RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-4, Number-1, February-2011

 

1.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(1) 1-6 (2011)

 

Evaluation of genotoxicity of a municipal landfill leachate by micronucleus test using Clarias gariepinus

 

C.G. Alimba1*, J.K. Saliu2, A. Adesanya2, A.A Bakare3

 

1Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Zoology, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

3Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

 

*e-mail: chivoptera@yahoo.com, calimba@unilag.edu.ng

(Received: October 20, 2010; Revised received: January 15, 2011; Accepted: January 28, 2011)

 

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Abstract: The genotoxic effect of a municipal landfill leachate was evaluated in Clarias gariepinus using the micronucleustest. Fish was exposed to (4.95, 7.42, 14.83 and 29.66% concentration) of the leachate for 28 days and micronucleus analysis performed on peripheral blood erythrocytes. Binucleated and immature erythrocyte formations were considered along with micronuclei as cytogenetic damage indicators. The leachate induced a significant (p<0.05 and p<0.001) concentration dependent increase in micronucleus, binucleated and immature erythrocytes in C. gariepinus. The constituents of the leachate especially the metals were believed to cause the observed cytogenotoxic effects. This implies that solid waste leachate contains constituent capable of altering the genetic make up of aquatic forms and may predispose them to chromosome related disorders. These findings suggest that landfill leachate is capable of polluting the environment and may cause harm to public health if exposed to chemicals in landfill leachates.

Key words: Landfill leachate, Genotoxicity, Micronucleus, Erythrocytes, Cytotoxicity, Clarias gariepinus

2.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(1) 7 -12 (2011)

 

Capturing CO2 from flue gas streams in ammonia plant, waste generation as HSS and its reclamation at CO2 recovery plant, NFCL, Andhra Pradesh (India)

R. Raghavan, G.V.S Anand, P.H.N Reddy, P. Chandra Mohan, V. Appala Raju* andAmar Nath Giri**

Quality & Environment Management System, NFCL, Nagarjuna Road, Kakinada - 533 003, India 

e-mail: *varaju@nagarjunagroup.com, **amarnathgiri@nagarjunagroup.com

(Received: October 24, 2010; Revised received: February 05, 2011; Accepted: February 08, 2011)

 

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Abstract: There are a number of different methods for Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) has concentrated its extensive research and development programs on the use of sterically hindered amines and the post combustion, chemical absorption process in particular for treating flue gasses from natural gas combustion. The CO2 recovery plant consists of three main sections: the flue gas cooler, the absorber (for CO2 recovery) and the stripper (for solvent regeneration). In NFCL Kakinada, the flue gas from primary reformer enters in the flue gas quencher, where it is cooled to 40°C. The flue gas is compressed to a pressure of 1.113 Ksca and enters in the CO2 absorber. The CO2 in flue gas is absorbed by KS-1 (Hindered amine) solvent, which is distributed from top through packed bed system. The CO2 thus liberated is washed with DM water at the top of CO2 regenerator, cooled to ambient temperature in an overhead condenser and sent to urea plants.

 

Key words: Flue gas, Carbon dioxide recovery plant, Chemical absorption, Heat stable salts

3.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(1) 13-16 (2011)

 

Biodegradation of diesel by bacterial isolates and effect of diesel on seed germination in Vigno mungo

M. Kannahi* and P. Sivasankari

PG and Research Department of Microbiology, Sengamala Thayaar Educational , Trust Women’s College, Mannargudi – 614 001, India

*e-mail: kannahisri79@gmail.com

(Received: October 07, 2010; Revised received: February 08, 2011; Accepted: February 10, 2011)

 

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Abstract: Diesel- degrading bacteriahas been isolated from a diesel polluted site. Of the three isolates, the best degrader was selected on the basis of growth in liquid and solid media supplemented with diesel as sole carbon source. The isolates were identified as a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens were further studied in batch culture for its diesel biodegradationpotential under aerobic conditionandwas observed for seven days, where loss in diesel constituent was up to 75%. Germination and growth of Vigno mungo was significantly enhanced in presence of the diesel degrading bacteria.

Key words: Vigno mungo, Diesel degradation, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens and seed germination

4.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(1) 17 -20 (2011)

 

Studies on the production and optimization of phb (polyhydroxy butyrate) using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Rhizobium spp.

