RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-7, Number-1, February-2014

 

1.

Res. Environ. Life Sci.,7(1) 1-10 (2014)

 

Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus: An overview

Niti Chawla*, Manisha Phour, Sunita Suneja, Seema Sangwaan and Sneh Goyal

Department of Microbiology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, India

*e-mail: nitichawlahans@gmail.com

(Received: November 07, 2013; Revised received: January 12, 2014;Accepted: January 15,2014)

 

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Abstract: Amplification in agricultural practices to maximize the crop productivity had led to excessive exploitation of the technologies like application of agro-chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) in agricultural fields. But these are not in favor of the sustainability of soil health and also posing threats to the soil fertility. During the last couple of decades, an economically feasible and ecologically sound alternative strategy to minimize this problem has been developed. In this strategy soil microorganisms have been exploited in agriculture for improving the soil health and enhancing productivity. Among various microbial species used, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is very important. It has a long-standing history of bacterial-plant interrelationship as a symbiotic endophyte capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Its association with sugarcane represents a model system for monocot-diazotrophic associations. Therefore it is necessary to collect information related to their establishment, colonization process, biological nitrogen fixation, growth promotion, etc. In this review, the association of G. diazotrophicus with sugarcane and other crop plants and with various hosts is discussed. Then the plant-growth- promoting traits identified in this bacterium, including N2 fixation, phytohormone synthesis, P and Zn solubilization and biocontrol, are analysed

Key words: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, N2 fixation, phytohormone synthesis, P and Zn solubilization, biocontrol

 

2.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(1) 11 -14 (2014)

 

Effect of tillage practices, weed control and nitrogen levels on yield and growth attributes and nitrogen content in rainfed maize (Zea mays L.)

Awadhesh Kumar1*, V.B. Jaiswal2 and V.K. Kanaujia3

1Deptt. of Soil Conservation and Water Management, 2S M S (Agronomy) and 3Programme Coordinator,

Directorate of Extension (K.V.K.), C. S. Azad University ofAgriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208002 (U.P.)

*e-mail: awadheshy427@gmial.com

(Received: October 05, 2013; Revised received: January 16, 2014;Accepted: January 17,2014)

 

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Abstract: This experiment was conducted during Kharif 2003 and 2004 at the Soil Conservation and Water Management farm of C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur to find out the impact of tillage practices, weed control methods and nitrogen levels on yield, growth and N concentration in rainfed maize (Zea mays L.). Grain and stover yield, growth characteristics like shoot growth, functional leaves, leaf area index and plant dry weight and concentration and total uptake of N in maize was the highest in deep ploughed with MB plough (T4) followed by two ploughing with cultivator (T2) and two ploughing with desi plough (T1) but the lowest was under one ploughing with disc harrow (T3). Pre-emergence application of Atrazine resulted significantly higher growth and yield of maize and N uptake by crop. Application of N up to 120 kg ha-1 has significantly increased higher growth and yield of maize and also resulted higher uptake of N over lower levels of the N application.

 

Key words: Growth attribute, Maize, Nitrogen uptake, Pre-emergence, Tillage, Yield

 

3.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(1) 15-18 (2014)

 

Effect of water management practices on Mat-sedges (Cyperus tegetum Roxb.) through rainwater harvesting and soil physico-chemical properties

Kalyan Jana1* and A. M. Puste2

1Rice Research Station (Govt. of West Bengal), Bankura, West Bengal – 722 101, India

2Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia, West Bengal - 741 252, India

*e-mail: kjanarrs@gmail.com

(Received: November 01, 2013; Revised received: January 18, 2014;Accepted: January 19,2014)

 

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Abstract: From the literature, preliminary survey and contact with the farmers at Sabong and Pingla block of Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India, where mat-sedges is being widely cultivated mostly as mono-crop with poor management practices by the poor and marginal farmers, resulted poor returns. From their practice, it proven that this crop is raised as per their traditional practice without much care, needs further improvised agro-techniques. So, with the view on this fact, a field experiment was conducted to study the ‘Effect of water management practices on mat-sedges (Cyperus tegetum Roxb.) through rainwater harvesting and soil physico-chemical properties’ during 2006 - 07 to 2007 - 08 at farmer’s field at Bural under Sabong block area of Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India on clay loam soil. Excess rainwater during rainy season was conserved in excavated harvesting pond in adjacent of experimental area for subsequent use as life-saving irrigation by the crop. From the experiment it reveals that during kharif season, there was no significant difference observed in respect to plant height, number of tillers m-2 and dry matter accumulation of mat-sedges in pooled data. However, during winter and summer season, W6 treatment (W3 + paddy straw mulching during winter and summer season, respectively) exhibited highest plant height (88.54 and 111.25 cm), maximum no. of tillers m-2 (216.8 and 269.6) and higher value of dry matter accumulation (277.4 and 387.5 g m-2), respectively (pooled data). Soil carbon and nitrogen status of the soil after harvest of mulch treated plots were increases. Mat-sedges crop during kharif season resulted in taller plants and more no. of tillers m-2 as compared to regeneration crop during winter and summer season, respectively.

