RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-5, Number-1, February-2012

 

1.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(1) 1-4 (2012)

 

Heat relaxation processes in photosynthesis studyedbyphotoacousticspectroscopy

E. A. Zakhidov*, A. M. Kokhkharov, V. O. Quvondikov, Sh. Q. Nematov and A. A. Saparbaev

 

Heat Physics Department, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, 28, Block “C”, Katartal St., Tashkent, 100135, Uzbekistan

*e-mail: ezakhidov@hotmail.com

(Received: September 29, 2011; Revised received: January 14, 2012; Accepted: January 18, 2012)

 

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Abstract: In the paper processes of heat dissipation of the modulated light in leaf tissues are studied using photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy. Possibility of monitoring of photobaric and photothermic components of PA signal at illumination with high and low light intensities and modulation with frequencies of 6 - 400 Hz is shown. Effect of water deficiency in leaf tissues, as well as possible role of photoprotective processes in gradual decline of photothermic dissipation during illumination with saturating light are analyzed.

Key words: Photosynthesis, photoacoustics, photobaric and photothermic signals,heat dissipation

2.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(1) 5 -10 (2012)

 

Prevailing climatic conditions for sugarcane cultivation at a glance in Goombira estate of Karimgunj (NorthEastof SouthAssam)

Sudama Singh*, Kamlesh Nath and Savitri Singh

Ret. Joint Direcor, Sugarcane Research Station (G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology) Kashipur, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttrakhand)

*e-mail: sudamasrs@gmail.com

(Received: May 29, 2011; Revised received: November 28, 2011; Accepted: December 02, 2011)

 

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Abstract: Sugarcane is a tropical plant but its can grown commercially since long time in sub-tropical immemorial plant having cooler and dried climatic conditions producing sugar accumulation in the stalk. The varietalimportance of sugarcane cultivation, since the last eighty years have given to tropics and sub-tropics cultivars produced high stock yielding among with sucrose percentage of very wider adaptation, extended roughly between 8-35º N Latitude and 68-95º E(i.e. 24-15º and 25-54º N and 92-15º and 92-35º E as per in North East of South Assam). This plant is highly heterozygous , polyploidy, vegetatively propagated and goes through many peculiarities of the variation in cultivars having functional of diploid gametes with unexpected an a large numbers of chromosomes. During the course of studies, sixteen promising varieties of sugarcane is respondedto well manuring an utilizing excellent solar energy with a large quantities of the three macro-nutrients i.e. nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (N Pand K) along with adaptation of CaCO3 or dolomite (or rock phosphate) under the soil of acidic condition in North East of South Assam which producedtwo in early(Co. Pant. 84212 and Co. J. 88) and seven in mid -late(Co. S. 767, 8436 and 96268 ; Co. Se. 92423, 01424 and 01434 and U. P. 9530) varieties of wider variation of crops in sucrose and yield because these surrounding areas have not a longer winter season along with not less than 7º Ctemperature ( i.e. more than 9º C temperature) . The soil moisture contents are giving rapid elongation of the cells through the multiplication in cell division in meristematic region gives greater yield reported in wet moisture conditions of the available water range along with temperature between 20º C and above 38º C are conducive to good growth moderate atmospheric humidity up to 80% with in clear and direct sun light for ensuing the crops.

 

Key words: Sugarcane, tropical plant, Assam, NPK, CaCO3

3.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(1) 11-16 (2012)

 

Status of susceptible hosts of foliar fungi from North Central TaraiForests of Uttar Pradesh (India)

T.P. Mall*

Postgraduate Department of Botany, Kisan P.G. College Bahraich- 271 801

*e-mail: drtpmall@rediffmail.com

(Received: September 09, 2011; Revised receivedJanuary 10, 2012; Accepted: January 16, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The present report elucidates a rich and unique profile of Mycobial as well as Phytodiversity of research area surveyed with 126 Angiosperms host plants representing 102 genera & 44 families being parasitisedby 142 foliar fungal species representing 62 fungal genera.