N. Uma Maheshwari* and S. Rathimalar

 

P.G. &Research Department of Microbiology, Sengamala Thayaar EducationalTrustWomens College , Mannargudi - 614 001,india

*e-mail: umasamy2004@yahoo.co.in

(Received: October 28, 2010; Revised received: February 15, 2011; Accepted: February 18, 2011)

 

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Abstract: In this present study bacterial species were isolated from the soil sample. Among the bacterial isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Rhizobium spp. were identified based on the cultural, morphology and biochemical characteristics. PHB production of test isolates were screenedby sudan black B staining ( slide and plate method).The isolated organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Rhizobium spp. was grown in fermented medium. Among this study high amount of PHB obtained from Rhizobium spp. compared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PHB production was optimizedby different parameter such as carbon, nitrogen and various pH and temperature. Maximum PHBproduction was observedat pH 7,temperature 350 C, Sucrose asthe carbon sourceandpotassium nitrateasthenitrogensource . From our study concluded that high amount of PHB obtained from Rhizobium spp. compared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among these, Rhizobium spp. highly recommended for commercial production of PHB.

Key words: PHB, Rhizobium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Optimization

5.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(1) 21 -24 (2011)

 

Efficiency of Azolla as a biofertilizer for zooplankton production

A.K. Gupta1*, D. Nigam2 and M.M. Prakash2

1Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology,Udaipur – 313 001, India

        2Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Holkar Science College, Indore – 452 017, India

 

*e-mail: drashokgupta9712@redffmail.com

(Received: November 04, 2010; Revised received: February 02, 2011; Accepted: February 06, 2011)

 

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Abstract: An attempt has been made to study the efficiency of Azolla as a biofertilizer for production of natural fish food organisms, i.e. zooplankton for a period of 28 days. Zooplankton dynamics reveals that production is higher in culture water treated with Azolla as compared to control. The highest (1609 nos. L-1) and lowest (1250 nos. L-1) zooplankton populationwere observed in 3.0 and 1.0 ml L-1 of Azolla respectively. Mean values of zooplankton population showed following trend for Azolla treated water: Cyclops > Daphnia > Brachionus > Nauplii > Moina. Results indicate that Azolla can be used as a pond fertilizer to augment the aquaculture production as it is cost effective, eco-friendly and may supplement organic and chemical fertilizers.

 

Key words:Azolla, Biofertilizer, Zooplankton

6.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(1) 25 -30 (2011)

 

Steady flow through an asymmetric wavy channel: Non-orthogonal coordinates

Akhilesh Tripathi*

 

Department of Mathematics,University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India

*e-mail: nivelesh@rediffmail.com

(Received: September 21, 2010; Revised received: February 07, 2011; Accepted: February 12, 2011)

 

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Abstract:In this paper we consider the steady flow of a viscous fluid through a channel bounded by two sinusoidally varying plates in same phase and separated by a mean distance 2h. For the non-varying channel, the classical parabolic velocity profile for the fully developed flow is well known. An attempt here is made to analyze the flow in a generalized non-orthogonal coordinate system that renders the wavy channels as plane walls. Continuity equation and Navier-Stokes equations are presented in the generalized coordinate system and simplified through use of small perturbation under small Reynolds number approximation. Centerline velocity have been evaluated and discussed.

 

Key words:Wavy Channel, Navier-Stoke equations, Small Reynolds Number, Perturbation, Drag

7.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(1) 31 -34 (2011)

 

Total phenolic content and antioxidative potential of amla and its baked products

Kanika Kulshreshta1*, Jaswinder K. Sangha1and G. Soni2

 

1Department of Food and Nutrition, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141 004, India

2 Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana- 141 004, India

*e-mail: kanika.kulshreshta@rediffmail.com

(Received: September 12, 2010; Revised received: January 25, 2011; Accepted: January 28, 2011)

 

