RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-5, Number-4, November-2012

 

Special Issue dedicated to the conference

Impact of Global Warming and Climate Change on Diversity: The Challenge of Conservation of Flora and Fauna”

 

35.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 157-161 (2012)

 

Impact of global warming and climate change on diversity: The challenge of conservation of flora and fauna

A. K. Mittal*

Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005

*e-mail: profakmittal@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: September 20, 2012;Accepted: October 03, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The increase in the levels of emissions of greenhouse gases resulting from human activities, such as the large-scale burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gases) to operate power plants and automobiles, farming activities and land-use changes, results in the increase the percentage of heat that is trapped inside the earth’s atmosphere.Humans are currently releasing 70 million tonnes of CO2 per day into the atmosphere.With excessive greenhouse gas build-up, the earth’s atmosphere warms up and results in rise of temperature. Population explosion, though undeniably the root cause of global warming, has so far been largely overlooked.

Key words: Global warming, GHGs, N2O, CH4, CO2, CFC’s, Climate change, Biodiversity, threatened specie

36.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 162 -167 (2012)

 

Global warming and climate change: The greatest threat to conservation of biodiversity

 J. P. N. Singh*

Department of Zoology, R.H.S.P.G.College, Singramau, Jaunpur(U.P.)

*e-mail: drjpnsingh@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: October 10, 2012;Accepted: October 27, 2012)

 

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Abstract: There are naturally occurring gases in the atmosphere which can absorb radiations of the sun. These are called “green house gases” (GHG’s- N2O, CH4, CO2, CFC’s). Because of their presence of GHG’s, not all solar radiations reaching the earth are reflectedback to outer space but some of the radiations are held back by these GHG’s. This process is called the green-house effect. Due to human activities like deforestation, forest fires, burning of fuels, etc., tons of gases like CO2, methane, etc., are released in the atmosphere. The green house gases absorb the solar radiations and form a blanket around the earth, preventing the radiations from reflecting back into space. This results in an increase in atmospheric temperature which is felt all over the world and is known as ‘global warming’. Summers are hotter whereas winters are getting less cold. Even the rainfall is unpredictable. Every year there is an increase in the earth’s temperature! It is estimated that since 1950 some 600000 species have disappeared and nearly 400000 species are already threatened due to high climatic variability and sea level to rise another 19 inches by 2100. Except this climate change can affect the number and kinds of pests directly.

Key words: Global warming, Green house gases, Climate change, Biodiversity, N2O, CH4, CO2, CFC’s

 

37.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 168-172 (2012)

 

Study of biodiversity based upon DNA and protein polymorphism

V.K. Singh* and Yashvant Patel

Microbiology lab, Department of Biotechnology, VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur

*e-mail: vksinghmbt@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: October 15, 2012;Accepted: October 20, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Climate change has been an important decisive force for the evolution of new species as such and through migration of living forms for newer habitats. Life-forms on Earth has been dealing with a changing climate by adapting to newer patterns of temperature and rainfall that has been a major influencing factor on evolutionary changes that produced the plants, animal and other species. Variation in the climate must be compatible with the survival of ecosystems and their functions, on which we depend for the essentials of life that has been changing over space and time. According to a recent report of Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), the increased magnitude of climate change due to global warming now poses one of the major threats to the biological diversity of the planet, and is projected to become an increasingly important driver of change in the coming decades. The consequent ecosystem degradation and species extinction are proceeding rapidly resulting in global loss of species at a rate that is 100 to 1000 times faster than the natural extinction rate. Earlier the Earth has witnessed 5 major mass extinction events irrespective of human endeavors but the 6th such event if it occurs would be the result of a irrational competition for resources between one species on the planet i.e. humans Vs. all others! This is certainly an outcome of power, greed and politics-centric human life.

 

Key words: DNA, MLEE data analysis, RAPD data analysis, RAPD-PCR analysis, Climate change, Biodiversity

38.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 173-177 (2012)

 

Effect of environmental factors on frequency of birth defects

Vandana Rai*

Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur (UP)

 

 (Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: October 06, 2012;Accepted: October 07, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Due to the low social status of Indian women, their diet often lacks in both quality and quantity. Women who suffer malnutrition are less likely to have healthy babies. Folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 are the micronutrients necessary for the normal development of fetus. Deficiency of these nutrients in pregnant women is the main factor responsible for congenital malformations/birth defects. Birth defects refer to structural and functional abnormalities present since birth. Birth defects are emerging at an alarming rate in developing countries. India too is facing this burden and experiencing a gradual but accelerating demographic switch to non-communicable and genetic diseases. Except this, congenital heart defects are among the most common birth defects and are the leading cause of birth defect-related deaths. However, advances in diagnosis and surgical treatment have led to dramatic increases in survival for children with serious heart defects. However, the role of folic acid deficiency in the causation of neural tube defects and the corollary of the use of folic acid supplementation in the prevention of these birth defects has now gained universal acceptance.

