RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-4, Number-3, August-2011

 

21.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(3) 97-98 (2011)

 

The new record for Teratolytta flavipes of blister beetles (Coleoptera: Meloidae) from Iran

 

A.Faraji1, S. Pashaie Rad2 and A. Shayestehfar*3

1Faculty of Biological Science, Islamic Azad University North Tehran Branch,Tehran-1667934783, Iran

2Faculty of Biological Science, Shahid Beheshti University,C.G.Evin-Tehran-196151171, Iran

3 Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak-3815688138, Iran

*e-mail: shayestehfar@hotmail.com

(Received: May 02, 2011; Revised received: August 18, 2011; Accepted: August20, 2011)

 

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Abstract: During the investigation in spring 2010 (April to June) while collecting blister beetles from Namak koor, atArak county, a few specimens of Teratolytta were collected among the other species, which is closely agree with the Teratolytta flavipes. This is the first record of this species of Teratolytta flavipes from Iran.

Key words: Meloidae, Blister beetles, Teratolytta flavipes, new record, Iran

22.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(3) 99 -104 (2011)

 

Biochemical changes in cluster bean after infection with Macrophomina phaseolina and RAPD based genetic variability among cultivated varieties

 

Anubhuti Sharma*, Neha Joshi, Pratibha Sharma and Vinay Sharma

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Banasthali-304022, India

*e-mail: sharmaanubhuti@yahoo.com

(Received: December 22, 2010; Revised received: July 24, 2011; Accepted: July 28, 2011)

 

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Abstract: Defense related enzymes are the key to any resistance or plant pathogen studies. The biochemical response of guar against Macrophomina phaseolina infection was investigated by comparing normal and diseased plants of four varieties of cluster bean i.e. RGC-936, RGC-1002, RGC-1003 and RGC-1031 at different ages after different time intervals of inoculation. There was a marked increase in PAL and phenolics in elicitor treated guar plantlets as compared to control plantlets over a period of 15 days. The maximum accumulation of phenolic acids in infected plants was revealed to be 23% higher than in control after 120 hr of infection in all the four cultivars. Similarly, PAL activity was also significantly increased by 37% after 96 or 120 hr of infection depending upon the cultivar in comparison to control. RAPD analysis has proven to be an effective and efficient method for genetic diversity analysis, varietal identification and mapping of genome. Extracted DNA was amplified with 15 random 10 mers primers and amplified fragments were separated on 1.5% agarose gel and data were analyzed to determine polymorphism. Investigations on the use of RAPD markers enabled us to estimate genetic variability among commercially cultivated varieties. Cluster analysis revealed three different groups of varieties directly associated to their place of origin. RAPD markers were also able to differentiate varieties of same origin or even selection from same parents. This information can be used for identification of varieties and further crop improvement programme.

Key words: Clusterbean, Macrophomina phaseolina, Polymorphism, RAPD

 

23.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(3) 105-108 (2011)

 

Effect of population size and sex on the feeding potential of Poecilia reticulata (guppy) against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae

Saliu, Joseph. Kayode*, Anogwih, Joy. Anuri. and Titus, Okechukwu.Kingsley.

 

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria

*e-mail: saliujk@yahoo.com

(Received: April 15, 2011; Revised received: August19, 2011; Accepted: August20, 2011)

 

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Abstract: The effect of population size, and sex on the larvivorus potential of Poecilia reticulata (Poeciliidae) against Culex quinquefasciatus was investigated. Varying number of fish of similar sizes (3.50±0.20cm) was exposed to a fixed number of larvae. Subsequently fixed number of larvae was introduced to varying population of guppies of different sexes with sizes ranging from 2.10-2.70cm and 3.00-3.80cm for male and female respectively. The number of mosquito larvae consumed in each set up was recorded at time intervals of 10, 30 and 60, 120, 180 and 270 minutes. Each set up was replicated six times. Anova and t- test were used to evaluate the data for statistical significance. The larvivorus ability of guppy increased significantly with increase in population size, and time (p<0.05). Female only populations of guppy consumed more larvae than their male only counterparts (p<0.05). Further investigations on other factors that are likely to affect guppy predatory potentials are required so as to increase its efficiency as a biological control agent against mosquito larvae species.