 

Key words: Foliicolous fungi, north centraltarai forests

4.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(1) 17 -24 (2012)

 

Evaluation of stability of volatile organic compounds in SUMMA canisters at different humidity levels

Anuj Kumar1* and Ivan Víden2

1Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, NMSU, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM 88220, USA

2Department of Gas, Coke and Air Protection, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technicka 5, Prague166 28, Czech Republic

*e-mail: anujkgoel77@yahoo.com

(Received: September 09, 2011; Revised received: January 22, 2012; Accepted: January 24, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) occur in traces in atmosphere and even in trace levels, these compounds pose serious health hazard. Sample stability, recovery, effect of temperature and moisture management are a few critical points taken into consideration while sampling and analysis of polar and non polar VOCs. In the present work, stability study was carried out for polar and non polar VOCs in SUMMA stainless steel canister. Compounds recoveries were assessed in dry and humid canisters.Canister samples were prepared with 0, 25, 50 and 100% humidity. Moreover, the study with each humidity level was performed with two different concentrations (approx 50 & 500 µgm-3) of each compound to evaluate the influence of lower/higher concentration. Before starting experiment, various parameters used for the measurement of VOCs from canister system were optimized and method detection limit was calculated as the accuracy of analytical measurement is the key part of stability study. Polar compounds like alcohols were poorly recovered from dry canisters. Sulfur and chloro compounds were recovered in the range of 12-68% over one month period. Aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons appeared to be unaffected. In presence of humidity in canister, alcohols showed better recovery but recovery was sometime irregular especially if they are in low concentration. Recovery of sulfur compounds improved significantly in presence of humidity while chloro compounds were recovered about 60-70% even if humidity is there. Overall, humidity is proved to be essential for the recovery of alcohols, sulfur and chloro compounds and 50% humidity was the best suitable humidity. Nonpolar compounds remained unaffected irrespective of humidity level.

Key words: VOCs, Canister, Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Sample Stability

5.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(1) 25 -28 (2012)

 

Treatment of sugar mill effluent by microbes and its effect on the growth parameters of pulses

 

M. Kannahi* and S. Madhana

PG and Research Department of Microbiology and A Division of Biotechnology,

Sengamala Thayaar Educational Trust women’s College, Mannargudi- 614 001. India

*e-mail: kannahisri79@gmail.com

(Received: August5, 2011; Revised received: January 16, 2012; Accepted: January 19, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The sugar mill effluent discharging industries are sugar mill dyeing, textile, printing, tanneries, pharmaceuticals, distillers, detergents, chemical factories, paper mills, fertilizer factories, etc. The present study was undertaken analyze the physio-chemical parameters, isolation and identification of microbes (bacteria and fungi) and decolorization of sugar mill effluent. The physio chemical parameters such as alkalinity, free CO2, Total CO2, calcium chloride, BOD, COD, DO, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, inorganic phosphate and organic carbon in both treated and untreated samples were analysed. Various microorganisms were isolated and identified from (bacteria and fungi) sugar mill effluent. The sugar mill effluent used to cultivate the 3 types of pulses i.e., ground nut, cow pea and black gram of germination and seedling growth. Azotobacter spp. and Beauveria bassiana was decolourized with sugar mill effluent for better low cost, production of biofertilizer and biocontrol agents. The following concentrations were used in seed germination and seedling growth (treated and untreated) namely, Control, 50%, 75%, 100%. The treated effluent was recommended to cultivable land. In our findings, Azotobacter spp. and Beauveria bassiana treated effluent was well decolourized and the seed germination and seedling growth showed well compared with Beauveria bassiana and control.at dissipation

 

Key words:Sugar mill effluent, Azotobacter spp.Beauveria bassiana

6.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(1) 29 -34 (2012)

 

Nutrition education as an important tool for empowering rural mother in infant feeding perspective

 

Neelam Kumari1* and Ajay Goswami2

1Department of Nutrition, Isabella Thoburn College,Lucknow.