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Abstract: In the present study, value added baked products from fresh and powdered amla (Phyllanthus emblica) were developed and were evaluated for their organoleptic accepatability, total phenol content and antioxidative potential. Varieties used for the study were ‘NA-7’ and ‘Francis’. Amla incorporation at a level ranging between 5 to 30% was found to be highly acceptable organoleptically (p >0.01) on evaluation of fresh amla cake, amla-date cake, amla –apple pie, amla –jam cookies, amla powder cake and amla salty biscuits. Total phenol content of amla pulp, powder , fresh amla cake and amla powder cake ranged between 0.95 to 68 mg/g , the highest being in ‘Francis’ powder and lowest in fresh amla cake. In vitro assay systems were used for evaluating the antioxidative potential using methanol as a solvent. Maximum hydroxyl radical scavenging potential was exhibited by Francis powder(EC50 eq/g=3200) followed by ‘NA-7’ powder (EC50 eq/g=1818.2) and fresh amla cake (EC50 eq/g=154.3). In case of nitric oxide radical, inhibition was shown by pulp only, ‘Francis’ pulp being a better scavenger (EC50 eq/g=869.5) than ‘NA-7’ (EC50 eq/g=689.6). Highest superoxide radical scavenging potential was shown by ‘Francis’ pulp (EC50 eq/g=2000) followed by ‘Francis’ powder (EC50 eq/g= 1538.5) and ‘NA-7’ pulp (EC50 eq/g=1428.6). Thus, ‘Francis’ was found to be superior than ‘NA-7’ in exhibiting antioxidative potential and maximum free radical inhibition in terms of EC50 eq/g was shown by powder followed by pulp.

Key words: Amla, Baked products, Total phenols,Hydroxyl radical, Nitric oxide radical, Superoxide radical

 

8.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(1) 35-38 (2011)

 

Water resource management through rain water harvesting

Shashank Shekhar Mishra* and Ajai Mishra

Centre of Advanced Study in Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India

*e-mail: enviroshashank@rediffmail.com

(Received: October 02, 2010; Revised received: February 01, 2011; Accepted: February 03, 2011)

 

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Abstract: This study presents analysis of the water table position their decline rate due to the urbanization and management through rain water harvesting. The study was performed at 17 piezometers installed by Central Ground Water Board (CGWB). The water table in Lucknow shows the declining behavior where on an average the water table decline is at 1 meter per year. The Lucknow urban centre shows a continuous escalation since 1931. The population of Lucknow in 1901 was 2, 56,239 which became 22, 45,509 in 2001. In order to recognize the economic value of water, it is desirable to undertake policy and institutional changes in the process of water management in the country.

 

Key words: Urbanization, Water resource, Rain water harvesting

9.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(1) 39-48 (2011)

 

Current approaches in food fortification for overcoming micronutrient deficiencies

Rachna Mishra

 

Deptartment of Nutrition, Isabella Thoburn College- 226 007, Lucknow.

 

e-mail: rmrachna@gmail.com

(Received: September 15, 2010; Revised received: January 18, 2011; Accepted: January 20, 2011)

 

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Abstract: The widespread recognition of the importance of micronutrient deficiencies to global health, and the potential to address such deficiencies relatively cheaply through fortification or supplementation, has led to several efforts to support traditional interventions. The role of food fortification in virtually eliminating micro nutrient deficiency is widely acknowledged and recognized. WHO identifies fortification (micro nutrient intervention) as among the most cost effective of all health interventions, but it requires well developed , efficiently monitored and properly regulated pharmaceutical and food processing sectors. Food fortification would be especially beneficial in conjunction with the farming of increasingly micronutrient-laden foods, biofortification, and,biotechnology. These various established alternatives to fortification are examined for their potential and their limitations, with particular attention to industrial fortification that would work wonders for the health of India’s people.

 

Key words: Biofortification, Biotechnology, Micronutrient deficiencies, Food fortification

10

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(1) 49-51 (2011)

 

The influence of di -ammonium phosphate (DAP) on serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase of fresh water edible fish wallago attu

Indu Kumar* and V.M.S. Sriwastwa

 

Deptt. of Zoology, K.N.Govt.P.G.College Gyanpur, S.R.N Bhadohi- , India

 

*e-mail: kumar.indu6@gmail.com

(Received: April 14, 2010; Revised received: January 06, 2011; Accepted: January 18, 2011)

 

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Abstract: The present paper deals with the toxic effect of fertilizer di-ammonium phosphate on the SGPTlevels of fish Wallago attu. Due to the toxic effect of fertilizer di-ammonium phosphate the enzyme level were higly disturbed. The effect of fertilizer di-ammonium phosphate was observed as SGPT levels of fish Wallago attu at six different concentrations for 24 to 144 hr of exposure. At all the concentrations and exposures, the enzyme levels have fallen below control at the terminal hr. In 0.42 and 0.45 g L-1 stress of DAP the SGPT increased at initial hours of exposure anddecreased in the end but in all other concentrations it decreased below the control.

Key words: Di-ammonium phosphate, SGPT, Wallago attu, Serum

 

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