 

Key words: Mat-sedges, Water management practices, Rainwater harvesting, Life-saving irrigation, soil carbon status and seasonal effect

 

4.

Res. Environ. Life Sci.,7(1) 19 -22 (2014)

 

Physiological and morphological responses of

cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.) under different water regimes

Sanjay Kumar* and Munna Singh

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India-226007

*e-mail: sk.botanylkouniv@gmail.com

(Received: October 15, 2013; Revised received: January 02, 2014;Accepted: January 06,2014)

 

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Abstract: The cotton (Gossypium herbaceum L.) was analyzed for changes in physiological and morphological parameters under the influence of water stress. The deleterious effect of water stress i.e., drought in cotton plants was mainly targeted towards physiological and morphological characteristics. The gas-exchange parameters of net photosynthesis (PN), stomatal conductance (gs), electron transport rates (ETR), sub-stomatal CO2 concentration (Ci) and the maximum quantum efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) showed a decreasing trend as the drought intensity increased. But considerable increase in osmotic potential (Y) was reported. The growth parameter viz., shoot length, root length, leaf area expansion and leaf number showed significant decrease on increase in drought intensity. But the comparative analysis revealed that G. herbaceum is torerance towards drought.

Key words: Net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, electron transport rates, osmotic potential, sub-stomatal CO2 concentration, Fv/Fm, Gossypium herbaceum

5.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(1) 23 -25 (2014)

 

Effect of different mole drain spacings on the growth characters and yield of soybean in Raisen district of MP

S.S. Dhakad*1, K.V. Ramana Rao2, Vijay Agrawal3 and S.K. Verma4

1Subject Matter Specialist (Agril Engg), Krishi Vigyan Kendra (RVSKVV) Shajapur, (MP)-465001

2Senior Scientist (IDED), Central Institute ofAgricultural Engineering (ICAR), Bhopal

3Scientist (Horticulture ), College of Agricultural (JNKVV) Jabalpur, 4PA (Agril.Ext.) KVK (JNKVV) Hoshangabad

*e-mail: sudhirdhakad@rediffmail.com

(Received: December 05, 2013; Revised received: January 05, 2014;Accepted: January 28,2014)

 

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Abstract: On farm trials were conducted on farmer’s fields at Raisen district of Madhya Pradesh during 2008 to 2009 to assess mole drain spacing for soybean crop in temporary waterlogged vertisols. The four types of mole drain spacing viz. 2,4,6 & 8 m with 0.5 m depth from ground surface were assessed under trial. The average length of each lateral was 50 m and a 75 hp tractor was operated at a speed of 0.80 kmph during the mole drain formation. Soybean crop during kharif was selected in the study to optimize the drain spacing. Plant height, number of branches per plant, root length, number of root nodules per plant and yield of soybean crop were recorded for consecutive two seasons. On the basis of the results obtained from the experiment, it can be concluded that mole drains at a spacing of 2 meter was found optimal for better soybean productivity.

 

Key words:Drainage, Mole drains, Drain spacing, Soybean, Vertisols

6.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(1) 27 -30 (2014)

 

Effect of salt stress on germination and early seedling growth stage of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) landraces

Rathnam. K1*, N. Sivaraj2 And Adhi Shankar3

1Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad 500 030

2Economic Botany, National Plant Beauro of Plant Genetic Resource, Hyderabad 500 030

3Department of Horticulture, Dr. Y.S.R. Horticultural University, Hyderabad 500 030

*e-mail: shankar1104@gmail.com

(Received: Novembr 09, 2013; Revised received: January 11, 2014;Accepted: January 16,2014)

 