Key words: Nutritional deficiency, Birth defects, Micronutrient deficiency, Neurological defects, Folic acid Vitamin B12 deficiency

39.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 178-180 (2012)

 

Biodiversity of Pleurotus species in eastern Utaar Pradesh

C.S. Singh1, S.P .Tiwari1, R. Srivastava1, V.K. Singh2 and R. Sharma2*

1 Department of Microbiology, VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur-222001, India

2 Department of Biotechnology, VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur-222001, India

*e-mail: rajeshdbt@yahoo.co.in

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: September 20, 2012;Accepted: October 01, 2012)

 

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Abstract: A total of 52 natural isolates belonging to seven different species of Pleurotus were isolated and purified from selected 37 locations belonging to Jaunpur, Sultanpur, Varanasi, Azamgarh, Allahabad, Sant Ravidashnagar and Ambedakarnagar, Mirzapur districts. The isolates belonged to seven species namely P. ostreatus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. flabellatus, P. eous and P. columbinus from the agro-climatic zones such as user, wastelands, foresting area, wetlands, flood area and fertile lands. Isolates were identified on the basis of morphological characteristics of basidiocarps / sporophores, spores and mycelia, and was finally confirmed through Di-mon crossings. In vitro and in vivo growth studies exhibited a differential growth response by different cultures, even same culture showed different growth response at different temperature 16, 25 and 30°C, a well known phenomenon exhibited by almost all microorganisms.Five cultureswere short-listed on the basis of faster growth, two each from three different temperature regimes namely NI-5 (P. ostreatus), NI-6 (P. sapidus), NI-7 (P. flabellatus) and NI-10 (P. florida) for further studies. Oyster mushroom production profile and related observations of short-listed cultures were recorded for the comparative studies at three different temperature regimes.

Key words: Diversity, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. florida, P. sapidus,P. flabelatus

40.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 181 -183 (2012)

 

Diversity of genome and ploidy in banana and their effect on tissue culture responses

Sugandh Suman*, Kundan Kishor Rajak and Harsh Kumar

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and MolecularBiology, Faculty of Basic Sciences & Humanities Rajendra Agricultural University, Pusa (Samastipur), Bihar-848125

*e-mail: sugandhsuman@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: September 14, 2012;Accepted: September 18, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Banana is one of the most important fruit crop having a wide range of ploidy and genome constitution. Most of the banana cultivars have originated from inter and intra specific hybridization of two wild diploid (2n=2x=22) species, M. accuminata (‘A’ genome) and M. balbisiana (‘B’ genome) resulting into different genomic and ploidy levels namely AA, AAA, AAB, ABB, AAAB, AABB and ABBB. Tissue culture studies in shoot tips cultures of banana comprising different ploidy levels and having different genome structures, resulted in different forms of organogenesis. The shoot tips were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of 2, 4-D, IAA, KIN and BAP. The effect of ploidy and genome on tissue culture responses was found. Triploids gave the best response followed by tetraploid and diploids for all tissue culture responses except somatic embryogenesis for which triploids was followed by diploids only. The genotype with more ‘A’ genomes gave better response than those with ‘B’ genome for all tissue culture responses except somatic embryogenesis.

Key words: Banana, ploidy, tissue culture

41.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 184 -190 (2012)

 

Adaptive changes in the gills of puntius sophore exposed to heavy metal chromium

J.P.N.Singh1* and Devendra Prakash Srivastav2

1Department of Zoology, R.H.S.P.G.College Singramau, Jaunpur; 2Department of Zoology,S.M.M.Town P.G.College, Ballia

*e-mail: drjpnsingh@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: October 18, 2012;Accepted: October 22,2012)

 

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Abstract: Effect of lethal and sub-lethal concentration of potassium dichromate has been observed on gill filament and gill lamellae od fresh water fish Puntius sophore.Thickening of epithelium in gill filament and gill lamellae at Id and 2d of lethal and 2d,3d,4d and 5d of sub-lethal in Puntius sophore in present investigation is significant. Epithelial thickening is usually followed by fusion of secondary lamellae, lifting of epithelium from basement membrane of the gill filament and their secondary lamellae and finally dissociation of the epithelium. Fusion of gill lamellae in gills of Puntius sophore at 1d of lethal and 4d of sub-lethal exposure of chromium in present study acquires significance. Fusion of lamellae is a natural defence mechanism to keep most of the lamellar surface away from direct contact of toxic chemicals. However, such adaptations against the disturbed aquatic environment reduces the respiratory surface area and fishes fail to extract adequate oxygen for their metabolic activities and therefore asphyxiate . Also the sub-epithelial spaces between pillar cells and the epithelial lining diminishes the effective osmoregulatory surface in addition to the possibility of normal gas exchange since the water flow through the above region is reduced. Increased density and dimension of mucous cells are adaptations noticed in gills of Puntius sophore exposed to the chromium. Increased density and dimension of mucous cells are related to enhanced mucous secretion which is an inbuilt defence mechanism of fishes against disturbed aquatic environment .Laying down of a barrier layer of slime over the gill filament and gill lamellae by the sac like mucous cells is perhaps the immediate response of gill to the chromium toxicity in order to delay the penetration of toxic chromium at least for a short period in the initial stage of exposure. Sudden evacuation of the contents of mucous cells which results in their exhaustation and subsequent elimination causes a sudden decrease in the density of mucous cells. Mucous cells at initial exposures display reaction for acidic sulphated glycoproteins. The sulphated mucin is known to bind chromium molecules perhaps to keep the toxicant away from the gill surface ,at least temporarily. At late exposures these cells often lose their sulphated glycoprotein contents and either stain for neutral glycoproteins or for mixed glycoproteins. This is perhaps due to the acute requirement of sulphated slime to combat the toxicity of chromium. The presence of telangiectatic lamellae in gills ofin Puntius sophore at 9d of sub-lethal treatment of chromium indicates characteristic pathological change in association with physical and chemical trauma due to polluted aquatic environment. Increase in density and dimension of acidophil cells in gill filament epithelium of Puntius sophpre exposed to the chromium is significant Tremendous increase in dimension of acidophil cells at 2d of lethal and sub-lethal exposures is due to intensive rate of synthesis of secretary contents in these cells which may be correlated to cope with the influence of chromium.

