RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-3, Number-4, November-2010

 

31.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(4) 163-168 (2010)

 

Evaluation of water quality and plankton population in a perennial shallow lake

R. Shanthi1, P. Saravana Bhavan1*, P. Vijayan2, S. Radhakrishnan1 and S. Karpagam3

 

1Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore – 641046, India

2Annamalai University Study centre, Salem - 636001, India

3Department of Educational Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore – 641046, India

*e-mail: bhavan@buc.edu.in, bhavanps1967@yahoo.in

(Received: April 02, 2010; Revised received: October 05, 2010; Accepted: October 08, 2010)

 

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Abstract: The phytoplankton and zooplankton populations in relation to physicochemical parameters of a perennial shallow lake at Sulur (11°1’42"N 77°6’54"E), Coimbatore (South India) was studied for a period of six months from October, 2007 to March, 2008. This is to assess its suitability for inland aquaculture. The physico-chemical parameters, such as temperature (26-29o C), salinity (0.25-0.48 g Kg-1) and free ammonia (0.22-1.15 mg L-1) levels were found to increase from rainy months (October and November) to winter months (December and January) and to early summer months (February and March). Correspondingly, the populations of phytoplankton and zooplankton were found to increase during the study period from rainy to early summer months. Therefore, the relationship between plankton abundance and these water quality parameters were positively correlated. However, dissolved oxygen (7.4-6.2 mg L-1), pH (7.7-6.3), total alkalinity (240-165 mg L-1), total hardness (195-149 mg L-1), total dissolved solids (398-258 mg L-1), iron (2.08-0.8 mg L-1), nitrite (0.22-0.15 mg L-1), nitrate (5.0-1.5 mg L-1), chloride (40-22 mg L-1), phosphate (0.06-0.03 mg L-1),sulphate (18-11 mg L-1) and fluoride (0.4-0.2 mg L-1) were found to decrease fromrainy months to early summer months. Therefore, these parameters were negatively correlated with the phytoplankton and zooplankton populations. The presence of members of three families of phytoplankton, bacillariophyceae, chlorophyceae and cyanophyceae were observed. Among these chlorophyceae remains dominant (690-2320 No. of ind.L-1) followed by bacillariophyceae (586-2250 No. of ind.L-1) and cyanophyceae (545-1250 No. ind.L-1). Similarly, the presence of members of zooplankton, copepoda, ostracoda, cladocera, protozoa and rotifera were recorded. Among the zooplankton copepoda (908-1378 No. of ind.L-1) was found to dominant followed by ostracoda (650-1020 No. of ind.L-1), cladocera (565-1150 No. of ind.L-1), protozoa (595-835 No. ind.L-1) and rotifera (545-930 No. of ind.L-1).The results suggest that the lake was oligotropic in nature with good primary productivity. Thus, it may be utilized for inland aquaculture of fishes.

 

Key words: Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, Water quality, Shallow Lake

 

32.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(4) 169-172 (2010)

 

In-vitro evaluation of some higher plants against pathogen Cercosporidium personatum, the causal organism of Tikka disease of ground nut

S.K. Sahoo1*, Aditya Verma2 and A. R. Saxena3

 

1Department of Botany, S.B.S.D.B.P.G. College, Amari Dullahpur, Ghazipur-233 001, India

2Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow- 226 007, India

3Department of Botany, D.A.V.P.G.College, Azamgarh-276 001, India

*e-mail: drsantoshksahu@yahoo.in

(Received: December 29, 2009; Revised received: September 25, 2010; Accepted: October 08, 2010)

 

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Abstract: An screening the extract of different parts of 95 higher plants belonging to 51 families were screened for antifungal activity against Cercosporidium personatum by the poisoned food technique. The leaf of Murraya koenigii Linn. Exhibited absolute toxicity against the test fungus inhibiting the mycelial growth maximum.

 

Key words: in vitro, antifungal higher plants

33.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(4) 173-176 (2010)

 

Induction of oxidative stress due to Cd toxicity and stimulation of antioxidant in cauliflower

 

Fauzia Siddiqui* and P.K. Tandon

 

Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Lucknow - 226 007, India

*e-mail: fauzy@rediffmail.com

(Received: April 12, 2010; Revised received: October 26, 2010; Accepted: October 30, 2010)

 

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Abstract: In present study toxic effects of cadmium (Cd) and its detoxifying responses in Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L . have been investigated. Brassica oleracea L. is one of the commom vegetable. Plants were exposed to various concentrations of cadmium accumulated good amount of cadmium in root and shoot with increasing concentration.Reduction in biomass, photosynthetic pigments and protein level at higher concentrations were evaluated as gross effect, while induction in lipid peroxidation reflected oxidative stress. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were monitored as plants primary and metal detoxifying responses. Enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase showed stimulation at lower concentrations. Cysteine was found to increased at lower concentrations, However plant showed progressive increase in non-protein thiols and proline content at all concentrations. The study concludes that plant could tolerate Cd toxicity at lower concentrations at higher concentration plant could not tolerate oxidative damage.