2Govt. Girls Postgraduate College, V.B.S. Purvanchal University, Jaunpur

*e-mail: neelamkumari0809@gmail.com

(Received: August 02, 2011; Revised received: January 16, 2012; Accepted: January 18, 2012)

 

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Abstract:The present study was carried out with an objective to evaluate the role of nutrition education as an important tool for empowering rural mother in infant feeding perspective. A total of 190 women with children below 03 years of age were enrolled in the study. Pre-intervention knowledge of mothers on maternal nutrition, importance of breast feeding and perceptions/practices regarding desirable feeding practices were evaluated followed by a nutritional education and counseling session. One month post-intervention results were compared with those of pre-intervention results. A significant improvement in knowledge of mothers on maternal nutrition, importance of breast feeding and perceptions/practices regarding desirable feeding practices was observed after nutritional education and counseling session. Nutrition education and counseling affects the knowledge of mothers on maternal nutrition, attitude related with breast feeding and practices regarding desirable feeding practices. Nutritional education and counseling should be made an essential part of antenatal and postnatal care.

 

Key words:Nutrition, infant, breast feeding, maternal nutrition

7.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(1) 35 -42 (2012)

 

Impact of tannery effluent and climate change on physico-chemical characteristics of Ganga river at Kanpur (U.P.), India

Shashwat Katiyar

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, C S J M University, Kanpur, U.P., 208024, India

*e-mail: shashwatkatiyar0801@rediffmail.com

(Received: September 05, 2011; Revised received: January 12, 2012; Accepted: January 14, 2012)

 

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Abstract: An investigation has been made to ascertain the effect of tannery effluent associated with climate change on river water samples collected from confluence point, upstream and downstream located near Jajmau area at Kanpur. All the samples analyzed for physico-chemical parameters including estimation of chromium. The pH at confluence point (Q) was significant (P<0.05) alkaline (7.9±0.13) during summer as compared to upstream point P3 due to dumping of untreated tanneries effluent, which suggested that utilization of salts for leather tanning process. Study shows that a significant (P<0.05) decrease in DO values (3.79±0.101 mgL-1) at summer, although the higher level of DO (6.76±0.13) during monsoon season might be attributed to the dilution of the effluent by rain water. The level of BOD (41.07±1.268 mgL-1) shows a significant (P<0.05) increase at confluence point during as compared to upstream point (P3) during summer. Although the level of COD at different sampling points affected with climate changes but it was not significant. However this study also revealed a significant negative correlation showing that as BOD and COD increases in values DO decreases with correlation of r = -0.944 (t= 6.978, P<0.05 for BOD) and r = -0.970 (t= 9.696, P<0.05 for COD). These correlation between BOD, COD and DO suggest a similar cause. The correlation analysis of TDS versus BOD and COD gives a positive correlation (r =0.9408 & r =0.8667 respectively) showing that as TDS increase BOD and COD also increases. Theses correlation analysis shows that levels of TDS, BOD and COD are highly correlated with each other in sampling area during different climate change. Chromium levels are high (52.12±15.52 mgL-1) in almost all sampling points with climate change. Tannery effluent with climate change shows highly adverse effect on river Ganga.

Key words: Tannery effluent, seasonal variation, season, river water, chromium

8.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(1) 43-46 (2012)

 

Susceptibility of periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L. var. nirmal) to boron deficiency

 

Archana, G.K. Singh and N. Pandey*

Plant Nutrition and Stress Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, 226007

*e-mail: nalini_pandey@rediffmail.com

(Received: September 06, 2011; Revised received: January 23, 2012; Accepted: January 24, 2012)

 

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Abstract: To check the susceptibility of periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus L. var. nirmal) to boron deficiency, a sand culture experiment was conducted in glass house and enzymic changes in leaves was studied. Plants of periwinkle were grown at 0.066 (deficient) and 0.33 (control) mg B L-1 supplies till maturity. 36 and 48 days after treatment leaves were examined for concentration of photosynthetic pigments and activities of PPO, SOD, CAT, POD, APX and GR enzymes. Plants subjected to boron deficiency showed growth retardation and reduced biomass. Reduction in photosynthetic pigments (chl a, b and carotenoids) was observed in leaves of periwinkle plants subjected to boron deficiency. Expressed on fresh weight and protein basis, increased relative activities of PPO, SOD. POD, APX and GR and decreased relative activity of CAT compared to control, was observed.

