Volume-4, Number-2, May-2011



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(2) 53-56 (2011)


Morphological parameters of scorpion, Buthotus saulcyiin Markazi province of Iran


S. Aslan Faal¹, A. Shayestehfar*2 and S. Mohammadzadeh³


1Islamic Azad university of Ardebil

2Department of biology, Faculty of Science, University of Arak, Iran

3Department of animal science, Faculty of Science, University of Lorestan, Iran


(Received: December 25, 2010; Revised received: April 28, 2011; Accepted: May 04, 2011)


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Abstract: In this study, which has been carried out on scorpion, Buthotus saulcyi in the different areas of the Markazi province. In this species the last metasomal segment is relatively longer and dark yellow in color and they are 15 rows of dens on the moveable fingers. This species is nocturnal and geographically distributed in Markazi province.

Key words: Iran, Morphological parameters, Buthotus saulcyi


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(2) 57 -62 (2011)


A tropospheric ozone: Formation, trends and impact on plant productivity

Supriya Tiwari1* and Vinod Kumar Tiwari2

1Department of Botany, S.S.S.V.S. Government PG College, Chunar, Mirzapur, India

2Department of Botany, Hindu College, Moradabad, India


(Received: December 30, 2010; Revised received: April 05, 2011; Accepted: April 07, 2011)


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Abstract: Tropospheric ozone (O3) is predicted to increase drastically in the coming years especially in south- east Asia, due to climate conditions favourable for O3 formation. Being a secondary pollutant, the concentration of O3 in the troposphere mainly depends upon its different precursor molecules emitted from various sources. O3 had been present in the troposphere since ancient times in traces, however, in the last decade, its concentration has widely increased which is mainly attributed to anthropogenic emissions of O3 precursors. The present review deals with the formation of O3 from different precursor molecules, its trend in the troposphere in the recent times and impact of increasing O3 concentration on plant yield. Increasing O3 levels are of greater concern as its concentration is higher even in the urban fringes and rural areas, which are the centres of agricultural production.


Key words: Troposphere, Ozone, Formation, Anthropogenic, Precursors, Agricultural production


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(2) 63-68 (2011)


Reclamation of sodic soil by organic manure and medicinal plant (Trachyspermum ammi L.)

Alka Upadhyay* and S.N. Pandey

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India


(Received: January 10, 2011; Revised received: May 08, 2011; Accepted: May 12, 2011)


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Abstract: As consequences of increasing population pressure and soil degradation, it has become essential to develop new strategies for agricultural productivity to meet future grain needs. There is tremendous scope to enhance crop production by converting sodic lands of India for cultivation of some economically important crop plants. Herbal drugs production is in a great global demand. So, there is great potential to grow medicinal and aromatic plants on sodic soils rather than arable lands, without disturbing the food production for increasing population of the world. Cultivation of salt tolerant plants in problem soils may improve the quality of soil. An experiment was performed to examine the changes in sodic soils after cropping following the incorporation with organic amendments. Results indicated an increase in soil organic matter from 0.14 to 2.51% and decrease in pH from 9.54 to 8.02, electric conductivity (EC) from 0.44 to 0.29 dSm, sodium ions from 4.76 to1.24 meq /100g of soil and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) from 33.45 to 9.24, suggesting qualitative improvement of soil, amended with vermicompost.

Key words: Reclamation, Vermicompost, Sodic soil, Soil fertility, Trachyspermum ammi L.


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(2) 69 -74 (2011)


Sustainable mosquito managment and water purification using botanicals

Abirami Dhandapani*, Murugan Kadarkarai and Shobana Kumar


 Laboratory of Entomology, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University,Coimbatore - 641 046, India


(Received: September 27, 2010; Revised received: April 14, 2011; Accepted: April 18, 2011)


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Abstract: Water is the key to a person’s survival because without water survival is simply not an option.Due to mosquito breeding the water gets contaminated. Mosquitoes are the most single group of insects in terms of public health significance. Mosquitoes are important vectors of several tropical diseases, including malaria, filariasis, and numerous viral diseases, such as dengue, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever. Anopheles stephensi is the main urban vector of malaria in the Indo- Pakistan sub- continent and Middle - East. Malaria is transmitted by the female Anopheline mosquito. In India this species is mainly urban and rural populations.The study was made to evaluate the mosquitocidal (Anopheles stephensi) and water purification properties of extracts of Moringa olifera, and Kaempferia galanga. Botanical pesticides will help to kill the spectrum of mosquito larvae in the breeding habitats. chemicals like zeatin, quercetin, b-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid, cineol, borneol, 3-carene, camphene, kaempferol, kaempferide, cinnamaldehyde, p-methoxycinnaamic acid, ethyl cinnamate and ethyl p-methoxycinnamate are present in the botanicals. These chemicals control the mosquitoes at the breeding sites and at the same time water contaminants were purified and make the water for human usage. Hence, plant products can be readily used for mosquito control as well as water purification process in future.

