RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-5, Number-3, August-2012

 

21.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(3) 105-108 (2012)

 

Tibicen haematodes on Nitraria schoberi plant in

Meighan Desert, Markazi province, Iran

A. Shayestehfar *¹, M. Mahdieh¹ , Y. Yousefi ² and M. Ghalenovi

1Biology Department, Faculty of Science, University of Arak -38156-8-7349, Iran

2Technical deputy of natural resource, head quarter of Markazi province, Iran

*e-mail: a-shayestehfar@araku.ac.ir

(Received: September 5, 2011; Revised received: June 02, 2012; Accepted: June 08, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Plants of the genus Nitraria (Zygophyllaceae) are widely distributed around the world. Of the 11 species of this genus, 3 grow in deserts and salt marshes of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Nitraria schoberi is the main native plant for Meighan salt-marsh of Markazi province. Its main habitat is located in the northern part of this desert. It has effective role to stabilize soil and the moving sands. Since few years, intense reduction of the number of this plant is recorded from different sources for unknown reasons. In the present investigation, the Cicadas were observed to live with Nitraria schoberi plant. During the investigation, many Cicadoidea, and also a great number of holes and large insect made tubeswere observed next to the Nitraria schoberi plant roots. The samples were transferred to the Arak University laboratory and frozen in -5ºC for the feature identification. According to the present identical keys, this is closely agrees with Tibicen haematodes (Scopoli, 1763) which is reported for the first time as a pest of Nitraria schoberi plant in Meighan desert. It seems that the Tibicen haematodes is responsible for the heavy reduction of Nitraria schoberi plants in the present studied area.

Key words: Meighan Desert, Nitraria schoberi plant, Tibicen haematodes.

22.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(3) 109 -116 (2012)

 

Influence of ciriped barnacles Chelonibia patula (Ranzani) on commercial crabs from Gulf of Mannar and Palk bay coastal waters

M. Yokesh Babu*1, Raveendra Durgekar2, V. Janaki Devi1, C. M. Ramakritinan1,A. K. Kumaraguru1

1Department of Marine and Coastal Studies, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai- 625021, India

2 Khursawada, Karwar, Karnataka

*e-mail: smyb81@yahoo.co.in

(Received: January 25, 2012; Revised received: July 20, 2012; Accepted: May 25, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The attachment of the barnacle Chelonibia patula on the carapace of the three economically important crabs Charybdis natator, Portunus pelagicus and Charybdis fruciata from Gulf of Mannar and Palkbay coastal waters are reported. Here the barnacle attachment on C. natator is a first time observed in Indian waters. In general a maximum of 37% crabs were infested in Rameswaram, 22% in Pamban, 30% in Mandapam, 13% in Keelakarai and 10% in chinnaerwadi. A number of 100 crabs were scrutinized per sampling per site and three sampling were conducted per month. The C. patula attachment was found in June to August months. A record number of more than seventy seven barnacles wereattached on single crab of Charybdis natator compare to this the number ofbarnacle varied from one to fifty four found on the swimming crabP. pelagicus, one to fifty five on Charybdis fruciata. Predominantly, most of the barnacles were attached to carapace of non-ovigerous female crabs.Significantly (p< 0.05) the infested crabs were showed reduction in weight compare to non infested crab and no significance between the number of barnacle attachment and the size of the carapace. The relationship between the epibionts and their hosts was clear evident for the parasitism endorse on other species in the area.