Key words: Puntius sophore, Gills, Mucous cells, Glycoproteins

 

42.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 191-194 (2012)

 

Evaluation of antigenotoxic potential of

Actinidia chinesis (kiwi) against aflatoxin b1-induced genotoxicity

Sultan Ahmad*, Sheeba, Brij Raj Gautam, and Afsar Ali

Department of Zoology, Shibli National College, Azamgarh( U. P.)-276001

*e-mail: sultansnc@yahoo.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: November 02, 2012;Accepted: November 04, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effects of Actinidia Chinesis (Kiwi) Extract against Aflatoxin B1-induced genotoxicity. In this study we notices the significant reduction of number of aberrant cells and frequency of aberration per cell in the bone marrow of albino mice invivo, and the reduction of chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and enhances replication indices in human lymphocyte cultures. We also notice the positive dose-response relationship between the doses of Kiwi Extract and antigenotoxicity, using four optimum doses (150,200, 250, 300, and 350 mg/kg bw.) of Kiwi Extract in vivo and four concentrations viz; 25, 50, 60, 80 and 90 mg/ml in in vitro study. The data were collected at three durations (16, 24, & 32 hrs in vivo. and 24, 48, & 72 hrs in vitro); although the effect was not depend on the time but it was dose dependent.

Key words: Actinidia chinesis , Kiwi, Antigenotoxicity, Chromosomal aberration, Sister chromatid exchange, Replication index

43.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 195-200 (2012)

 

Structural organization of the epithelia lips and associated structures of fish, Pterophyllum scalrae: a histochemical investigation

J.P.N. Singh1*, Sateesh Chandra Dubey1 and Archana Singh2

1Department of Zoology, R.H.S.P.G.College Singramau, Jaunpur-222175; 2Department of Zoology, T.D.College Jaunpur

*e-mail: drjpnsingh@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: November 01, 2012;Accepted: November 08, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Structural organization of the epithelium of the lips and associated structures of Pterophyllum scalrae is described. The upper lip is associated on its dorsal side with a membranous fold of skin and the rostral cap while the lower lip is associated on its ventral side with a fold of skin between lower lip and ventral head skin. The chemical composition of the mucous cells may be correlated with habit, habitat and feeding behaviour of pterophyllum scalrae. Elaboration of sulphated glycoprotein moieties by most of the mucous cells in different regions of the lips and associated structures may be correlated to increase viscosity of the mucus and lubrication of the surface of epithelia of lips and associated structures. This could play a vital role in providing protection to the lips and associated structures against mechanical damage to which these fishes are exposed during feeding the plant materials. Presence of both acidic and neutral glycoprotein in the mucous cells of skin folds are quite significant. Sulphated acidic glycoprotein provides extra lubrication to the surface of the fold of skin. This reduces the surface drag during their stretching enabling the jaw to protrude at the time of feeding with increasing efficiency and swiftness. Taste buds on dorsal side of upper lip of Pterophyllum scalar are prominently elevated being located on epithelial protrusion projected well above the surface may enhance the ability of the fish to sense the chemical nature of the surrounding water and food available in a particular feeding zone. Generally taste buds are absent in skin folds of Pterophyllum scalrae . Here taste buds are not necessitated or may not be of much significant value probably because the fold of skin lies in deep grooves and do not remain in direct contact with the surrounding medium except when they are temporarily stretched out for short periods during jaw protrusion for feeding. Uninucleated club cells are observed in the lips and associated structures of Pterophyllum scalrae.Information regarding functional significance of club cells is available mainly from the studies on epidermis covering general body surface of the fish. It appears that club cells are developed additionally to complement the mucous cells in the efficient functioning of the epithelium in the protection against various hazards. Presence of lymphocytes in epithelia of lips and associated structures of Pterophyllum scalrae may be associated with local defence mechanism.

Key words: Pterophyllum scalrae, Lips, Glycoproteins, mucous cells

 

44.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 201-202 (2012)

 

Impact of climatic changes on fisheries with special reference to physiological adaptations in fish epidermis

Suman Kumar Singh

Department of Fishl Biochemistry, College of Fisheries, Dholi (Muzaffarpur), Bihar-843121

*e-mail: sksfisheries@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: October 24, 2012;Accepted: October 28, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The earth’s climate is changing as reflected by the abundance of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbon and ozone), aerosols and solar radiations disturbing the terrestrial environment including aquatic ecosystems. The warning effects of these changes are now being felt across many parts of the world including India. The effects of these changes is well evidenced by increase in surface temperature, rainfall, extreme weather conditions, Himalayan glaciers rise in sea level, etc. To overcome the stress generated by the environmental changes, fauna and flora on the earth including fishes have been diversified a lot in past years but a marked decline in production of certain species and overall degradation in ecosystems have also been noticed. The fish epidermis is considerably more tender structure than that of higher animals, and has a number of differing but highly significant roles related to its presence as the limiting membrane at the interface between the external medium and fish. In general, fish epidermis is mucogenic in nature and diversified in different groups of fishes.It is mainly composed of epithelial cells and glandular cells, such as, club cells, mucous cells and sacciform cells. The arrangement of these cells and the chemical nature of secretions vary widely in different groups of fishes, both species wise as well as environmental conditions. At stress, these cells react strongly and release profuse secretions at the surface. Thus, these cells along with its secretion fight with the environmental changes that deteriorated water quality. It serves as a barrier to the entry of water, ions, microorganisms, and resists the mechanical damages due to various abrasions and socks encountered in the environment. Though biodiversity is a boon for survival of organisms on the earth but it fails miserably when environmental changes are rapid and results mass extinctions. It has been reported in an estimate that less than 1% of the species that have existed on earth are extant. These events limit the biodiversity. Necessary steps must be taken to save the organisms and sustain productivity of our natural as well as cultural ecosystems.