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Abstract:The response of three Roselle landraces (RKS-1, RKS-2 and RKS-3) against eight salts (Distilled water as control, NaCl, Na2SO4, Na2CO3, NaCl+Na2SO4, NaCl+Na2CO3, Na2SO4+Na2CO3, NaCl+Na2SO4+Na2CO3) with three salinity levels (0. 15, 0.30, and 0.45%) were studied at germination and early seedling stages. An experiment with factorial arrangement was conducted by using a completely randomized design with 2 replications. Germination percentage, the length of shoot and root, length of seedling, rate of germination, and vigor index measured 12 days after germination. Results of data analysis showed that, there were significant differences between landraces and salinity stress levels for all investigated traits except mixed factor. Result of means comparison showed that in all of landraces there was a decrease in germination percentage due to salinity stress increment and maximum germination percentage was delayed. Results of this experiment showed that, under conditions of the highest saline stress that is 0.45% all landraces had not any germination after 12 days. The maximum fall in germination percentage was detected in RKS-2. According to the results of this research, Landraces RKS-3 is the most resistant and RKS-2 is the most sensitive varieties at germination stage and early seedling growth.

 

Key words:Germination, Salinity Stress, Seedling, Roselle

7.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(1) 31 -36 (2014)

 

Atmospheric carbon capturing potential of block plantations

Shailendra Bhalawe1, D.B.Jadeja1, M.B.Tandel1, P. Gayakvad1 and D.Nayak2*

1Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, 2Department of Natural Resource Management

ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari – 396450, Gujarat

*e-mail: nutan.nayak@gmail.com

(Received: Novembr 21, 2013; Revised received: January 24, 2014;Accepted: January 25,2014)

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Abstract: Mixed-block plantation can be a good silvicultural alternative to large-scale sole block plantations for climate change mitigation, which is facilitated by the sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. To evaluate the impacts of tree species compositions on the carbon storage capacity of plantation ecosystems, we measured the above and belowground biomass, as well as the carbon content, in three 20-year old sole block plantations of Dalbergia sissoo, Tectona grandis and mixed block plantation D. sissoo / T. grandis stands. We developed an allometric equation to estimate atmospheric carbon capturing capacity of trees. The carbon capturing levels of understory, litter, and soil components were also estimated. Results shown that biomass is positively correlated with carbon storage. The ecosystem carbon storage of the mixed block plantation D.sissoo / T.grandis stands (326.85 Mg ha-1) was higher than those of the block plantation of D.sissoo (314.43 Mg ha-1) and T. grandis (293.29 Mg ha-1). The majority of carbon storage was found in the soil pool (84.71%, 63.53%, and 75.79% in the block plantation of D. sissoo, T. grandis and mixed block plantation of D.sissoo /T.grandis stands, respectively). Almost 40% of soil carbon at a depth of 0–60 cm was stored in the upper 20 cm of the soil pool. Except for the vegetation layer, each layer of the block plantation T.grandis and mixed block plantation D. sissoo / T. grandis stands consisted of a higher amount of carbon than did the layers of the block plantation D.sissoo. These findings suggest that mixed block plantation or valuable indigenous block plantation of D. sissoo more substantially improve carbon storage in litter, soil, and ecosystems than sole blockplantationof T. grandis. The results also imply that developing valuable indigenous tree species is a good silvicultural option for enhancing carbon sequestration and valuable timber cultivation.

Key words: Block plantation, Carbon capturing, Carbon dioxide, Shrubs, Herbs.

 

8.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(1) 37-46 (2014)

 

Heavy metal pollution in surface water bodies of India: A review

Neetu Malik 1* and A.K. Biswas 2

1 Environmental Planning and Coordination Organization, Bhopal

2 Indian Institute of Soil Science, (ICAR), Bhopal (M.P.)

*e-mail: neetu_malik06@yahoo.com

(Received: July 26, 2013; Revised received: January 02, 2014;Accepted: January 07,2014)

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Abstract: Water is essential for living beings, and constitutes one of the vital assets for a country. Monitoring and assessment of water quality has become an environmental concern due to enormous anthropogenic activities. Availability of drinking water may be one of the most important crises of the 21st century. Globally, only 0.3-0.5% of the total water is available as fresh water and the maximum water bodies of that are becoming polluted, thus decreasing the availability and potability of the water bodies. India is rich in water resources having 4000 km3 annual precipitation of water. In last few decades, due to the rapid increase in the population, large scale industrialization and newer methods of farming the surface water quality of India has deteriorated. The pollution of aquatic ecosystem by heavy metals is of a great concern due to their toxicity and accumulative behaviour. The heavy metals can change the trophic status of an aquatic ecosystem and make them unsuitable for various purposes. They also pose a serious threat to human health. This article reviews the heavy metals contamination in the water of Indian rivers, lakes, reservoirs and other ecosystems. It also discusses the possible sources of pollution in these areas.