 

Key words: Cadmium, Brassica oleracea, Photosynthetic pigments, Antioxidants,

34.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(4) 177-182 (2010)

 

Flow through a pipe with two plane walls and two wavy walls: The symmetric case

 

Akhilesh Tripathi*

 

Department of mathematics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, India

*e-mail: sv.datta@gmail.com, nivelesh@rediffmail.com

(Received: January 02, 2010; Revised received: March 18, 2010; Accepted: March 23, 2010)

 

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Abstract: The rectilinear pipe bounded by four wavy plates has possible applications in oil recovery, biological transport processes, polymeric composite manufacturing and for enhancement of heat transfer in heat exchangers. In this paper we model steady viscous flow of Newtonian fluid through a long square sectioned pipe bounded by four walls separated by a constant mean distance 2h in which two opposite planes are sinusoidally varying but having phase difference of; the other two opposite walls are planar ones.

 

Key words: Pipe, wavy walls, Reynolds number, non orthogonal coordinates

35.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(4) 183-188 (2010)

 

Effect of heavy metals (Ni and Pb) stress on sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

Poonam Misra*, Kamlesh Nath and P.K. Tandon

 

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow -226 007, India

*e-mail: dr.poonammisra@yahoo.com

(Received: January 02, 2010; Revised received: September 25, 2010; Accepted: October 08, 2010)

 

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Abstract: Nickel in lower amounts caused a conspicuous increase of plant growth in sugarcane cultivar. Protein content increased significantly with 2.0 and 4.0 mM of nickel in leaves of sugarcane plants. The maximum decrease in sugar of 85.1% was noticed at 4.0 mM dose of nickel. Younger leaves of lead treated plants showed maximum effect in the form of yellowing of leaf and reduced leaf area and bending of margin of leaf in sugarcane plants. Inhibition in the growth of sugarcane plants was started even at 1.0mM dose of Pb. At 4.0mM dose of Pb 15 folds reduction of sugar content was observed. Protein content of this plant exhibited positive responses with supply of 1.0 to 4.0mM concentration of Pb. The concentration of chlorophyll‘a’ and ‘b’ was also decreased with increasing concentration of nickel. Chlorophyll ‘a’ was more sensitive at all concentration of Ni than chlorophyll ‘b’. Total chlorophyll contents of sugarcane plant was stimulated at 1.0 mM of this metalThe concentration of ‘a’, ‘b’ and total chlorophyll in leaves of sugarcane plants decreased significantly with increasing levels of lead. Pheophytin also showed same trend with nickel, except pheophytin ‘b’ at 1.0mM concentration. The plants that were grown at 2.0 mM dose of nickel gave minimum activity of this enzyme as compared to control. Activity of , and total amylase in plant leaves increased at increasing concentration of nickel. Catalase activity was found to be decreased at excess doses of lead. Maximum reduction in catalase activity was measured at 2.0mM of Pb. Activity of a , and total amylase showed variable results with different increasing concentration of lead in sugarcane plants. -amylase had non significant response at 1.0 and 4.0mM dose of Pb and inhibitory effect at 2.0mM concentration of Pb. Activity of -amylase inhibited at 1.0 and 4.0 mM of Pb and stimulated at 2.0 mM concentration.

Key words:Pb, Ni, Saccharum officinarum, Catalase, Peroxidase, Pigments, Sugar, Protein

 

36.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(4) 189-194 (2010)

 

Biochemical changes and Bioaccumulation in Raphanus sativus and Zea mays grown on chromium contaminated soil

 

Kamlesh Nath

 

Laboratory of Environmental Sciences, Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow -226 007, India

e-mail: nathkamlesh@rediffmail.com

(Received: February 22, 2010; Revised received: September 15, 2010; Accepted: September 21, 2010)

 

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Abstract:Tannery is one of the major consumers of water and the effluent discharged from it, contains hexavalent Cr. It is a heavy metal and when concentration exceeds a particular limit, it becomes mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic. Wastes from tanneries are useful slow-acting sources of nitrogen for crops. The pot experiments were performed on radish (as a first crop) and maize (as a fellowup crop). In fellow up experiments, pots previously given treatments were used without and further treatments of chromium/ zinc, potassium or iron applications, just grew on distilled water.On other hand, in fallow-up experiment the maize crop was grown in residual soils of radish crop. In radish leaves at 45th day protein gradually increased from 0.5 to 5 ppm chromium and decreased with 10 ppm chromium. Sugar was increased at 0.5 ppm and decreased from 2 ppm to 10 ppm of chromium concentration. Catalase and peroxidase increased as chromium concentration increased from 0.5 ppm to 10 ppm at 45th day in leaves. The chromium concentration in leaf and root were increased with increase in concentration of 10 ppm chromium over control which was found decreased in recovery treatments over 10 ppm chromium. The concentration of zinc, potassium and iron were found increased over control but at higher concentration it was slightly decreased in both leaf and root. In recovery treatments, the concentration of these elements was found increased over 10 ppm chromium. In maize (fellowup experiment) at 45th day, protein and sugar decreased gradually with increasing concentration of chromium. In recovery treatments when 10 ppm of chromium was applied with 25 ppm zinc sulphate, iron sulphate and 10 ppm of potassium sulphate, caused higher protein and sugar contents. The catalase and peroxidase were increased with increase in chromium concentration while catalase was found decreased at 10 ppm of chromium concentration. The chromium concentration significantly increased with increasing concentration of chromium in both leaf and seeds. The recovery treatments of zinc, potassium and iron, successfully reduced the toxicity of chromium in both plants.