Key words: Chelonibia patula, Charybdis natator, Portunus pelagicus Charybdis fruciata, Ectosymbiont

23.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(3) 117-118 (2012)

 

Carotenoids from the waste of gallus gallus and its antimicrobial activity

S. Priya*1and P. Maheswari 2

1Department of Biotechnology, 2Department of Bioscience, S.T.E.T. college of Education for women, Mannargudi, India

*e-mail: piri_333@yahoo.co.in

(Received: February 16, 2012; Revised received: July 24, 2012; Accepted: July 18, 2012)

 

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Abstract: In present study, the methanol method for carotenoids extraction from the intestine waste of Gallus gallus (chicken) was introduced. The antimicrobial activity of the carotenoids extract against Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Saccharomyces cerevisae and Bacillus subtilis was also elucidated. Results showed that the optimum extraction conditions was at a temperature of 50°C, a solvent-solid ratio of 10:1 and duration of 30 min.The disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) determination showed that the extract has a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against E.coli, B.subtilis and S.cerevisiae with their inhibition zones ranging from 8.90mm to 15.45mm and the MIC ranging from 16.75mg/ml to 90mg/ml.However,it showed no inhibition effect on A.niger and A.flavus.

Key words: Antimicrobial activity, Carotenoids, Gallus gallus

24.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(3) 119-120 (2012)

 

Production of herbicide tolerant biofungicide

M. Kannahi* and B. Elakkiya

PG and Research Department of Microbiology, Sengamala Thayaar Educational Trust Women’s College, Mannargudi-614 001, India

*e-mail: kannahisri79@gmail.com

(Received: February 25, 2012; Revised received: July 14, 2012; Accepted: July 16, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The present study deals with isolation and identification of T.harzianum from agricultural field. The isolated T.harzianum was chosen for analysis like the effect of pH and herbicides (Pentimethalin35% EC & Atrazine50% EC). The herbicide tolerant biofungicide was produced by broth culture method and it was justified by disc diffusion method. From the herbicide tolerant T.harzianum was treated in the pots for the growth of sorghum. The morphometric analysis was performed in the herbicide treated pots. Finally, concluded that the herbicide tolerant biofungicide or any other bio inputs reproduced to modern agriculture and inhibit the soil borne plant pathogen.

Key words: herbicide tolerant T.harzianum, sorghum, Pentimethalin, Atrazine

25.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(3) 121-124 (2012)

 

Correlation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in oral premalignant and malignant lesions and their suppression by antioxidants

 

R.S. Singh1*, S. K. Awasthi2, Anupam Porwal1, M.P.Mishra3, Shashwat Katiyar 4 and Mahendra Yadav1

1Department of Biotechnology, Brahmanand PG College, Kanpur;

2Institute of Life Sciences, CSJM University, Kanpur

3J.K. Cancer Research Institute and Hospital, Kanpur;

4IBSBT, CSJM University, Kanpur

*e-mail: ravindralifesciences@yahoo.co.in

(Received: January 02, 2012; Revised received: June 11, 2012; Accepted: June 15, 2012)

 

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Abstract: In the last decade there has been a rapid progress in the understanding of the actual nature and chemistry of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the cellular and molecular level. Free radicals have been implicated to play a pivotal role in genesis of various oral cancers. All the major classes of biomolecules may be attacked by free radicals but lipids are most susceptible. Cell membranes are rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acid(PUFAs) which are readily attacked by oxidized radicals. The free radicals cause oxidative destruction of polyunsaturated fatty acids known as lipid peroxidation. It is particularly damaging because it proceeds as self perpetuating chain reaction, which may result in more free radical generation. Free radicals are indirectly measured by the level of MDA (malonyldialdehyde). Keeping in view such consideration, this study has been designed to the role and activities of ROS and some significant stress markers such as MDA and SOD/Catalase as enzymatic antioxidants in oral cancer patients

 

Key words: Free radicals, Antioxidants, SOD, MDA

26.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(3) 125 -128 (2012)

 

Impact of mung bean mosaic virus (MBMV) on

nodulation In green gram (Vigna radiata L.)