 

Key words: Water, India, Heavy Metals, Pollution, Aquatic ecosystem

 

9.

Res. Environ. Life Sci.,7(1) 47-48 (2014)

 

Diurnal variation for anthesis and dehiscence in Plantago ovata

Chandresh Kumar Singh*, Ashutosh Verma and R.R.Singh

Plant genetics unit,Department of Botany, University of Lucknow,Lucknow

*e-mail: chandreshkumar26@yahoo.co.in

(Received: July 12, 2013; Revised received: December 28, 2013;Accepted: January 02,2014)

 

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Abstract: P. ovata is well known for its medicinal properties and important cash crop of north Gujarat and India holds monopoly in husk export .In the present study diurnal variation in relation to temperature and relative humidity at experiment field in lucknow university,new campus sitapur road. Study was done for a week in march 2011-2012. P. ovatais from fam. Plantaginacea large genus of herbs or sub shrubs distributed mostly in the temperate region and few in tropics. Anthesis was mainly confined to forenoon on the other hand frequency of anther dehiscence is maximum in afternoon.

 

Key words: Diurnal variation , Isabgol, Temperature and Relative humidity

 

10

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(1) 49-52 (2014)

 

Integrated nutrient management induces flowering duration and flower quality of gladiolus

Amar Singh1, A. K. Singh1* and L. P. Yadava2

1Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, N.D.U.A.T., Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.)

2 Department of Horticulture, C. B. Gupta, Agriculture P.G. College, Bakshi Ka Talab, Lucknow (U.P.)

*e-mail: aruks59@gmail.com

(Received: October 28, 2013; Revised received: January 22, 2014;Accepted: January 24,2014)

 

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Abstract: Integrated Nutrient management (INM) is a tool for quality flower production in commercial cultivation of cut flowers. An experiment was laid out in randomized block design with a total of 10 treatments and replicated three times. Gladiolus corms were inoculated with Azospirillum and VAM alone and in combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash including application of 10 tonnes FYM ha-1 in each treatment. The effect of INM was investigated on days taken for initiation of spike and opening of first floret, number and size of spike and spike floret and flowering duration during both years i.e. 2011-12 and 2012-13.Earliest spike initiations, first opening of floret, highest length and diameter of spike and highest number of spike per plant were observed with T8 (Azospirillum + 75% N + 200 kg P2O5 + 200 kg K2O) during 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. The treatment combination T8 showed highest number of floret per spike (17.26 and 16.53 in 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively). The duration of flowering was found to be enhanced maximum with the treatment T8 (Azospirillum+ 75% N + 200 kg P2O5 + 200 kg K2O) being 15.16 days in 2011-12 and 15.30 days in 2012-13, respectively.

Key words: Gladiolus, Azospirillum, VAM, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potash, soil reaction

 

11

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(1) 53-56 (2014)

 

Identification of restorers and maintainers for different ‘WA’ CMS lines in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

P. K. Bhati, S. K. Singh*, Amita Sharma and S. Y. Dhurai

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India)

*e-mail: shravanranchi@yahoo.co.in

(Received: September 18, 2013; Revised received: December 24, 2013;Accepted: December 26,2013)

 

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Abstract: The present observations revealed that F1 hybrids produced by crossing 40 different rice genotypes with 2 CMS lines (IR79156A and Pusa 6A) behaved differently with regard to pollen fertility. Out of the 80 F1 hybrids, 12 were completely sterile and 22 completely fertile. The remaining 46 hybrids expressed varying degrees of fertility, within the range of partial restorers (21) and partial maintainers (25). Genotypes; IET 21519, IET 22218, IET 22228, IET 22202, IET 21542, Sarju- 52, BPT 5204 and MTU-7029 produced higher fertile hybrids and are hence considered as common effective restorers for both the CMS lines. Genotypes IET 20524, RPBIO-226 and HUR-8-1 were found to be effective restorer for only IR79156A whereas; NDR-359, IDR763 and Type-3 were found to be effective restorer for CMS line Pusa 6A. These restorer genotypes may be tested for heterosis for development of new rice hybrids. HUR-105 and Pant Dhan-4 produced sterile hybrids when crossed with IR79156A. Pant Dhan-12 and Vandana produced sterile hybrids when crossed with Pusa 6A. Four genotypes (IET 22237, NDR-97, Nagina-22 and Karahani) produced sterile hybrids when crossed with both the CMS lines, IR79156A and Pusa 6A. These genotypes may be used for development of new male sterile lines.

