.0 mM of mercury in mustard plants. Significant decrease of chlorophyll with increasing mercury concentration in the solution has been observed, maximum decrease. Graded level of mercury caused reduction in the total chlorophyll concentration in cow pea while at 4 mM Hg decreased by 45% as compared to the control plants. However, plant treated with 1 mM concentration of Hg, caused reduction in chlorophyll content only by 15%. No significant change in protein content was observed at 2 mM concentration of mercury in leaves of the mustard. However, a significant increase in protein content was found at highest level. Sugar content in mustard leaves of plants treated with Hg in different concentration decreased as compared to the control plants. Concentration of sugar in mustard seedlings evaluated from lower to higher dose of Hg. Maximum evaluation in sugar content was observed at highest dose of Hg.

 

Key words: Mercury, Brassica compestris, Vigna unguiculata, Catalase, Peroxidase, Pigments, Sugar, Protein

 

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