Key words: Climatic changes – Aquatic environment – Fish and Fisheries - Fish epidermis – Biodiversity

45.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 203-210 (2012)

 

Histopathological responses of the gill of gold fish, Carassius auratus to the tryarylmethane dye malachite green

J.P.N. Singh1*, Ram Yash Yadav and Ashutosh Kumar Singh2

1Department of Zoology, R.H.S.P.G.College Singramau, Jaunpur-222175; 2Department of Zoology, S.M.M.Town P.G.College, Ballia

*e-mail: drjpnsingh@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: October 09, 2012;Accepted: October 12, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Thickening of epithelium in gill filament and gill lamellae at different exposures ofsub-lethal of the malachite green in Carassius auratushas been attributed to cell swelling in short term poisoning. Epithelial thickening is followed by fusion of secondary lamellae, lifting of epithelium from basement membrane of the gill filament and their secondary lamellae and finally dissociation of the epithelium. Fusion of gill lamellae in gills of Carassius auratus at sub-lethal concentration at 15d, 30d & 45d malachite green treatment in present study acquires significance. Fusion of gill lamellae is a natural defense mechanism to keep most of lamellar surface away from direct contact of toxic chemicals. However, such adaptations against the disturbed aquatic environment reduces the respiratory surface area and fishes fail to extract adequate oxygen for their metabolic activities and therefore asphyxiate. L. Sudden apperance of mitochondria rich chloride cells, in the gill filament region of Carassius auratus, is associated with the defence mechanism against toxicant. Possibly the appearance of chloride cells in the gill filament region at lethal exposure of 3h, 6h, 12h and 1d of the malachite green treatment is to protect the fish from the irritant present in the environment, either by providing energy or by facilitating the tissue to excrete nitrogenous or other toxic wastes by active ion extrusion method. Elongation of blood channel, their denucleation and constriction and finally disintegration in pillar cell system at late exposure hours in present investigation is significant. The normal microanatomy of lamellae with their blood channel, pillar cells and epithelial units get distorted and the blood is haemolysed. The haemolysis of lamellar blood causes hypoxemia and fishes leave their hiding places to float on water surface in search of oxygen. Also the sub-epithelial space between pillar cells and epithelial lining diminishes the effective osmoregulatory surface area in addition to the possibilities of normal gas exchange since the water flow through the above region is reduced. Laying down off a barrier layer of slime over the gill filament and gill lamellae by the sac-like mucous cells is perhaps the immediate response of the gill to the malachite green toxicity, in order to delay the penetration of toxic dye at least for a short period in the initial stage of exposure. Sudden evacuation of the contents of the mucoytes which results in their exhaustion and subseuqent elimination causes a sudden decrease in the density of the mucous cells. Increase in protein contents in different cellular components of Carassius auratus under influence of malachite green treatment is quite significant. Increased protein synthesis against the toxicity ofmalachite green leads to the adaptation of organisms to a toxic environment and also induces tolerant stress.

Key words: Gill, Carassius auratus, malachite green

 

46.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 211-212 (2012)

 

Climate change and human health:

Malaria and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

Pradeep Kumar and Vandana Rai

Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology,VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur-(U P)

 

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: October 14, 2012;Accepted: October 16, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Global warming has serious consequences on climate as it modifies rainfall patterns, amplifies coastal flooding and erosion, lengthens the growing season, melts glaciers and alters the range of some infectious diseases. As the precipitation patterns change storms floods and droughts will be more severe and an increased frequency of storms, flood, drought and intense rain events have been already observed in all parts of the world in last few decades. More intense rains and hurricanes and rising sea levels will lead to more severe flooding and potential loss of property and life.

Key words: Global warming, Climae change, malaria, G6PD deficiency

47.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 213-214 (2012)

 

Changing scenario of catch structure in rivers ganga and yamuna at Allahabad

A. Gopesh1 and R.K. Pathak2

1Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad Allahabad-211002 (U.P.)

2Regional Centre, Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Allahabad 211002

*e-mail: krp.pathak2@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: October 18, 2012;Accepted: October 22, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Present investigation was carried, during March 2008 to February 2009 at Rasoolabad Ghat at Allahabad. Study was conducted to assess the population structure of Cyprinus carpio var. communis in the middle stretch of the Ganga river. The population structure was observed to vary from 0 to 11+ age groups. The 1+ age group population was dominant, which was recorded to be nearly one fifth of the total population. The age groups 0, 2+, 3+, 4+, 5+, 6+, 7+ and 8+ contributed 6.11%, 17.87%, 17.50%, 13.46%, 9.17%, 4.89%, 3.18% and 2.57%, respectively. The 0 to 3+ age groups contributed 63.02% population. The remaining age groups (9+ to 11+) contributed below 4% population

 

Key words: Population structure, common carp, River Ganga, Cyprinus carpio

48.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 215-217 (2012)

 

Biodiversity analysis of azotobacter isolated from the rhizosphere of radish, grown in district Jaunpur

Rishi srivastava1, Sumit Patel1, Shweta Sonam1, Rajesh Sharma2, SP Tiwari1*

1Department of Microbiology, 2Department of Biotechnology, VBS Purvanchal University, Jaunpur-222001, India

