Volume-4, Number-4, November-2011



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(4) 137-140 (2011)


The habits of the African lungfish, Protopterus annectens in laboratory aquaria

A.I. Okafor

Department of Zoology, University of Lagos, Akoka-Lagos


(Received: January 16, 2011; Revised: Received: August 28, 2011; Accepted: September 04, 2011))


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Abstract: The African lungfish, Protopterus annectens is a quiet, nocturnal and slow moving fish while in aquaria. However it is capable of making fast movements when provoked or alarmed. Then it makes a croaking noise as the pelvic, anal and caudal fins are folded tight against the body,while the pectoral fins are fluttered. The fish has the habit of lying calmly at the bottom of an aquarium usually in a coiled form like the letter u, c, I, v, s, n or p. However, from to time, if the water level is high, the lungfish swims to the surface of the water in the aquarium to bring out its head and open the mouth wide to breathe atmospheric air before sinking to its preferred abode at the bottom of the aquarium. But if the water level is reduced, the stress of rising to the water surface is correspondingly reduced, but since the fish, is an obligate air breather it must continue to periodically bring its head out ofthe water in order to breathe air via the mouth and nostrils. Consequently, the level of water required for keeping the fish for long in aquaria should be quite low, to a level slightly below the nostrils. There is a direct linear relationship between the rate of mortality and volume of water in the aquaria (r = 0.9496) and also between this frequency of mouth breathing and water temperature r = 0.9376. The fish is capable of surviving several stressful environmental circumstances such as prolonged starvation, provided the water is renewed regularly and they are not crowded. There are no signs of courtship behaviour in an aquarium

Key words: Laboratory aquaria, African lungfish



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(4) 141 -148 (2011)


Aerobic and anaerobic treatment of paper industry wastewater

N. Kumara Swamy1, 3, Pratibha Singh2* and Indira P. Sarethy1

1Department of Biotechnology, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida-210301, India

2Department of Chemistry, JSS Academy of Technical Education, Noida-210301, India

3Department of Chemistry, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore-570006, India


(Received: April 05, 2011; Revised received: September 22, 2011;Accepted: September 26, 2011)


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Abstract: Pulp and paper mills use a variety of bio-resources to produce paper and generate a huge amount of dark colored wastewater that exhibit harmful effects on the soil and water bodies. The treatment of such wastewaters for removal of color and harmful pollutants is necessary prior to disposal. The different physicochemical treatment techniques such as coagulation, chemical oxidation, ozonation, etc are widely used for treatment of paper industry wastewater. However, these technologies are not clean and cost effective. On the other hand, the biological treatment techniques such as aerobic and anaerobic treatment have been prove to be clean, environmental friendly and in some ways superior than the physicochemical techniques. In this paper, the characteristics of paper industry wastewater and the present state of its bioremediation by different aerobic and anaerobic treatment techniques is reviewed and discussed. It is observed that the aerobic and anaerobic treatment techniques are useful for reduction of color and other pollutants from paper industry wastewater. Further, the review concludes that the combinations of anaerobic and aerobic treatment processes are found to be efficient in the removal of soluble biodegradable organic pollutants.

Key words: Aerobic treatment, Anaerobic treatment, Wastewater



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(4) 149-152 (2011)


Life history of the earwig Forficula auricularia (Order: Dermaptera) in Arak city


A. Shayestehfar* and M. Mahdieh

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Arak -38156-8-7349, Iran


(Received: June 23, 2011; Revised received: October 04, 2011; Accepted: October 05, 2011)


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Abstract: The common earwig Forficula auricularia (Order: Dermaptera), was identified and studied biologically according to the taxonomic keys. In field surveys in summer 2008, earwigs individually and separately were found inside the garden between leaves and flowers and soil, under rocks and pots. Almost at the end of the year in September 2008 males’ tendency to females increased, often under the garden stones and other secure areas males and females in a group were observed. It seems after leaving the group they live in pairs, because the presence of them was recorded in October and November 2008 in pairs and often separately from group. In late January 2009 it was observed that female earwigs have pasted their eggs to the roots of honeysuckle plants (Lonicera caprifolium) and they were resting and taking care of them in depth of 90 to 185 cm, male earwigs at this time were not observed. Eggs hatch with relatively air warming (18 ° C) in the middle of April 2009 began gradually, by decreasing soil moisture and biological temperature increase, nymphs growth would accelerate. At the end of third week the number of dead female earwigs dramatically increased in the environment. Some of dead female earwigs were eaten by their children. At the beginning of June 2009 a number of young male and female earwigs (F2 generation) were collected and studied in laboratory conditions. Observations showed that the second generation has no morphological difference with their parents. At this stage, the only remarkable point was the special stink like gasoil that was being produced by this group of earwigs. From mid June 2009 gradually young earwigs separated from the group and went away. At this stage of life, no sign was recorded to show their tendency to opposite sex. Laboratorial studies at aquarium environment showed that earwigs had good mobility, and were fed until the end of June 2009 as the year continued to live separately, but in any case didn’t mate, didn’t lay and didn’t produce a new generation.