Key words: Poecilia reticulata, Mosquito larvae,Population, Size, Sex

24.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(3) 109-112 (2011)

 

A case study of integrated fish farming in Uttar Pradesh, India: Profitability and Sustainability

Nurul Haque1, Abubakar Ansari2, Dinesh Kumar2, Ruchi Singh2, Sharad C Srivastava2 and A.K. Singh2*

1Department of Fisheries, Andhrapul, Varanasi-221001, Uttar Pradesh, India

2National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Canal Ring Road, PO-Dilkusha, Lucknow-226002, Uttar Pradesh, India

*e-mail: aksingh56@rediffmail.com

(Received: April 10, 2011; Revised received: August 12, 2011; Accepted: August 14, 2011)

 

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Abstract: Integrated fish farming (IFF) is a sustainable-agriculture technology practiced widely in Asia including India. Amongst all states, Uttar Pradesh is highly rich in fishery resources and fish culture activities. Today many innovative techniques are being practiced for enhancing fish production. Intergraded fish culture is one of them and it is an environment friendly technique to make fish culture in modern mode. In the present study, we have investigated that production and economic viability increases if fish culture is integrated with other live stocks such as prawn farming, and duck keeping. This study on integrated fish farming demonstrated that fish culture along with prawn and duck is economically profitable and fetches high benefits and returns.

Key words: Integrated fish culture, Freshwater, Prawn, Aquaculture, Livestock

25.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(3) 113-114 (2011)

 

Cost effective purification process of raw municipal water for drinking purpose

 

Monika Kamboj*, Richa Khare**, Jaya pandey and Smriti Khare

Department of Chemistry, Amity School of engineering and technology, Lucknow campus

e-mail: monikakamboj@yahoo.com*, richa_khare2005@yahoo.com**

(Received: April 03, 2011; Revised received: August15, 2011; Accepted: August17, 2011)

 

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Abstract: Water is elixir for life. Water is an important national asset and prime resource for the socio-economic development of the country. Potable water scarcity is a crucial issue throughout the globe; however its availability is highly uneven in terms of both space and time. The total fresh water available for drinking is not even pure due to the contamination in water ranging from heavy metals to dissolved organic and inorganic pollutants from various resources. Therefore, there is a dire need for development of water treatment procedure to make water fit for drinking and domestic use. Lime Soda Bleach treatment plant can be promising process used to purify water. Water is purified by the addition of lime (CaO) and soda ash (Na2CO3) that reduces the level of calcium and magnesium in Ist stage of treatment. After that it is deionized and finally it is treated with activated charcoal filter. Analysis at the various stages of treatment allows monitoring the effectiveness of the treatment process, and the analysis of purified water ensures the correct degree of purification, as per required standards, is obtained

Key words: Hardness, De-ionization, Charcoal filter, Treatment plant

26.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(3) 115 -118 (2011)

 

Decolourization of textile dye using Aspergillus flavus and Trichoderma viride

 

M. Kannahi* and N. Uma

P.G. and Research Department of Microbiology, Sengamala Thayaar Educational Trust Women’s College,

Sundarakkottai , Mannargudi-614 001,India

*e-mail: Kannahisri79@gmail.com

(Received: April 28, 2011; Revised received: August25, 2011; Accepted: August26, 2011)

 

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Abstract: This study presents microbial decolourization of textile dye through fungal strains which were collected fromtextile dye disposal area at Kumbakonam. The serial dilution method was used for isolation of fungi. The isolated fungi were identified as Aspergillus flavus and Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus flavus and Trichoderma viride dye decolourization ability were screened by using plating method. PDA broth was prepared and Aspergillus flavus and Trichoderma viride culture were inoculated and incubated at 27oC for 72 hr. After 72 hr, blue and pink dyes were added. Trichoderma viride maximum decolourized the blue and pink colour dye respectively 84.5 and 86.0% compared with Aspergillus flavus. In this study, maximum dye decolourization was noted in Trichoderma viride packed column when compared with Aspergillus flavus packed column. Physico-chemical parameter of dye effluent was analyzed using standard manuals.

Key words: Dye, Decolourization, Textile, Blue dye, Pink dye, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride

27.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(3) 119 -124 (2011)

 

Effect of chromium (VI) on growth and metabolism of Spinacia oleracea (spinach) plants

 

Akash Vikram*, Tulika Johri and P.K.Tandon

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007, India

* email: akashvikram05@gmail.com

(Received: January 15, 2011; Revised received: May 12, 2011; Accepted: May 14, 2011)

 

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Abstract: Heavy metal pollution in environment is of global concern. Chromium has been found to be highly toxic heavy metal, and is found in all the phases of the environment including air, water and soil. It has multifarious industrial uses. The leather industry is the major cause for the influx of chromium to the biosphere. The present study was conducted to evaluate effect of Cr (VI) on the growth and metabolism of Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) plants. The results indicated that with the increasing Cr concentration plant height, number of leaves, fresh and dry weight reduced significantly. The photosynthetic pigments, protein and sugar concentration found to be decreased significantly. The catalase activity was significantly increased with the increase in chromium concentration, it was maximum at 0.25mM and minimum at 1.0mM chromium. However the peroxidase was increased significantly at 0.5mM and 1.0mM chromium concentration.