*e-mail: sptiwarimicro@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: October 15, 2012;Accepted: October 16, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Plant-microbe interaction in the rhizosphere can be beneficial, neutral or deleterious for plant growth. Rhizobacteria that exert beneficial effect on the growth and development of the plant are called as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Radish of district Jaunpur is very famous for its large size. The rhizospheric bacteria may play an important role in the growth of this radish. Studies were done specifically on the biodiversity of Azotobacter found in the rhizospheric region of radish. The bacteria were isolated on the specific medium. Five isolates were tested for their PGPR activity. All the five were positive for ammonia production while negative for antibiotic production. On the basis of color formationIAA production was maximum in RR5, followed by RR1 and rest of the isolates. RR2 was the only strain out of five that was positive for HCN production. None of the isolates exhibited significant increase in the seed germination activity but 1.5 to 2.0 folds increase in the root length as compared to their respective control was observed in RR5 and RR3 treatments. Rest of the cultures were also found to promote the root length as compared to their respective control. Except RR1 and RR2, rest other cultures also promoted the shoot length and only RR5 was able to promote the leaf area. On the basis of these initial results further pot experiments will be conducted in our laboratory with these isolates for their use as bio-fertilizers which will be more eco-friendly and economical than chemical fertilizers.

 

Key words: Biofertilizers, PGPR, Rhizosphere, Azotobacter

49.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 218-222 (2012)

 

Comparative biochemical analysis of skin mucous secretions from certain freshwater teleosts

Ashwini Kumar Nigam1, Usha Kumari1, Ghanshyam Das Nigam2, Swati Mittal1* and Ajay Kumar Mittal3

1Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221 005, India

2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Haidergarh (N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad);

3Department of the Zoology, Banaras Hindu University; 9, Mani Nagar, Kandawa, Varanasi -221106, India

*e-mail: drsmittal73@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: October 27, 2012;Accepted: October 29, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The present study revealed significant differences in the biochemical composition of the skin mucus of Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Rita rita and Channa punctata, inhabiting different ecological niches.Protein contents in aqueous phases of the mucus were higher in L. rohita (54.77%) and R. rita (50.21%), than in C. catla (39.33%), C. punctata (20.64%) and C. mrigala (19.99%).Proteins in detergent soluble phases of skin mucus of these fish species, in general, were less than 3%.Mucus also contained small amounts of carbohydrates (1.28 - 4.53%) and lipids (2.51 - 8.60%).Electrophoretic profiling of aqueous phase proteins revealed a series of high molecular weight protein bands ranging from 50 kDa to 205 kDa in C. mrigala, L. rohita and C. catla.Such bands were relatively less in C. punctata.Protein bands in R. rita were mainly between 17 kDa and 50 kDa.Nature of mucus proteins on the basis of their molecular weight have been correlated with their biological significance in relation to ecological niches inhabited by the fishes.

 

Key words: Skin mucus, Protein

50.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 223-229 (2012)

 

Malathion-induced endocrine disruption leads retardation in fish growth

Bechan Lal*

Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221 005, India

*e-mail: lalbhu@yahoo.co.in

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: November 04, 2012;Accepted: November 03, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Abundant reports on stunted growth in fishes following pesticides exposure are available; however, mechanism underlying it is rarely studied. Since hormones are well known to play vital role in regulation of metabolic activities and general body growth, present study was conducted to investigate the effects of malathion (an organophosphorous pesticide) on metabolic hormones, responsible for promotion of body growth as well as somatic and ovarian growth of the freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. Malathion treatment drastically reduced the body weight as well as food intake. Malathion-treated catfish exhibited avoidance to food to a great degree. This pesticide also suppressed the secretions of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I), testosterone (T) and estradiol-17β (E2) significantly, in a dose dependent manner, in general, except that the low dose of malathion increased the secretion of growth hormone. Significant reduction in muscle and hepatic protein content was also noted in malathion-treated fish. Malathion induced lipolysis in liver and muscle. Study, thus, revealed that malathion disrupted the entire endocrine mechanism and olfactory sensation responsible for gustatory feeding behavior, food intake and metabolism, which ultimately resulted in retardation in general growth.

 

Key words: Malathion, Food consumption, GH, IGF-I, Testosterone, estradiol, fish growth

51.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 230-233 (2012)

 

Population dynamics and eco-friendly utilization of non commercial fishes for fish products development and its sustainable management

K. P. Singh1*, Anees F. Rizvi2 and Niraj Kumar2

1Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, 2The Institute of Applied Sciences, Allahabadndia

*e-mail: kps29@rediffmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: November 11, 2012;Accepted: November 12, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The recent fish catch statistics indicate that there is sharp decline in the population of Indian major carps (IMCs) from 1960 to 2008 in the middle stretch of river Ganga (around Allahabad) and lower stretch of river Yamuna. In contrast to IMCs, population of the exotic fishes are dominating in the fishery of revirine habitat at Allahabad while non-commercial fishes are still maintaining their catch composition as a sustainable stock since 1960s.This trenddeclined the socio-economic status of the fishermen community. In the present scenario, utilization of non-commercial fishes may be a solution not only to enhance the livelihood of the community but also to utilize these fishes for development of fish products. Therefore, population dynamics of three non-commercial fishes namely Sciaena coitor , Gudusia chapra and Chela laubuca from Ganga and Yamuna rivers of Allahabad was studied from Januaryto December, 2010 using length-frequency based analysis by FiSAT software to evaluate the growth parameters, mortality rates and exploitation rate. Estimated L”, K, Z, M, F, E and U of these fishes was 215, 1.514, 4.97, 2.56, 2.41, 0.484 and 0.481 per year respectively for S. coitor ; 180, 2.838, 9.609, 4.07, 5.54, 0.57 and 0.57 per year respectively for G. chapra and 135, 2.703, 6.041, 4.27, 1.77, 0.293 and 0.292 per year for C. laubuca. The study revealed that fishes were under-exploited except G. chapra that has crossed the over-fishing level. Nutritional value of S. coitor was found higher among the selected fishes; and also found organoleptically acceptable. Therefore, fish products like Fish Papad, Fish Chakli and Fish Save were prepared by amalgamation of some phytoproteins with fresh flesh of S. coitorfor human consumption and shelf value of these products was found quite good (upto 200days). Thus, fish stock of non-commercial fishes of these rivers may be exploited and utilized in future as sustainable management.