Brij Lal Verma2* and B.D. Singh1

1Department ofBotany, K.S. Saket. P.G. College, Ayodhya - 224123, India

2Dr R.M.L. Avadh University, Faizabad- 224123, India

*e-mail: vermabrijlal1272@gmail.com

(Received: February 05, 2012; Revised received: July 14, 2012; Accepted: June 16, 2012)

 

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Abstract: An experiment was conductedduring2009 to see the impact of mung bean mosaic virus on nodulation, bacterial population and leg haemoglobincontent in nodules. The objective of the proposed work shall be study and investigate the effect of MBMV on the growth and physiology of root nodules as well as on nitrogen fixation. The effect of ecological and geochemical conditions. On mung bean plant (Vigna radiata L.) has also been assessed. The observation indicates that the virus infection inducesphysiological changes in host plant nodules. It indicates the infection reduces nodular number, size, and fresh weight in green gram plants. The healthy mung bean plant nodule hadhigher content of leg- haemoglobinthan the infected nodules of host plant. An increased bacterial population in nodules indicate the probability of higher nitrogen fixation to enrich the soil fertility.

Key words: Chlorosis, Root nodule, Clay pots, Leg- haemoglobin , Spectrophotometer, Optical density, Rhizobium, Replication

27.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(3) 129 -132 (2012)

 

Studies on effective microorganisms grown in coconut water and their effect on paddy (Oryza sativa L.)

K. Ahilandeswari* and J. Vetriselvi

PG & Research Department of Microbiology, S.T.E.T. Women’s college, Mannargudi- 614 001, India

*e-mail: ahilamicro23@gmail.com

(Received: March 12, 2012; Revised received: July 18,2012; Accepted: July 20, 2012)

 

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Abstract: In this study, PGPR recently known as Effective Microorganisms were isolated from rhizosphere soil of paddy and identified as Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Pseudomonas and Bacillus species using uncontaminated coconut water as nutritional supplement. To study the bacterial growth, bacterial strains were separately inoculated onto coconut water as sole source of carbon and also inoculated in chemically defined selective liquid medium. Growth rate of the bacterial isolates were measured spectrophotometrically at 620 nm. Likewise, plant growth promoting effect was studied by bioassay method using Oryza sativa L. (paddy) as experimental plant. Plant growth was measured in terms of height of shoot and root. Percentage of germination, phytotoxicity and vigor index were calculated and compared with uninoculated plants. Among the isolates, Azospirillum showed maximum phytotoxicity and vigor index followed by Pseudomonas. Azotobacter and Bacillus species were also have good effect on plant growth.

Key words: Effective Microorganisms, Coconut water, Rhizosphere soil, PGPR

28.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(3) 133-134 (2012)

 

Assessment of the free amino acids in Bryophyllum pinnatum L.

Vishnu Shankar Sinha1, Arbind Prasad Pandit1 and Nandjee Kumar*2

1Department of Botany, Tata College, Chaibasa, Jharkhand-833202, India

2Department of Botany, Magadh University, Bodh-gaya, Bihar,824234,India

*e-mail: kumarnandjee@gmail.com

(Received: March 02, 2012; Revised received: July 15,2012; Accepted: July 17, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The present investigation reports the type of amino acids present in the different plant parts of Bryophyllum pinnatum L. belonging to family Crassulaceae . The presence of amino acids in different plants parts aqueous extract was detected with the help of paper chromatography. Our results confirmed eleven amino acids in different plant parts ofBryophyllum pinnatum L. i.e. valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylealanine, tyrosine, threonine, methionine, tryptophan, arginine,lysine and histidine. . The stem extract of B. pinnatum L showed the presence of only three amino acids namely valine, leucine and methionine while the root extract showed the presence of four amino acids viz valine, leucine, methionine and histidine. The leaf extract showed the presence of eight amino acids viz.valine,leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine, arginine and lysine. On the other hand leaf buds showed the presence of six amino acids i.e. valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, arginine and lysine. The flower extract showed the presence of five amino acids namely valine, tyrosine, threonine and methionine. Three amino acids namely valine,leucine and methionine were common in extract ofall the plant parts of Bryophyllum pinnatum L ( root extract, leaf extract, leaf bud extract) where aslysine and arginine were found only in flower extract. Lysine and arginine only in leaf and leaf bud extract and histidine in only root extract. It is interesting to note that ornithine (essential amino acid) not observed in any part of the B. pinnatum L..