Key words: CMS lines, fertility restorers, hybrid rice, maintainer, wild abortive

12

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(1) 57-58 (2014)

 

Seed-borne inoculum of Drechslera spp. in barley (Hordium vulgare) and it’s control

Rekha Yadav

Department of Plant Pathology, N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj-Faizabad, (U.P.) 224 229

e-mail: govind0139@gmail.com

(Received: September 02, 2013; Revised received: December 08, 2013;Accepted: December 10, 2013)

 

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Abstract: Twelve fungal spp. belonging to nine genera namely Alternaria alternata. Alternaria triticina, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Curvularia lunata, Drechslera graminea, Drechslera spicifera, Fusarium moniliforme, Mucor sp., Penicilliumnotatum and Rhizopus nigricans were isolated from barley seeds by blotter and agar plate methods. Among the isolates Drechslera spicefera and Drechslera graminea were found pathogenic. Experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of different seed dressers (Fungicides, Botanicals and Bio-agents) against seeds inoculated with Drechslera spp. on germination and vigour index. Among fungicides vitavax was best followed by Bavistin and thiram (each @ 2g/kg seed). Trichoderma harzianum @ (4g/kg seed) and neem oil (1:10 dilution) were better amongst bioagents and plant products, respectively in respect of germination and vigour index against both Drechslera spp.

Key words: Barley, seed-born mycoflora, Drechslera spp., pre and post-emergence mortality, fungicides.

13

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(1) 59-64 (2014)

 

Biochemical adaptation of plants (monocot and dicot) under low light levels

Ram Kumar*, Pankaj Kumar Kannaujiya and Yogesh Kumar Sharma

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow- 226007, India

*e-mail: ramkumar320031@gmail.com

(Received: October 11, 2013; Revised received: December 29, 2013;Accepted: December 30, 2013)

 

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Abstract: This study was carried out in wire house conditions, in order to assess the effect of low light levels on plant growth, pigment concentration, antioxidant component in black gram (Vigna mungo L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). Growth of black gram plants was more negatively affected than maize under low irradiance levels. In black gram, fresh weight (FW) decreases by 43% at 185µmol m-2 s-1, while it increases by 3% in maize plants. Pigments synthesis was greater in black gram when exposed to low irradiance levels. On other hand, in maize synthesis of these pigments significantly decreases with decrease in irradiance levels. It was also found that increased malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage percentage were due to rudimentary development of membrane under low light levels. As the irradiance levels decreased from 343 to 43 µmol m-2 s-1 synthesis of non-protein thiol was found to be decreased steadily.

Key words: Vigna mungo, Zea mays, Irradiance, Superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde content

14

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(1) 65-67 (2014)

 

Effect offoliar application (nitrogen and phosphorus) on different agronomic and economic character in lentil (Lens culinaris M.)

Amit Kumar Singh1, Vinod Singh2* and M.P. Chauhan2

1 ICAR, Research Complex for Eastern Region, Sabjpura, Patna-801105

2 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology Kumarganj Faizabad-224229(U.P.)

*e-mail: singhv.1959@gmail.com

(Received: September 15, 2013; Revised received: January 09, 2014;Accepted: January 16,2014)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during rabi (Winter) season of 2006-07 N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad (U.P.) to study the performance of lentil variety Narendra Masoor -1 to foliar nutrition of nitrogen & phosphorous. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with 4 replications & 10 treatments consisted of various concentration of urea and DAP, which where applied to lentil crop as foliar application at various growth stages of crop. A uniform dose of N P K & S @ 20:40:20:20 Kg ha-1 was applied through basal application to entire experimental crop. All the treatments showed their superiority in respect to seed and straw yield over control treatment. The highest seed yield was observed when two spray of 2% urea each at branching and pod formation stage was applied to lentil corp.

Key words: Lentil, Foliar nutrition, Basal application

 

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