RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-6, Number-2, May-2013

 

11.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 6(2) 37-40 (2013)

 

Microbiological examination of air in the neonatal ward of a teaching hospital in Nigeria

Bifarin, Olatomiwa O.1, Feruke-Bello, Yetunde M.*2 and Komolafe, Olanrewaju I.3

1Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria

 2Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife Nigeria

3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

*e-mail: yettyferukebello@yahoo.com

(Received: January 06, 2013; Revised received: April 25, 2013;Accepted: April 30,2013)

 

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Abstract: The microbiological examination of air was carried out in the neonatal ward of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife, Osun State in South-Western part of Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine types and concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi in the ward and to establish standard for future reference. Settled plate technique was used to assess the aerial contaminant. The air samples were collected two times daily: In the morning between 8 and 10am during the influx of people and medical personnel into the ward and in the afternoon between 12 and 2pm when a lot of the activities in the ward have been abated. The bacteria isolated from the air in the neonatal ward include: Staphylococus aureus, Bacillus spp, Klebsiella spp and Escherichia coli in the order of prevalence while the fungi include; Aspergillus spp, Candida spp and Penicillium spp also in the order of prevalence. The bacterial population ranges from 14-39 cfu/m3, while the fungal population ranges from 7-24 cfu/m3. Also, the degree of the frequency of microbial distribution was higher in the morning than in the afternoon.Some of the micro organisms characterised and identified were representative of the normal flora of the human body (skin, gastrointestinal tracts and respiratory tracts) and opportunistic pathogens which can be very precarious when predisposed to the low immune neonates. In order to improve the quality of the air in the ward stringent measures such as fumigation, regular cleaning and disinfection of surfaces must be instilled.

Key words: Neonatal Ward, Airborne microorganisms, Normal flora and Nigeria

12.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 6(2) 41 -42 (2013)

 

Efficacy of Azadirachta indica (Neem) as an antigingivitis agent on dental plaque induced gingivitis

Shalini Kaushal*1 and Avadhesh Kumar2

1Faculty of Dental Sciences, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow – 226 003, India

 2Career PG Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Lucknow, India

*e-mail: kaushalshalini77@gmail.com

(Received: December 24, 2012; Revised received: April 24, 2013;Accepted: April 28,2013)

 

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Abstract: Azadirachta indica(Neem) is a plant ofMeliaceae family, has been used in India for several decades in medical and dental sciences for the treatment of several diseases. Neem has been considered to have antiseptic activity, but its use in the dentistry for the treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis has not been well established till date. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of neem extract ( Nimbidin-T) as an antigingivitis agent. Thirty dental students were enrolled for the study. ANimbidin-T preparation was applied by the operator twice a day, once in the morning and second time in the evening with small cotton pellet for two months. Gingival status was assessed by Loe and Sillness gingival index at base line and on 2nd day, 4th day, 8th day and then every week till two months. Results showed that Nimbidin-T is significantly effective in reduction of dental plaque induced gingivitis concluding that it may be used as an effective adjunctive therapy to conventional mechanical therapy in treating dental plaque induced gingivitis.

 

Key words: Azadirachta indica, Neem , antigingivitis, Nimbidin-T

13.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 6(2) 43-46 (2013)

 

Chemical characterization of nutrients in seeds

of underutilized grain: Chenopodium album

Tripti Pachauri, Aparna Satsangi, Anita Lakhani, K. Maharaj Kumari*

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh - 282 110, Agra

*e-mail: maharajkumari.k@rediffmail.com

(Received: November 07, 2012; Revised received: April 02, 2013;Accepted: April 05,2013)

 

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Abstract: The nutritional characteristics of the seeds of C. album and C. quinoa were investigated using standard analytical methods. The results indicate that the seeds of the neglected species of C. album were rich in moisture and ash content, crude proteins, crude lipids and carbohydrates. On comparison, the values of protein and total sugar content in the seeds of C. album and C. quinoa is much lower than that of the other grains. However, the total lipid and minerals like Na, Ca and Mg are found to be much higher in C. quinoa and all varieties of C. album as compared with other grains. Thus, it is recommended for future commercial cultivation.