 

Key words: Boron deficiency, periwinkle, photosynthetic pigments, enzymes

9.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(1) 47-50 (2012)

 

Toxicity ofNickel on growth and biochemical changes

in Oryza sativa L. ( rice) plants

Shailly Misra*, P.K.Tandon and Kumkum Mishra

Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow - 226 007, India

*e-mail: shailly_misra@yahoo.com

(Received: October 19, 2011; Revised received: January 10, 2012;Accepted: January 14, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The toxicity of nickel (Ni) on growth and biochemical changes in Oryza sativa L. ( rice ) plants were investigated by evaluating the activities of enzymes such as catalase and peroxidase and the content of proteins, sugars and chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments along with the certain growth parameters. Different concentrations of Ni (0.25,0.50 and 1.0 mM)were supplied to the plants. The increasing concentration of Ni caused reduction in root length (6.750, 6.700, 6.550 cm) shoot length (13.150, 12.850, 9.200 cm ), fresh weight of roots(0.795, 0.565, 0.420 g) and shoots (0.660, 0.430, 0.365 g) and dry weight of roots (0.115, 0.0650, 0.0350 g) and shoots (0.160, 0.110, 0.0900 g) of the plant. Chlorophyll a (1.045, 0.785, 0.680 mg g-1 FW), b (0.535, 0.315, 0.220 mg g-1 FW) andcarotenoids (0.235, 0.200, 0.200 mg g-1 FW) were also decreased as the concentration of Ni was increased,however, the enzyme activity of catalase (26.895, 33.710, 40.425 m mole H2O2 split mg-1 protein ) and peroxidase (6.955, 9.140, 12.090 units mg-1 protein) and the contents of protein(3.160, 4.155, 4.945% FW) and sugar (14.000, 24.000, 31.000 mg g-1 FW) were increased with high concentrations of Ni as compared to the control plants.

 

Key words: Nickel, rice, growth, chlorophyll, catalase, peroxidase

10

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(1) 51-58 (2012)

 

Impact of air pollutants on reproductivebiology: Effect of air pollution on pollen of plants

 

Pankaj Mishra1*, Usha Bajpai2 and C.L. Verma1

1Botany Department ,Lucknow University ,Lucknow226007

2Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany , Lucknow 226007

*e-mail: pankajoct11@gmail.com

(Received: August 06, 2011; Revised received: January 12, 2012; Accepted: January 14, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The paper describes the pollen morphology of five species viz. Hibiscus rosa - sinensis , Moringaoleifera , Lagenaria siceraria, Brassica compestrisand Dolichos lablab , growing in areas whichare highly effected by airpollutants . An attempt has been made to compare the pollen grains affected by air pollutants to those of the grains of the plants growing in healthy areas.

Key words: Air pollutants, pollen morphology, Lucknow city

 

11

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(1) 59-60 (2012)

 

Effects of sugar factory effluent on maize seedlings

Brijendra Pratap Singh

Botany Department, Lucknow University ,Lucknow226 007

*e-mail: p.brijendra@gmail.com

(Received: June 15, 2011; Revised received: December 19, 2011; Accepted: January 02, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Among the various kinds of water pollution, the problem of Sugar factory effluent has a serious one in India and play major role in polluting the water bodies and land by discharging a large amount of wastewater as effluent. The sugar factory effluents are containing high amount of suspended solids, dissolved solids, BOD, COD, oil & grease. The continuous use of sugar factory effluents can harmfully affects the soil and ultimately crops, if used for irrigation. In the present study, the effect of various concentrations i.e. 0 (Control), 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of the effluent on seed germination, seedling growth, amylase and total chlorophyll of maize was studied. Germination percentages and seedling growth decrease with increasing concentration of effluent in the maize seeds except lower concentration of effluent (10%).

Key words: Sugar factory effluent, toxicity, germination, seedling growth, BOD, COD, chlorophyll

 

 

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