 

Key words: Population dynamics, Non-commercial fishes, Nutritive value, Fish product

52.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 234-236 (2012)

 

Studies on the role of Decorative leucauge, Leucauge decorata(blackwall) as bio-control agent for controlling insect pests of crop fields

Arvind Yadav, Radheshyam Mishra and S.N. Chaubey*

Department of Zoology, S.D.J.P.G. College Chandeshwar, Azamgarh -276128, India

*e-mail: drsncchaubey@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: November 06, 2012;Accepted: November 08, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Laboratory studies were carried out to investigate morphology, prey preference and feeding capacity of Leucauge decorata (decorative leucauge) collected from paddy crop fields and surroundings. It was observed that it is a diurnal species found in between paddy plants and on bushes near the crop fields, makes web during day and feeds readily on locusts, moths, mosquitoes and houseflies but least fed on beetles. A single individual can prey on about 15.30±1.70 insects/ 24h. This spider species is being reported here for the first time from Mau district of U.P.

 

Key words: Leucauge decorata, bio-control agent, morphology, feeding capacity, prey preference, crop field

53.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 237-238 (2012)

 

Comparative study of IgG coding region in different human blood samples using insilicon tools for individual identification

Nitu Pandey1,2*

1School of Forensic Science, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad

2Axis DNA Research Centre, Hyderabad

*e-mail: nitupandey89@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: November 08, 2012;Accepted: November 10, 2012)

 

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Abstract: DNA fingerprinting technology has never looked back. It has become widely popular, acceptable and more economical. Plus the process is much more straightforward now. Apart from its exploitation in forensic investigations to solve mysteries of crime, the chief utilization of DNA fingerprinting is for parentage testing. Blood is one of the most significant and frequently encountered types of physical evidence associated with the forensic investigation of death and violent crime. Immunoglobins are protein molecules with demonstrable antibody activity i.e. specific interaction, with antigen, and share antigenic determinant with any known antibody. Immunoglobins are comprised of a heterogeneous FCGR3A gene encodes a receptor for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G, and it is involved in the removal of antigen-antibody complexes from the circulation. This present study was carried out in BioAxis DNA research centre, Hyderabad. In this study 8 samples of blood were taken of different person from different region. For primer designing the primer FCGR3A sequences were blast in primer 3 input and with the help of CLAUSTAL W, identify the evolutionary relationship and the regions that are similar and most conserved were examined. The results show that every individual have a unique DNA sequence, no two samples have same pattern so were subjected to analysis.This technique will emphasize an efficient method for the detection and confirmation of bloodstains as being human in origin is important in crime scene investigations blood group of proteins accounting for about 20%of total plasma proteins.

 

Key words: DNA fingerprinting, Plasma Protein, Immunoglobins, heterogeneous FCGR3A gene

54.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 239-241 (2012)

 

Effect of essential oil (anethum) on albino rats

G.R. Yadav1, S.L. Yadav2, and A.K. Mishra3

1Department of Botany, M.H.P.G. College, Jaunpur, 2Department of Botany, S.V.M.P.G. College, Kalan, Sultanpur

3Department of Botany, K.N. Govt. P.G. College, Gyanpur, Bhadohi

 

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: November 07, 2012;Accepted: November 10, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Animal toxicity investigations with the isolated fungi toxic plant (Anethum) constituent to find out the effect of constituents on different animals systems. This work will be carried out by feeding the treated food to Albino rats for some period to find out their chromic toxicity. The animal toxic studies were made on Albino rats. The rats of treatment sets were given the feed fumigated with Anethum oils. The body weights rate of diet. Consumption, hemoglobin percent total and differential leucocyte counts, blood glucose, protein cholesterol, urea, glutoamic oxaloacetic transminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transminase (GPT) activity of the blood serum of the rats of treated sets were observed and compared with those of control sets. The rats of treated group showed a more pronounced increase in body weight as well as diet consumption than those of control group. The hemoglobin percentage, total and differential leucocyte counts, blood glucose, protein, cholesterol, urea, SGOT andSGPT of the blood serum of treated and control sets of rats did not differ significantly and the study thus showed the non animal toxic nature of the Anethum oil.