Key words: Life history, Earwig (Forficula auricularia), Arak city, Honeysuckle (Lonicera caprifolium)



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(4) 153-158 (2011)


Zinc removed by microbial process - A viable countermeasure for inorganic pollution


Jankidevi, V.1*, Umarani, R.2, Yokeshbabu, M.1, Nagarani, N.1, Kumaraguru, A.K1

1Department of Marine & Coastal Studies,Madurai Kamaraj University, Maduari-625021.Tamilnadu-India.

2 Faculty of Zoology,Devanga Arts College, Aruppukottai, Tamilnadu-India.


(Received: April 15, 2011; Revised received: October 15, 2011; Accepted: October 18, 2011)


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Abstract: Six species of zinc absorbing bacteria were isolated from a pond nearby are electroplating industry and identified based on biochemical and physiological methods. They were three species of Aeromonas noted as A, E and F and one species of each Micrococcus (B), Staphylococcus (C) and Bacillus (D). The absorption capacities of the organisms were determined in different concentrations of ZnSO4 after 96 hr period. The highest absorption or removal percentages of Zn from 5 ppm were achieved by the isolates B and Fi.e., 72.12 and 67.16% respectively. In the 5 ppm concentration the effect of physical parameters were also determined. In pH 6 the B and E strains gave good results i.e., more than 150 %. Temperature 37 oC, aeration and agitation also improved the zinc absorption. when the organisms were immobilized and introduced in to electroplating effluent, B and F strains gave high-level (70% and 75%) of zinc removal andother strains removed <60%. Compared to free cells, immobilized cells showed greater ability to remove zinc from the industrial effluent.

Key words: Zinc removal, Industrial effluent, Bacteria, Immobilization


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(4) 159-162 (2011)


Efficacy of Bauhinia variegata on acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicty

P. Suganya devi and M. Chitra

Department of Biochemistry, S.T.E.T Women’s College, Mannargudi, Tamil Nadu - 614 001, India


(Received: June 05, 2011; Revised received: October 11, 2011; Accepted: October 12, 2011)

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Abstract: Bauhinia variegata Linn (Kanchnar) is widely used medicinal plant in Ayurvedha, unani and Homoeopathy as tonic to the liver.Hepatoprotective activity of the Bauhinia variegata bark extract against acetaminophen induced toxicity was investigated in this study, and silymarin is used as positive control.Bauhinia variegata (SBE) 500mg/kg was administered orally to albino mice and the biochemical parameters of AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, Bilirubin, were assessed. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections.The results of the investigation reported that Bauhinia variegata is a promising hepatoprotective agent against acetaminophen induced hepato toxicity

Key words: Bauhinia variegata, Acetaminophen, Liver toxicity


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(4) 163 -168 (2011)


Estimation of potable ground water reasonability by Cationanion balance error method


S.B.Basavaraddi1 , Hina Kousar1 and E.T. Puttaiah2

1Department of Environmental Science, Kuvempu University Shankagatta - 577 451, Karnataka, India

2Environmental Science and Vice Chancellor, GulbargaUniversity, Gulbarga - 585 106, Karnataka.India.


(Received: June02, 2011; Revised received:October 03, 2011; Accepted: October 04, 2011)


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Abstract: Ground water is composed of many inorganic and organic constituents. Compared to inorganic constituents; organic constituents are less in ground water. Potable ground water contains inorganic substance or matter in natural conditions. But due to flow of industrial effluents, domestic wastes and human activities, ground water often gets polluted. The chemical composition for certain water is according to what type of rocks was in contact with .The presence of inorganic components in lower/higher concentration that must be treated as pollutants and analyzed from point of view of their effect and life quality .Water quality analysis reveals that change in its taste and odor is due to change of pH. This paper signifies fundamental property of aqueous solution about some metal that might be present in the water to produce low pH in the system. The calculation of cation–anion concentration balance were made by ground water quality analysis of tiptur town and surrounding areas, considering only “dissolved” constituents for its reasonable charge balance.