Key words: Chromium, Spinach, Chlorophyll, Catalase, Carbohydrate, Protein

28.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(3) 125-128 (2011)

 

Assessment of potential plastic degrading fungi isolated from soil buried plastic pieces at Coovam river bank

 

Jayshree Annamalai and Thangaraju Nallamuthu*

Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras,

Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025, Tamil Nadu, India

*e-mail: nthangam@gmail.com

(Received: April 15, 2011; Revised received: August11, 2011; Accepted: August12, 2011)

 

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Abstract: Plastic materials like polyethylene (PE) are the potential source of environmental pollution. Their presence in soil causes infertility of soil, preventing degradation of other normal substances, in addition to which it presents a danger to animal life. In the present study, fungal strains were isolated from soil buried plastic pieces and screened for strains capable of adhering to the surface of PE pieces, through enrichment technique. Growth assessment was made by observing network of fungal hyphae on the surface of the plastic pieces under light microscope. A visible increase in growth of the Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus japonicus was observed on the surface of PE pieces, when cultured in basal medium at 30°C and 150 rpm, for 2 months. When the PE pieces were observed through Scanning Electron Microscope, some changes, like appearance of pits, cracks, and erosions were detected. CO2 evolution as a result of PE biodegradation was calculated gravimetrically by Sturm test.About 1.72and 1.98 g L-1 of CO2 was produced in case of tests, whereas 0.36 g L-1 in case of control. The biomass was also higher in case of tests as compared to control. These observations indicated that Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus japonicus have the ability to degrade polyethylene.

Key words: Biodegradation, Polyethylene, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus japonicus,Scanning electron microscope, Sturm test

 

29.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(3) 129-132 (2011)

 

Impact of tannery effluent on green gram and its damage repair through sewage water

 

Dharam Singh*, Dileep Kumar Katiyar and Anju Verma

Department of Environmental Science, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur - 208024, India

*e-mail: ds_envi@rediffmail.com

(Received: April 18, 2011; Revised received: August03, 2011; Accepted: August06, 2011)

 

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Abstract: A Petridish culture experiment was performed to know the effect of tannery effluent on seed germination and seedling growth in green gram (Vigna rediata c.v Pedium 139). The different concentrations of tannery effluents (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) and combination with sewage water (20%TE+ 5%SW, 30%TE +5%SW, 40%TE+5%SW and 50%TE +5%SW) were prepared. The germination %, plumule and radicle length, fresh weight and dry weight and moisture contents was found to be increased only in 10% tannery effluent over control while all other treatments showed inhibition of germination. In all combinatorial treatments they were increased 20, 30 40 and 50% tannery effluent if compared with tannery effluent alone. All pigments (chlorophyll, pheophytin and carotenoids) decreased with increasing concentration of tannery effluent. In case of recovery (Combinatorial) treatments pigments were increased if compared to 20, 30, 40 and 50% treated effluent alone respectively. Total protein was found decreased as the tannery effluent was increased beyond 10% in concentration. Total protein was increased in recovery treatments if compared with 20, 30 40 and 50% tannery effluent alone respectively.

Key words: Tannery effluent, Sewage water, Grean gram, Toxicity, Seed germination and growth

30.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(3) 133-136 (2011)

 

Production of bioplastic using Spirulina platensis and comparison with commercial plastic

 

N. Uma Maheswari* and K. Ahilandeswari

P.G & Research Department of Microbiology, Sengamala Thayaar Educational Trust, Women’s College, Mannargudi – 614 001, India

*e-mail: umasamy2004@yahoo.com

(Received: April 28, 2011; Revised received: August25, 2011; Accepted: August27, 2011)

 

 

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Abstract: A lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites, as well as growing water and land pollution problems, have led to concern about plastics. Bioplastic was prepared by using Spirulina platensis cultivated in modified Zarrouk medium. The medium was optimized by using sodium acetate in aim of increase the PHB concentration of S. platensis. The S. platensis was measured for total dry weight and PHB content by UV spectrophotometer in before and after optimization. When compared the result of measurements optimized medium contain S. platensis had little higher PHB (6.20 %) content than untreated one (5.18 %). Then S. platensis was harvested and bioplastic was prepared. In addition, chemical based commercial plastic was prepared and compared with bioplastic for plasticizing, moldable property. Biodegrading property and cost were compared by studying the composition. The result showed that the plasticizing and moldable property was good in all plastics. In biodegradation S. platensisbioplastic was considered as better due to presence of PHB content but the cost ofS.platensis was higher than other chemical and organic polymers.

Key words: Bioplastic, Spirulina platensis, Zarrouk medium, UV Spectrophotometer, PHB

 

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