 

Key words: Anethum (Essential oil), Albino rat

55.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 242-244 (2012)

 

Major threats to biodiversity with particular reference to climate change,

introduction of GMO’s and alien species

Dharmendra Kumar Pandey

Amity School of Engineering Technology,Amit University Uttarpradesh, Lucknow Campus-226010, India

*e-mail: dklsamity@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: November 11, 2012;Accepted: November 12, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The biodiversity is a term that applies to all species, their genetic variability, and the communities and ecosystems in which they occur. The major threats to biodiversity are from habitat loss, habitat fragmentation, environmental pollution, introduction of alien (exotic) species, GMOs, spread of diseases, overexploitation, shifting cultivation, poaching, acid rain, climate changes etc. Climate change is most dangerous threat for biodiversity in current century and coming centuries. GMO’s are plants, animals or microbes which contain at least one foreign gene. The introduction of GMO’s may have adverse impact because each and every species in an ecosystem are interdependent. The adverse impact of introduction of GMOs on biodiversity is comparable to introduction of high yielding crop varieties in decade of 60s.Alien species or exotic species are non-native species of organisms that occur outside their natural adapted ranges and dispersal potential. They pose threat to flora and fauna of host region.

 

Key words: Alien species, Biodiversity, Climate change, GMOs

56.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 245-250 (2012)

 

Behavioural dysfunctions in relation to the toxicity of ‘NUVAN®’, an organophosphorus insecticide in an indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala

Nidhi Srivastava, Amita Kumari Rai, Usha Kumari, Swati Mittal* and Ajay Kumar Mittal*

Skin Physiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005, India

*e-mail: profakmittal@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: November 12, 2012;Accepted: November 14, 2012)

 

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Abstract: This study assessed the behavioural dysfunctions in relation to the toxicity of ‘Nuvan®’, a commercial formulation of an organophosphorus insecticide, in Cirrhinus mrigala.24h renewal bioassays were made to measure potential toxic effects of the insecticide. Trimmed Spearman-Karber method was employed to evaluate median lethal concentrations (LC50; 4h - 96h) and the corresponding 95% confidence limits. In the fishes exposed to ‘Nuvan®’, significant behavioural dysfunctions-swimming behaviour, opercular beat rate and surfacing behaviour have been documented as sensitive indicators of physiological stress.Hyperactivity, erratic, undirected jerky swimming of fish exposed to ‘Nuvan®’ is associated with disruption of nervous and muscular coordination. General weakness, lethargy, loss of equilibrium, and settling down at the bottom prior to death is associated with the suppression of breathing leading to hypoxia.

 

Key words: Organophosphorus insecticide, ‘Nuvan®’, Toxicity, LC50, Behavioural dysfunctions, Opercular beat rate, Surfacing, Swimming, Cirrhinus mrigala.

57.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 251-254 (2012)

 

Ecophysiological adaptations in epidermis of fishes inhabiting different ecological niches

J.P.N. Singh1* and Suneel Kumar Singh2

1Department of Zoology, R.H.S.P.G.College Singramau, Jaunpur, 2Department of Zoology, Sarvjanik P.G. College,Mungara Badshahpur, Jaunpur

*e-mail: drjpnsingh@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: November 15, 2012;Accepted: November 16, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The integument morphology often vividly reflects the animal’s ecological niches and its behavioral habits. It embodies many of animal’s responses to the environment as it differentiates, grows, matures, reproduces and dies. Adaptive alterations in the epidermis of fishes- Clupisoma garua, Glossogobius giuris, Oxygaster bacaila, Sciaena coitor and Setipinna phasa occupying different ecological niches have been discussed in this chapter. In Clupisoma garua the secretory activities of mucous cells have been taken by the club cells and epithelial cells . Clupisoma garua is carnivorous ,predatory cat fish. These cat fishes are frequently subjected to abrasionduring active movement to catch their preys. Presence of large number of voluminous club cells may be regarded as an adaptation to protect the fish against abrasion. In Glossogobius giuris the epidermis is quite thick as compared to that of other fishes of present investigation. The mucous cells are small and distantly placed from each other. The epithelial cells stain moderately for glycoprotein moieties. The club cells or sacciform cells are lacking. It appears that due to absence of club cells or sacciform cells which are protective in functions , and due to presence of mucous cells in low density having smaller dimensions ,the epidermis of this fish is very thick as compared to that of other fishes of present investigation. This may be regarded as an adaptation in view of need for an efficient protection against increase stress to which these fishes are susceptible in swimming on surface against fast flowing water current and during active movement in catch of their preys. Oxygaster bacaila,is omnivorous feeding mosquito larvae throughout its life and mostly inhabits in stagnant sluggish water bodies most suitable for mosquito egg laying. This fish has not to face abrasion of fast flowing water current. Due to least abrasion, the moderate secretion of glycoproteins from the mucous cells, epithelial cells and club cells in this fish is necessitated. In Sciaena coitor and Setipinna phasa, the mucous cells are enormously large, secreting copious amount of mucous on the surface. This is an adaptation in these fish species to protect the fish from abrasion of fast flowing water current to which these fishes are subjected. Eosinophilic granular cells are observed in the epidermis of Sciaena coitor and Setipinna phasa. These cells have been associated with local defence mechanism protecting the fish from various pathogens to which they are frequently exposed after mechanical damage of epidermis during swimming from sea to river against flow of water current.