Key words: Ground water quality, Inorganic-Organic constituents,Cat ion-anion, Reasonability, Balance error


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(4) 169 -176 (2011)


Steady viscous flow through a channel with wavy and plane walls

Akhilesh Tripathi

Department of Mathematics, Isabella Thoburn College, Lucknow-226 007, India


(Received: April21, 2011; Revised received: October 25, 2011; Accepted: November 01, 2011)


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Abstract: In this paper we consider the steady flow of a Newtonian viscous fluid through a rectilinear infinitely long channelbounded by two plates, one is plane and other is sinusoidally varying, separated by a mean distance h. The amplitudeof waviness is taken small so that we may neglect theand higher order terms to obtain the governing equation of fluid flow and flow characteristics.For the non-varying channel, the classical parabolic velocity profile for the fully developed flow is well known. On introducing waviness in the plane wall of the channel, the problem gets complicated. In addition to the axial velocity, transverse velocity also comes into play. An attempt here is made to analyze the flow in a generalized non-orthogonal coordinate system that renders the wavy channels as plane walls. Continuity equation and Navier-Stokes equations are presented in the generalized coordinate system and simplified through use of small perturbation under small Reynolds number approximation. Flow characteristics such as centerline velocity have been evaluated and discussed.

Key words: Wavy Channel, Navier-Stoke equations, Small Reynolds Number, Perturbation, Drag


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(4) 177-180 (2011)


Impact of urbanization on water resource management and land use pattern of Lucknow Urban Centre, India

Shashank Shekhar Mishra* andAjai Mishra

Centre of Advanced Study in Geology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow – 226007, India

* email:

(Received: June 25, 2011; Revised received: November 10, 2011; Accepted: November 12, 2011)

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Abstract: The present study is an attempt to examine the urbanization impact on water resources and its possible management. The Central part of Indo- Gangetic basin, Lucknow is geographically located at 260 30to 270 10N latitude and 800 34’ to 810 12’ E longitude is selected for the study.Sampling was performed at 20 different locations of municipal water supply in June 2010 and 2011 to cover the entire city including areas connected with the filtration plants and other areas where direct or indirect ground water supply is practiced. These samples were analyzed for various parameters to know the physico-chemical, heavy metal and bacteriological properties. The escalated demand has led to the overexploitation of ground as well as surface water in the entire region. The domestic water supply in Lucknow urban area depends on the Gomati River and ground water. The Lucknow urban centre shows a continuous escalation since 1931. The population of Lucknow in 1901 was 2, 56,239 which becomes 3037718 in 2011. The land use pattern in Lucknow urban area shows unprecedented changes. The urban area in Lucknow city has been increased (just double) from 1987 to 2009.

Key words: Urbanization, Land use, water resource, river, population



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(4) 181-184 (2011)


Quantifying the effects of exposure to indoor pollution from biomass fuel combustion on respiratory health of Indian rural women


Aakanksha*1,2, Ratna Katiyar1 and S.K.Rastogi2

1Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow- 226 007, India

2Ex. Emeritus Scientist, I.I.T.R., Lucknow-226 001, India


(Received: June 12, 2011; Revised received: November 11, 2011; Accepted: November 14, 2011)


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Abstract: A clinico-experimental study was undertaken in a nearby village, about 13 km from Lucknow city. The study included 150 rural women in the age group of 13 to 65 years who were involved in domestic cooking with biomass fuels such as fire wood, cow dung cakes, coal and kerosene oil etc. The study was performed to evaluate the health effects of the toxic substances like carbon monoxide, oxides of sulphur and nitrogen (CO, SO2, NOX) emitted during combustion of bio fuels at the time of cooking and the results were compared with those observed in the women using Liquid Petroleum Gas ( LPG).An overall prevalence of 17.3 % of respiratory morbidity in the rural women engaged in domestic cooking with biomass fuels was observed in comparison to 6.9 % noted in the LPG using women. The maximum prevalence of respiratory complaints was recorded among the women who used the fire wood and cow dung together (24.4%). The chief respiratory complaint noted in the women following exposure to domestic smoke pollution was dry irritating cough associated with impaired pulmonary function values suggesting obstructive ventilatory abnormality. Besides high respiratory morbidity, the rural women also exhibited high prevalence of ocular symptoms (23.3%) on exposure to bio fuels particularly in those who used a combination of firewood and cow dung cakes. The predominant ocular symptoms recorded were irritation of the eyes, lacrimation, reddening and pain in the eyes.The study revealed that the rural women exposed to domestic smoke pollution resulting from burning of coal and other bio fuels are at a greater risk of developing respiratory and ocular morbidity accompanied by obstructive changes in the lungs as compared to the women using LPG.

Key words: Biomass fuel, indoor pollution, domestic cooking, rural women.