Key words: Anopheles stephensi, Moringa olifera, Kaempferia galanga, Mosquitocidal, Water purification


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(2) 75 -78 (2011)


Effect of different animal diets on energy budget of fresh water fingerlings Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala


Merlin Dayana L.*, Delphine Rose M.R., Sr. Nirmala T. and Jemima Florence Borgia


Jayaraj Annapackiam College for women (Autonomous),Periyakulam-625601,Theni District


(Received: January 17, 2011; Revised received: May 11, 2011; Accepted: May 13, 2011)


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Abstract: Experiment was designed to investigate the effect of animal food utilization and energy budget of fresh water fingerlings Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala. Experiment was conducted to know the influence of animal diet viz., earthworms, frog thigh muscle, goat liver, egg white on C.catla and C.mrigala.Among the different animal diet earthworm recorded significantly highest growth rate whereas goat liver, frog thigh muscle, egg white diet were showed least influence on growth rate.Further, the study also revealed that animal diet earthworm approached to be more effective in increasing the growth of both fishes.The maximum growth rate was seen in C.catla than C.mrigala in all the animal diet. These results enable us to find out which one is more economical for culturing in large scale.


Key words:Energy budget, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala and Animal diets


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(2) 79 -80 (2011)


Vermicomposts of herbs cum weeds (tephrosia purpurea and tribulus terrestris) Tested on selected vegetable crops


A.Kanimozhi* and Arockiam Thaddeus

PG Department of Zoology, Jayaraj Annapackiam College For Women (Autonomous), Periyakulam-625601, Tamil Nadu, India


(Received: January 17, 2011; Revised received: May 05, 2011; Accepted: May 10, 2011)


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Abstract:Multivarious angles of studies have been undertaken in the present investigation on the herbs cum weeds-Tephrosia purpurea and Tribulus terrestris. These were made into vermicompost using the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. A comparative study was made on the effect of vermicompost with Tephrosia purpurea and Tribulus terrestris on the vegetable crops (Tomato and Brinjal). It was found that the vegetative growth of the vegetable crop was higher in the TtV applied tomato and brinjal plants compared to the TpV applied tomato and brinjal plants. Also in comparison of vegetative growth of control media (tomato and brinjal plants) with the above said plants were lowest. The TpV applied tomato and brinjal plants have shown earlier flowering and high yielding compared to the TtV applied tomato and brinjal plants. Also in comparison of earlier flowering and yielding of control media tomato and brinjal plants with the above said plants were lowest. The impact of weeds on the biomass of the earthworm was tested and was found that the biomass was higher in the Tephrosia purpurea diet than Tribulus terrestris diet.


Key words:Tt V-Tribulus terrestris Vermicompost, Tp V- Tephrosia purpurea Vermicompost


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(2) 81 -86 (2011)


Effect of growth regulators (BA and IAA) on metabolites and enzymes at flowering stage in cucumber


G. Tewari*,Brijendra P. Singh and Y. K. Sharma


Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226 007, India



(Received: November 07, 2010; Revised received: April 04, 2011; Accepted: April 08, 2011)


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Abstract: The changes in the morphological parameters pertaining to flowering in cucumber, under the influence of combination of growth regulators (IAA and BA) are studied. The days to anthesis of male flowers decreased gradually over control when increasing concentration of only BA was applied at seed germination stage. This decline in days to anthesis of male flowers was even more when BA was applied at both seed germination stage as well as at the time of flowering. However, the application of IAA at flowering stage (and BA applied at seed germination stage) led to an increase in this parameter over control while decline in the days to anthesis of female flowers. The application of BA increased, while IAA reduced, the total no of male flowers formation over control. The pollen sterility, though, was increased as compared to control, in all the treatments. The treatment of BA at seed germination stage led to a gradual decrease in the sucrose content during pre-flowering stage in a concentration dependent fashion. The application of BA or IAA at the time of flowering further reduced sucrose content. However, IAA showed a greater effect on the reduction of sucrose content than BA. Occurrence of flowering, like sucrose, caused a decrease in the starch content in all the plants over the respective values at pre-flowering stage too. Protein content showed a trend opposite to that of sucrose and starch. At pre-flowering stage, protein content gradually increased with the increasing concentration of BA given at seed germination stage. Application of BA at the seed germination stage reduced sucrose synthase activity in a concentration dependent manner. Application of BA or IAA at flowering time further lowered the activity of the enzyme, with IAA causing a greater reduction than BA. The activity of acid invertase, showed a trend just opposite to that of sucrose synthase. The activity of IAA oxidase consistently increased as compared to control when increasing concentration of BA was applied at the seed germination stage. Application of IAA at flowering time, however, lowered the activity of IAA oxidase while the application of BA increased the activity of PPO. Thus, significantly higher activity of PPO was recorded in all the three cases when DW, 50 µM BA and 100 mgL-1 IAA was given at the time of flowering. The application of BA and IAA also increased the activity of peroxidase.