Key words: Bryophyllum pinnatum L, amino acids,chromatography

 

29.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(3) 135-136 (2012)

 

In vitro response of essential oil extracted from

Cassia tora against dermatophytes of infected soil

Meenakshi Tiwari*, Meenakshi Sharma and Sunita Mahariya

Laboratory of Mycology and Microbiology, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur- 302004, India

*e-mail: meenakshi_1483@yahoo.co.in

(Received: March 11, 2012; Revised received: July 02,2012; Accepted: July 05, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Fungal activity of the essential oil extracted from Cassia tora (Fabaceae) was studied against dermatophytic fungi like Microsporum gypseum. Study of dermatophytes in soil samples collected from Jaipur, was carried out but only 88% samples contained dermatophytic fungi. In screening of the essential oil of Cassia tora the diameter of inhibition zone was found to be 19 mm for Microsporum gypseum. Result show that a Minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oil of Cassia tora with reference to Microsporum gypseum was 0.6µl/ml. Since the plants appeared to have broad spectrum of activity against dermatophytes so it could be useful in antiseptic or disinfectant formulations.

Key words: Keratinophilic fungi, essential oil, disc diffusion method, micro dilution method

30.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(3) 137-140 (2012)

 

Antimicrobial activity of Nigella sativa (Kalwangi) essential oil against fungal infections of skin

Sunita Mahariya*, Meenakshi Sharma, Meenakshi Tiwari and Neha meena

Laboratory of Mycology and Microbiology, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur- 302004, India

*e-mail: sunitamahariya@gmail.com

(Received: March 25, 2012; Revised received: July 22,2012; Accepted: July 23, 2012)

 

 

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Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oil of N. sativa seeds against keratinophilic fungus Chrysosporium tropicum and Trichophyton rubrum by using disc diffusion and microdilution method. The extraction of essential oil from seeds was carried out by standard hydrodistillation method using Clevenger’s apparatus. Soil samples were collected from different sites of Jaipur and the major technique Hair Baiting Technique was applied. Different species of keratinophilic fungi were identified viz. Chrysosporium tropicum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton simii, Colletotrichum spp. Geotrichum spp., Fusarium spp., Scopulariopsis spp. etc. Out of this C.tropicum and T. rubrum were found more abundant & dominant. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of N. sativa oil against C. tropicum (Carmichael) and T. rubrum (Castellani) was found to be 0.7µl ml-1 and 0.5µl ml-1 respectively and the diameter of inhibition zone was found to be 26mm and 20mm respectively for the test organisms.

Key words: Keratinophilic, Microdilution, Essential oil, MIC

31

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(3) 141-146 (2012)

 

Study of methelene blue aggregation processes using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy

E.A.Zakhidov1*, M.A.Zakhidova1, K.R.Kasymova2, A.M.Kokhkharov1, V.O.Quvondykov1,Sh.Q.Nematov1, R.A.Sadykov2, R.R.Sadykov2, A.A.Saparbaev1

1Heat Physics Department, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, 28, Block “C”, Katartal St., Tashkent, 100135, Uzbekistan

2Specialized Center of Surgery, Ministry of Healthcare, Uzbekistan 10, Kichik Khalqa Yoli, Tashkent, 100115, Uzbekistan

*e-mail: ezakhidov@hotmail.com

(Received: June 08, 2012; Revised received: August 05, 2012;Accepted: August 11, 2012)

 

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Abstract In the paper absorption and fluorescence properties of the unique phenotiazine dye - Methelene Blue (MB) in an aqueous solution and incubated in microorganisms have been studied. It has been shown that MB molecules aggregation in an aqueous medium by forming dimers/multimers and binding with membranes of microorganisms may be traced by means of changes in relevant spectral bands. Possibility of quantitative estimation of MB dimeric/miltimeric molecular aggregation and incubation in bacteria with different physical structures of cell walls using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is discussed.