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(4) 185-187 (2011)


Gender based mathematical modeling for sustainable development of common people

Akhilesh Tripathi

Department of Mathematics, Isabella Thoburn College, Lucknow


(Received: May 15, 2011; Revised received: November 15, 2011; Accepted: November 17, 2011)


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Abstract: This paper is based upon the assumption that the sustainable development of an individual is not totally independent but mutual also and requires a sound balance among the interactions designed to create a healthy economic growth, preserve environmental quality, make wise use of resources, and enhance social benefits. In this paper we attempt to prepare a gender based mathematical model, which describes the relationship between various parameters involved in determining sustainable development of common people residing in a particular region (say ), e.g. Health, income, Employment, Education, human rights, population pressure, Gender balance, Social religious, Environmental problems etc. The mathematics involved in the paper is traditional but application appears to be new.

Key words: Sustainable development, Health, income, Employment, Education, human rights, population pressure, Gender balance, Social, Religious, Environmental problems


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Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(4) 188-190 (2011)


Effect of fertilization with N, P and K on growth, flowering and seed yield in African marigold

Rajesh Kumar Pandey and Shahid Ahamad*

1Division of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, FOA, Main Campus, Chatha

2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, R.S.Pura, Jammu,

Sher-e- Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology ofJammu (J&K), India-180009


(Received: May 18, 2011; Revised received: November 16, 2011; Accepted: November 19, 2011)


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Abstract: Influence of African marigold to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium under Jammu conditions. It was observed that with increasing doses of nitrogen (g/m2), there was increase in plant height, number of flowers per plant, flower yield per plant, flower size and seed yield per plant. At N=20g/m2 these parameters depicted values which were significantly more than those at control (N0) and N=10 g/m2. The independent effects of potassium indicated that increasing dose of potassium also resulted in increased plant height, flower per plant, flower yield per plant, flower size and seed yield per plant. At K2=10 g/m2 dose these parameters were significantly superior to those at K0= 0 g/m2 and K1=5 g/m2 .The observations on the effect of different doses of phosphorus on seed yield and yield contributing characters indicated that at P2(P=20g/m2) there was significant increase in plant height, flower per plant, flower yield per plant , flower size and seed yield per plant in comparison to corresponding values at P0 =0 g/m2 and P1=10g/m2.The higher level of N, P & K resulted in the increase in vegetative, floral characters and seed yield. An application of 20 g N, 20 g P2O5 and 10 g K2O/m2 gave higher yield contributing traits and seed yield.


Key words: African marigold, N, P and K, Flowering, Seed yield


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Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(4) 191-194 (2011)


Effect of salinity stress on pigments in soybean (Glycine max L.)

Naheed Siddiqui* and M. Singh

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow - 226007, India


(Received: November 02, 2011; Revised received: November 26, 2011; Accepted: November 29, 2011)

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Abstract: The first domestication of soybean has been traced to the eastern half of North China in the eleventh century B.C. The Europeans had been aware of soybeans as early as 1712 as evident by writing of a German botanist. The values of chlorophyll concentration found various varieties of soybean have shown gradual loss in retaining photosynthetic pigment i.e., chlorophyll. The loss in photosynthetic pigment is correlated with salinity levels and durations. About 5% chlorophyll was found down-regulated in PS-1241 after 15 days of salinity, which could reach about 15% incase salinity treatments continued till 60 days. The values of carotenoids have shown down regulation ca. 5-9% depending upon treatment levels within 30 days as shown by PS-1241. The enhancement in days after treatment have been found correlated in an increasing order in response to loss in total carotenoids (%).

Key words: Salinity, Chlorophyll, Pigments, Carotenoids, Soybean


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Res. Environ. Life Sci., 4(4) 195-197 (2011)


Drip irrigation regimes and mulches effects on soil temperature

Mohd. Suhail*1 and Shahid Ahamad2

1K.V.K. Lakhimpur-kheri, CSAUAT-Kanpur, U.P., India

2Regional Agricultural Research Station, Rajouri, SKUAST-Jammu, India


(Received: October 18, 2011; Revised received: November 27, 2011; Accepted: November 30, 2011)

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Abstract: The study was carried out during 2005-06 and 2006-07 at K.V.K. Lakhimpur-kheri on drip irrigation regimes and mulching method on nutrient uptake of aonla (Emblica officinalis) cv. NA-10. It is clear from the observation that application of different regimes shows that there is very minute impact on soil temperature. In general higher soil temperature was reported in I1 (IW/CPE=1) irrigation regime. The soil temperature at 15 cm. depth varied in deferent mulches. Maximum soil temperature has been reported in black polythine (M1) followed by control and paddy straw mulch.

Key words: Aonla, drip, fungus, bacteria earthworms