 

Key words: Niches, Eosinophilic granular cells, sacciform cells, swimming

58.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 255-257 (2012)

 

2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-d) induced histopathological changes in testes of a fresh water catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (bloch)

Anurag Singh1, Hari Shankar Singh1 and J.P.N. Singh2*

1Department of Zoology, T.D.(P.G.) College, Jaunpur – 222002, India,

2Department of Zoology, R.H.S.P.G. College, Singramau, Jaunpur – 222175 India

*e-mail: drjpnsingh@gmail.com

(Received: March 15, 2012; Revised received: November 15, 2012;Accepted: November 16, 2012)

 

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Abstract: Testis of Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to sub-lethal concentration of 2,4-D showed a number of degenerative changes. Marked histological changes were encountered in the testes of H. fossilis following herbicide poisoning. The testicular lobules exhibited degenerated spermatogonia and spermatocytes. The degenerative changes could either be on account of a direct toxic action of the environmental poison or due to an indirect effect via the hypothalamic pituitary-testicular axis. The interstitial cells of herbicide 2,4-D treated H. fossilis exhibited cytolysis, pyknosis and necrosis pointing to their reduced activity and consequent alteration of spermatogenesis. pointing to their reduced activity and consequent alteration of spermatogenesis. Active spermatogensis and formation of sperm were observed in testes from control fish whereas in the treated group only secondary spermatogonia and spermatocytes filled the tubular lumen. Necrotic areas were also evident in these testis. The interstitial cells of the control fish showed activation whereas those of the experimental were exhibiting signs of inactivity. Extensive necrosis in the spermatogenic and interstitial cells are known to be indicative of impaired gonadotrophic activity. Breaking and dissolution of the lobular wall in the testis of H.fossilis indicates a degenerative impact of the 2,4-D on this tissue.

 

Key words: 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, Heteropneustes fossilis, spermatogonia, spermatocytes,gonadotrophic activity

59.

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Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 259-261 (2012)

 

Effect of corm size and spacing on growth, yield and quality parameters of gladiolus under Jammu conditions

Rajesh KPandey1 and Shahid Ahamad2*

1Division of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, FOA, Main Campus, Chatha, 2*Krishi Vigyan Kendra, R.S.Pura, Jammu,

Sher-e- Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology ofJammu (J&K), India-180009

*e-mail: drp12@rediffmail.com

(Received: October 18, 2012; Revised received: November 22, 2012;Accepted: November 24, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The investigation on different corm sizes (3.0 to 3.5, 3.6 to 4.0, 4.1 to 4.5 and4.6 to 5.0 cm.) and spacings (15 x 30, 20 x 30, 25 x 30 and 30 x 30 cm ) on growth, yield and quality parameters of gladiolus cv. White Prosperity. Larger sized corms (4.6 to 5.0 cm.) in association with wider plant spacing of 30 x 30cm gave best performance. Plant height, number of leaves per plant, length of longest leaf, flowering duration, length of spike, length of flowering region of spike and number of florets per spike were observed to be significantly better with larger sized corms. Minimum days for sleeping and opening of basal floret were found in larger sized corms. Number of corms per plant, corm weight, diameter of corm, number of cormels per plant and cormel weight per plant in terms of quality and quantity showed increasing trend with increasing corm size and spacing. Wider spacing (30 x 30 cm) and larger corm size (4.6 - 5.0 cm) may be recommended for realizing better quality and produce in Gladiolus cv. White Prosperity under sub-tropical conditions of Jammu region.

 

Key words: Gladiolus, corm size, spacing, Yield

60.

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Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 262-265 (2012)

 

Effect of salinity stress on chlorophyll fluorescence variable yield and protein in Soybean (Glycine max L.)

Naheed Siddiqui* and M. Singh

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow - 226007, India

*e-mail: naheedsiddiqui_2004@yahoo.co.in

(Received: February 06, 2012; Revised received: March 28, 2012; Accepted: April 04, 2012)

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Abstract: Soybean (Glycine max L.) of the family Leguminosae (pulse family), native to tropical and warm temperate regions of Asia, cultivated as a main crop since last 5000 years. The leaf number 4 and 5 both have shown lower loss in fv/fm values compared to leaf number 6. The loss was found 8, 17 and 23 % in case treated with T1 to various leaves viz., 4, 5 and 6th. Upon treated with T3 salinity level it could enhanced to the level of 35, 41 and 65% losses with leaf number viz., 4, 5 and 6th respectively in PS-1241. A more susceptible variety has shown these losses ca. 60, 73 and 84% in case used leaves having their position 4th, 5th and 6th in PS-1092. The data indicates that PS-1241 has been retaining more protein content in comparison to further two varieties. Cosequently loss in protein percentage was found ca. 41, 54 and 62% in PS-1092 in comparison to the losses found in PS-1241, i.e., 35, 38 and 49% and also 38, 49 and 52 % as shown by PS-1042.

Key words: Salinity, Chlorophyll, Pigments, NaCl, Soybean

61.

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Res. Environ. Life Sci., 5(4) 266-268 (2012)

 

Effect of drip irrigation regimes and mulching methods on leaf nutrients uptake of Aonla under sodic soil

Mohd. Suhail*1 and Shahid Ahamad2

1K.V.K. Lakhimpur-kheri, CSAUAT-Kanpur, U.P., India

2Regional Agricultural Research Station, Rajouri, SKUAST-Jammu, India

*e-mail: drsuhail.imp@gmail.com

(Received: July 28, 2012; Revised received: October 19, 2012; Accepted: November 01, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The study was carried on drip irrigation regimes and mulching method on nutrient uptake of aonla (Emblica officinalis) cv. NA-10. The significant nitrogen (2.52) was analysed in 13 (IW/CPE=0.6) regime; while P, K and Mg was recorded significantly in 12 (IW/CPE=0.8) regime Ca content in 11 (IW/CPE = 1.0) mulching with paddy straw shows highest concentration of N, K, Ca and Mg while P content was absorbed in black polythene. Interaction of irrigation regime and mulching shows significant maximum N, K and Ca content in 13M2’ 12M2’ and 11M2’ combination respectively.

Key words: Aonla Drip. Mulching N, P, K. Ca. and Mg nutrients uptake

 

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