Key words: Methelene blue, Absorption and fluorescence spectra, Monomer, Dimer and multimer molecules, Membranes of bacteria, Photosensitizes

32

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(3) 147-150 (2012)

 

Eupeodes bacculatus, Eumerus ornatus and Merodon clavipes (Diptera: syrphidae) three species newly recorded for Iran flowerfly fauna

Sayed Amir Ahmadian1*, Shahrokh Pashaei Rad2

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Biological Science, Azad University, North branch, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Biological Science, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. Tehran, Iran

*e-mail: amir_ahmadian66@yahoo.com

(Received: June 10,2012; Revised received: August 18, 2012;Accepted: August 20,2012)

 

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Abstract Eupeodes bacculatus, Eumerus ornatus and Merodon clavipes are recorded for the first time from Iran flowerfly fauna. Three specimens were collected from Damavand and Firuzkuh. For faunistic survey of Damavand and Firuzkuh were assigned 12 stations in these regions. Diagnosis characters and photos are presented.

Key words: Syrphidae, New record, Fauna, Damavand, Firuzkuh, Iran

33

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(3) 151-152 (2012)

 

Quantitative estimation of total free amino acids in the haemolymph and fat bodies of the last instar larva of Corcyra cephalonica (st.)

Sandhya Jadhav

Research Laboratory, Dept. of Zoology, New Arts, Commerce and Science College,Ahmednagar-414001, India

e-mail: drsandhyajadhav@gmail.com

(Received: May 02, 2012; Revised received: August 25, 2012;Accepted: August 28,2012)

 

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Abstract The biochemical estimation of total free amino acids in the haemolymph and fat bodies of last instar larva of Corcyra cephalonica was studied. Freshly emerged last instar larvae were studied with 24 hours interval. It was observed that in the last instar larva of Corcyra cephalonica the free amino acids level in the haemolymph and fat bodies show a specific pattern during the larval period showing higher level in the haemolymph as well as in the fat body . The amino acid level in the haemolymph issignificantly high during the first and second day of moulting . It drops down on the third day of moulting and again increases on the fourth and fifth day of moulting. It is also observed that the amino acidlevel in the haemolymph and fat bodies is nearly at equal level during third and fourth day of moulting. There is decrease of total free amino acids in haemolymph from 1st ,2nd and 3rd dayand then again an increase till 5th day. The total free amino acid level in fat body is lower than that of the haemolymph. It is decreased from 1stto 3rdday and then there is continuous rise upto 5thday . The amino acid concentration in the haemolymph and fat body may vary. This variation is dependent on their food intake and utilization of the amino acid for protein synthesis.

Key words: Corcyra, Haemolymph, Fat body,Amino acids

34

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(3) 153-155 (2012)

 

Effect of different pre-sowing treatments on seed germination of Cassia occidentalis

Srishti Srivastava*, Kaushal Kumar and Malvika Srivastava

Stress Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Botany, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur

*e-mail: srishtisrivastava16788@gmail.com

(Received: May 05, 2012; Revised received: August 04, 2012;Accepted: August 10,2012)

 

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Abstract: Cassia occidentalis is an under utilized wild legume with a great potential due to various medicinal properties. Its propagation is practiced by seeding and transplantation .Dormant seeds have hard seed coat with low germination rate. This study is initiated to commercialize the plant and to break the dormancy. In the present investigation experiments were conducted on both fresh and stored seeds to determine the effect of various presowing treatments such as water soaking, acid scarification, mechanical scarification and hot water treatment on seed germination. Highest germination percentage, viability and vigour index was recorded in fresh seeds treated with sulphuric acid for 40 minutes followed by mechanical scarification. Stored seeds showed less germination than fresh seeds which indicates that the dormancy of seed is due to seed coat as it becomes harder during storage due to loss of moisture.

Key words: Wild legume, Dormancy, Scarification, Viability, Vigour index

 

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