Key words: Chenopodium Album, Chenopodium Quinoa, Nutritional content

 

14.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 6(2) 47 - 48 (2013)

 

Effect of climate change on status of susceptible hosts of foliicolous fungi from Bahraich U.P. India

Ajay Kumarand T.P. Mall*

Postgraduate Department ofBotany Kisan P.G. College, Bahraich- 271 801, India

*e-mail: drtpmall@rediffmail.com

(Received: January 24, 2013; Revised received: April 27, 2013;Accepted: April 28,2013)

 

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Abstract: The present report elucidates a rich and unique profile of Mycobial as well as Phytodiversity of research area surveyed with forty three Angiospermic host plants representing forty one genera and twenty four families being parasitized by thirty five fungal species representing sixteen fungal genera.

 

Key words: Foliicolous fungi, Bahraich, Susceptible Hosts, U.P.

15.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 6(2) 49 -50 (2013)

 

Serological studies of mung bean mosaic virus (MBMV)

Brij Lal Verma*2 and B.D.Singh1

1Department of Botany, K.S.Saket P.G. College, Ayodhya, Faizabad -224123, India

                2Research scholar, Dr. R.M.L. Avadh University Faizabad, India

*e-mail: vermabrijlal1272@gmail.com

 

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Abstract: An experiment was conducted during 2010-11 to see the serological reaction for identification of mung bean mosaic virus (MBMV). It is the causative of mosaic, mottling, chlorosis, necrosis, vein-banding symptoms in mung bean plants. The affected plants become weak, stunted and reduced in size. The serological test with the range of known viruses indicate that the sap obtained from healthy and infected test plant gave no precipitin test.

 

Key words: Serology, Identity, Mung bean, Symptom, Precipitin test, NaCl, HgCl2

16.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 6(2) 51 - 54 (2013)

 

Combining ability analysis for earliness in fieldpea

Vinod Singh1*, A. K. Singh2 and M. P. Chauhan1

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj-Faizabad-224 229 (U.P.)

                2ICAR, Research Complex for Eastern Region, Sabjpura, Patna – 801 105

*e-mail: singhv.1959@gmail.com

(Received: December 21, 2012; Revised received: April 25, 2013;Accepted: April 26,2013)

 

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Abstract:Line x tester analysis was made for seed yield its attributes and other phenological traits in fieldpea. The gca and sca components suggested predominance of non additive gene effects for days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, reproductive phase, biological yield per plant, seed yield per plant and harvest index (%). PG-3, EC-324110 and NIC-11236 were best general combiner for the seed yield in combination to the above traits. A cross EC-324110 x Rachna was the best combination for seed yield and earliness.

 

Key words:Pea, Earliness, Combining ability

17.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 6(2) 55 -58 (2013)

 

Systematic enumeration of chlorococcales of river Ganga

Sachendra Kr. Tripathi* and Shweta Awasthi

Department of Botany, Brahmanand College, Kanpur (U. P) 208004, India

*e-mail: sachendrabnd@gmail.com

(Received: January 16, 2013; Revised received: April 17, 2013;Accepted: April 19,2013)

 

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Abstract: Herein 15 genera of order Chlorococcales spread over 46 species including Chlorococcum, Golenkinia, Characium, Hydrodictyon, Pediastrum, Coelastrum, Ankistrodesmus, Closteriopsis, Chlorella, Oocystis, Franceia, Selenastrum, Tetraodon, Actinastrum, Crucigenia and Scenedesmus, have been observed from Ganga watersbetween Bithoor to Jajmau, Kanpur , While Chlorococcum, Hydrodictyon and Scendesmus were found to be dominant,Golenkinia, Tetraodon, Crucigenia and Franceia were recorded as rare genera.

Key words: Chlorococcales, genera,Algal species,

18.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 6(2) 59-64 (2013)

 

Evaluation of seasonal water quality and pollution status of Parashari river

Jyoti Raghuwanshi*1, Subhash C. Pandey1 , R. R. Simaiya2 and Subrata Pani3

1Department of Chemistry, G.G.G.P.G. College, PGBT campus, Bhopal - 462038, India

2Research Associate, Division of Soil Physics, I.I.S.S., Bhopal, India

3Environmental Research laboratory, Environmental Planning and Co-ordination Organization, Bhopal-16 India

*e-mail: jyotiraghuwanshi93@yahoo.com

(Received: January 02, 2013; Revised received: April 26, 2013;Accepted: April 27,2013)

 