Key words: Pre-flowering, IAA, BA, Growth regulators, Metabolites, Enzymes


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(2) 87-88 (2011)


Effect of sugar factory effluent on seed germination and

early seedling growth in cicer arietinum

Kamlesh Nath* and G.K. Singh


Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007, India


(Received: December 15, 2010; Revised received: April 24, 2011; Accepted: April26, 2011)


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Abstract: Lower concentration (10 and 25%) of treated sugar factory effluent slightly reduced the seed germination but seedling growth was enhanced while untreated effluent reduced in all morphological parameters even at lower concentration. The chlorophyll contents, amylase activity, sugar and protein content were also increased while catalase and peroxidase activity decreased at lower concentration of treated effluent. But the untreated effluent of same composition inhibited seed germination and seedling growth, because of the higher organic content, high BOD, COD and rich nutrients, beyond the limits of tolerance. The chlorophyll contents were decreased while amylase activity was highly increased. The 100% untreated effluent was found toxic due to the higher concentration availability of potassium, calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, zinc, iron, etc. and higher grease and oil contents and it completely inhibited seed germination.


Key words: Sugar factory treated - untreated effluent, BOD, COD, and Seed germination.


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(2) 89-92 (2011)


Effect of cypermethrin and neem oil on the physiological parameters of Spinacia oleracea: A comparative study


Tulika Johri*, Akash Vikram and P.K.Tandon

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007, India



(Received: January 02, 2011; Revised received: April 04, 2011; Accepted: April08, 2011)


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Abstract: Use of neem oil in controlled way will be beneficial for Spinacia oleracea plant, as it was found to be non- toxic at least at lower doses. On the other hand use of Cypermethrin as compared to neemoil was generally found to be quite injurious for plant health thus may not be found to be as eco-friendly as bio-pesticide. In spinach, increase in Chlorophyll ‘a’, was observed at 0.2% concentration of neem oil, which decreased on increasing the concentration further. Similar trend was observed on application of cypermethrin but it was found to be more severe than neem oil. A significant decrease in Chlorophyll ‘b’, Total chlorophyll was observed on application of neem oil and cypermethrin. Same trend was observed in Carotenoid concentration. The catalase activity was found to be increased at all the concentrations of neem oil but cypermethrin, increased catalase activity at 0.2% and 0.4% concentrations. Peroxidase activity increased at initial dose (0.2% and0.4%) and decrease was observed at higher concentration of the neem oil and cypermethrin. On application of both pesticides sugar content was decreased on increasing the concentration except Sugar content was increased at initial concentration (0.2%) of neem oil.


Key words: Biopesticide (neem oil), Chemical pesticide (cypermethrin), Chlorophyll, Catalase, Carbohydrate.


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(2) 93-95 (2011)


Determining the efficacy of probiotic buttermilk on patients suffering from infectious diarrhea


Anamika Nag, Neelam Kumari and Kripa Sharma

Department of Nutrition, Isabella Thoburn College, Lucknow


(Received: November 20, 2010; Revised received: May 11, 2011; Accepted: May 15, 2011)


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Abstract: Bioactive components and probiotics in foods and the positive interactions generated by these components are showing promise in reducing risk of certain diseases such as infectious diarrhea and enhancing overall health and well-being. The study was aimed to develop and outline the role of probiotic buttermilk as a general health protective, preventive and cost effective functional food. Through the study an effort has been made to find out the efficacy of buttermilk which is commonly approachable and low cost milk product with ‘probiotics’ acting as neutraceutical in combating intestinal diseases. The study involved the development of probiotic buttermilk (lactobacillus and bifidobacteria preparation), its organoleptic evaluation and clinical trial on 31 diarrheal patients selected purposively. The data was tested at 5% level of significance by applying statistical t-test. Data recorded showed that 100% patients in experimental group recovered with no reoccurrence of diarrhea after the administration of probiotic buttermilk where as only 73.33% recovered with the use of medicine in the control group with 26.66% having reoccurrence of diarrhea after 10 days of medication.Clinical and statistical results of the interventions draw firm conclusions about the efficacy of probiotics in lowering and/or improving the diarrheal symptoms and its reoccurrence.


Key words: Bioactive components,Infectious diarrhea, Probiotic buttermilk, Functional food, Organoleptic evaluation, Clinical trial.