 

Key words:Chromium, Zinc, Potassium, Iron, Maize, Radish, Protein, Sugar, Catalase, Peroxidase and Bioaccumulation

 

37.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(4) 195-200 (2010)

 

Combinatorial effect of Low temperature and benzyl adenine (BA) on flowering responses, metabolites and enzymes activity in Cucumis sativus

 

G. Tewari*, S. Kaur, M. K. Soni and Y.K. Sharma

 

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India

*e-mail: tewarigopal@gmail.com

(Received: April 14, 2010; Revised received: October 12, 2010; Accepted: October 24, 2010)

 

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Abstract: Low temperature and BA separately decreased the days to anthesis of male and increases in female flowers. However, this decrease was more pronounced when BA was applied together with low temperature. The days to anthesis of female flowers decline was less pronounced when BA was provided with low temperature than when BA was provided at normal temperature. The average nodal position bearing first male flower also decreased from control on providing low temperature and/or BA to the seeds, alone or in combination, the reduction being more noteworthy when BA and low temperature were given in combination. The significant increase of male flowers was recorded in plants raised from the seeds that were treated with 50 µM BA at normal temperature (21.8). The total number of female flowers formed, however, increased with the exposure of seeds to low temperature but decreased with the application of BA in a concentration dependent manner. The application of BA to the seeds caused a decrease in the sucrose content during pre-flowering stage. Exposure of seeds to low temperature further decreased the sucrose and starch content. Both contents, however, declined when plants shifted from pre-flowering stage to flowering stage. However opposite to the trend shown by the sucrose and starch content, the application of BA to the seeds resulted in a gradual increase in the protein content. This increase was even more when BA and low temperature were given in combination. At pre-flowering stage, the activity of sucrose synthase was increased slightly in plants which were exposed to low temperature during seed germination. Application of BA to the seeds, however, decreased the activity of sucrose synthase, the decline being proportional to the concentration of BA applied. But this decline was somewhat less when BA was provided with low temperature than that when it was applied at normal temperature. Activity of acid invertase, though, showed a tendency just opposite to that shown by sucrose synthase. The activity of IAA oxidase at pre-flowering stage was significantly increased in all the treatments as compared to control, with the increase in the activity being proportional to the concentration of BA applied. However, the exposure to low temperature slightly reduced the activity of the enzyme. The application of BA and exposure to low temperature to the seeds, both enhanced the activity of PPO in a concentration dependent manner at pre-flowering as well as at flowering stage. At flowering stage, again just opposite to the IAA oxidase, the activity of PPO increased from that in pre-flowering stage in all the plants. The peroxidase activity increased slightly on the application of BA and low temperature as compared to control at pre-flowering stage.

 

Key words: Low temperature, Benzyl adenine, IAA oxidase, PPO, Sucrose synthase, Anthesis

 

38.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 3(4) 201-203 (2010)

 

Comparison of sequential and batch bioreactor for colour removal of distillery effluent

 

Radhika Agarwal1*, Dr. Sneh Lata2 and Dr. Meera Gupta3

 

1Deptt. of Chemistry, Ideal Institute of Tech., Govindpuram -201301, Ghaziabad, India

2Deptt. of Botany, M.M.H. Post Graduate College, Ghaziabad- 201001, India

3Deptt. of Chemistry, JSS Academy of Technical Education, Noida - 201301, India

*e-mail: raradhikaagarwal9@gmail.com 

(Received: June 28, 2010; Revised received: October 20, 2010; Accepted: November 08, 2010)

 

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Abstract: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the colour removal efficiency of the microbes with the help of bioreactor in which undiluted distillery effluent is used. This reactor is arranged in laboratory scale using glass columns. The lower portion of the bioreactor contained a layer of gravel (100g), followed by send (50g) and finally by a soil layer (50g). The three layers were used for immobilization of the strains. The performance of bioreactor was analyzed in terms of colour removal over 14 days of operation. The sequential bioreactor was more efficient in comparison to batch bioreactor. The maximum colour removal was found when we used fungus and bacteria both in sequential bioreactor that was 89.91% but in case of batch bioreactor it was 82.92%.

 

Key words: Bioreactor, Colour, Fungus, Bacteria

 

 

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