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Abstract: The water quality of Parashari river of Ganj Basoda town of district Vidisha of Madhya Pradesh was evaluated during the period 2010-2011 to understand the degree of pollution due to inflow of sewage and agricultural residues from its catchment. River Parashari is a victim of water pollution which flows though the heart of Ganjbasoda town. The river starts from Parshora village, nearer to Ganj Basoda. It flows through Derkhi and Bhagharru, finally merges in Betwa River. It encounters several problems related to domestic waste disposal and wastewater discharge from neighboring restaurants and villages in addition to the upstream villages. Thus in order to determine the water quality of the River five stations were chosen for sample collection in the study area stretching a length of 20 km. Field visits were made during three different season’s viz. summer (March-June), rainy (July-October), winter (November-February) during the 2010–2011 session. Water samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters including pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, chloride, and phosphate. The values of these parameters are compared with standard values given by CPCB guideline. The Result showed that variations of the analyzed parameters for e.g., pH, conductivity, chloride and nitrate were found within the range but Biological oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were found crossing the range. Generally at station 1 and 2 values of these parameters are found very high and not in permissible limit. The Present study reveals that the seasonal changes are the major factors in fluctuation of most of the physicochemical characters of the water. Most of the parameters were higher in summer which may be due to high temperature, evaporation and low water level and minimum in winter due to increased water level and low metabolic activities. However while comparing the values with available standards it can be concluded that the water from Parashari river may be used for drinking purpose after due treatment as per “Class-C Category of CPCB, guidelines”. Based on the study, Station 1 and 2 which are situated on upstream of the river were found to be more polluted.

 

Key words: Pollution, Water Quality, Seasonal effect, Physico-chemical parameters, CPCB guideline

 

19.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 6(2) 65-68 (2013)

 

Natural population dynamics and morphological characters of mycorrhizal fungi in rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Arpita Parmar1, T.P. Mall1 and R.B. Singh2*

1Department of Botany, T.H.S. Kisan P.G. College, Baharaich-271801 (U.P.)

2Department of Plant Pathology, N.D.U.A.& T., Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229, India

*e-mail: rbspath.2010@gmail.com

(Received: November 15, 2012; Revised received: April 12, 2013;Accepted: April 14,2013)

 

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Abstract: Soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from the different locations of Baharaich district of Uttar Pradesh to evaluate the population dynamics of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza. Root colonization ranged between 61 to 68%, whereas spore population varied from 72 to 87 per 25 g soil in wheat of different locations. Total 19 species of VAM fungi belonging to 3 genera viz., Glomus, Acaulospora and Sclerocystis were identified. Among these species Glomus mosseae was found most dominant and widely distributed followed by Glomus fasciculatum, Sclerocyctis rubiformis, Glomus microcarpum, Acaulospora longula, Sclerocystis clavispora, Sclerocystis sinuosa, respectively. Physico-chemical properties of the soil especially pH, organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium influence the population dynamics and colonization of VA mycorrhiza in wheat crops.

 

Key words: Mycorrhizal fungi, wheat, soil properties, population dynamics

20.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 6(2) 69-72 (2013)

 

Impact of textile and dye effluent irrigation on

germination and its growth in cereals

M. Parameswari* and C. Udayasooriyan

Department of Environmental Sciences, Tamilnadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore-641003, India

*e-mail: pariwari@yahoo.com

(Received: June 02, 2012; Revised received: October 18, 2012; Accepted: October 19, 2012)

 

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Abstract: The textile industry occupies a unique place in the industrial map of India and is centered mainly on large cities such as Mumbai, Surat, Ahmedabad, Coimbatore and Kanpur. The effluent discharged from textile and dye industries, breweries, fertilizers, antibiotic factories and slaughter houses were hazardous to the flora and fauna of inland streams or other natural water resources. The discharge of effluent into the river increased the BOD and COD of the river water.The high BOD and COD would deplete dissolved oxygen of the river water creating thereby an anaerobic condition in the riverbed, which in turn would affect the aquatic life. The presence of hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and chloride in the textile and dye factory effluent was highly toxic to fish in water bodies (Ranganathan and Kurian Joseph, 1997). In this study, the effluent from textile and dye factory was studied for its effect on germination and vigour index of the seedlings of cereals, millets, oil seeds and vegetable crops.The diluted textile and dye effluent with water in 1:3 ratio (T2) did not have any adverse effect on the growth and vigour index of field crops. This finding is in line with the observations recorded. The highest numerical value for germination was recorded in T1 (river water control) and the lowest value was recorded in T5 (undiluted effluent) followed by T2 and T3, which were on par with each other. The growth parameters like germination per cent, root length, shoot length, dry matter production and vigour index showed a better performance as the concentration of the effluent decreased.

 

Key words: TDS – Total Disolved Solids, SAR- Sodium Absoption Ratio, BOD- Biological Oxygen Demand, COD – Chemical Oxygen Demand

 

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