RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-7, Number-2, May-2014

 

15.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 69-80 (2014)

 

Classification of plant responses to drought stress

P. Soni*, R. Sharma, M. Rizwan and G. Singh

Plant Biotechnology Center, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Beechwal, Bikaner - 334 006, India

*e-mail: priyasoni28@gmail.com

(Received: December 06, 2013; Revised received: March 12, 2014;Accepted: March 14,2014)

 

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Abstract: One of the most important constraints for agriculture is water limitation. More recently, global warming may be worsening this situation in most agriculture regions. Thus it’s quite relevant to understand the mechanisms that enable plants to cope with water deficit. Indeed, plants show a wide range of adaptations, at different levels, to drought stress. The present review describes strategies used by plants to adapt to low water potential at physiological and biochemical level. The Highlights are,i) One of the most constraints for agriculture is water limitation, ii) Drought affects plant overall growth and metabolism and iii) The generation of novel plant varieties displaying tolerance to water stress is highly expected to cope with the unfavourable environmental challenges.

Key words: abiotic stress, drought, tolerance, avoidance, escapes

16.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 81 -84 (2014)

 

Eco-friendly management of early blight of potato caused by Alternaria solani

Rekha Yadav

Department of Plant Pathology, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture &Technology, Kumarganj-Faizabad-224229, India

e-mail: govind0139@gmail.com

(Received: December 02, 2013; Revised received: March 11, 2014;Accepted: March 12,2014)

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Abstract: Two bio-agents (Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum) and six botanicals namely Datura alba, Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum, Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Calotropis gigentea were tested at different concentrations against early blight of potato on variety Kufri sutlej under field conditions. All the bio-agents and botanicals/phyto extracts were found effective. However among the bio-agents three sprays of Trichoderma viride @ 0.5% was found most effective showing least disease intensity of 31.47% as against 80.90% in control, while among botanical three sprays of garlic bulb extract @10% found efficacious.

 

Key words: Potato, early blight, Alternaria solani, Bio-agents botanicals, management, phyto-extracts

17.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 85-86 (2014)

 

Effect of mutagens on qualitative and quantitative analysis of Plantago ovata seed husk

Chandresh Kumar Singh, Ashutosh Verma and R.R. Singh

Plant genetics unit, Department of Botany, University of Lucknow , Lucknow, India

e-mail: chandreshkumar26@yahoo.co.in

(Received: November 11, 2013; Revised received: March 01, 2014;Accepted: March 02,2014)

 

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Abstract: Seed husk of Isabgol is used ethno- medicinally in no. of ways in present study qualitative and quantitative analysis due to treatment with mutagens was done in respect to husk and swelling factor, Experiment was carried out by Gamma Radiation, EMS and combining both. Husk obtained for 0.5% EMS and 3hr was maximum , for gamma rays husk is maximum at 10krad and combining both husk is maximum at 20krad+0.5%. Swelling factor was also observed.

Key words: EMS, Gamma radiation, husk, swelling factor

18.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 87 - 90 (2014)

 

Effect of integrated nutrient management on chemical properties of soil in the gladiolus crop field

Amar Singh1, A. K. Singh1* and L. P. Yadava2

1Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, N.D.U.A.T., Kumarganj, Faizabad

2 Department of Horticulture, C. B. Gupta, Agriculture P.G. College, Bakshi Ka Talab, Lucknow iindia

*e-mail: aruks59@gmail.com

(Received: October 28, 2013; Revised received: March 08, 2014;Accepted: March 10,2014)

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Abstract: Integrated Nutrient management (INM) is a tool for cultivation of future crops in present era. Thus, it is tried to investigate the response of soil health in respect to bioinoculants application in the field of gladiolus. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with a total of 10 treatments and replicated three times. Gladiolus corms were inoculated with Azospirillum and VAM alone and in combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash including application of 10 tonnes FYM ha-1 in each treatment. Soil pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potash were estimated during both years i.e. 2011-12 and 2012-13. Lowest soil pH was observed with T7 i.e. Azospirillum + 50% N + 200 kg P2O5 + 200 kg K2O and lowest EC was recorded with T8 (Azospirillum + 75% N + 200 kg P2O5 + 200 kg K2O) being 0.57 dSm-1 and 0.51 dSm-1 in 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. The treatment combination T8 showed highest available Nitrogen, phosphorus and potash in soil of gladiolus field..

 

Key words: Gladiolus, Azospirillum, VAM, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potash, soil reaction

19.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 91 -93 (2014)

 

Effect of row direction, spacing and weed management on crop weed competition in irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Raj Kumar Yadav1* Shishir Kumar2 and Joy Dawson2

1Chandra Bhanu Gupta Agriculture Post Graduate College, Bakshi KaTalab, Lucknow (U.P.), India

2 Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed University, Allahabad - 211 007 (U .P.), India

*e-mail: rjyadav108@gmail.com

(Received: October 03, 2013; Revised received: March 11, 2014;Accepted: March 12,2014)

 

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Abstract: A Field experiment was conducted to explore the crop weed completion as influenced by crop geometry, row spacing and weed management practices in irrigated wheat. The experiment was tried with nine treatment by keeping combinations of three factors viz. row direction (North-South, East-West),rowspacing (15 cm,20 cm and broadcast) and method of weed control(unweeded check, metsulfuron 4 g/ha + isoproturon 1000 g/ha, sulfosulfuron 25 g/ha and weed free). The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three replications. Row direction North-South at 15cm rowspacing resulted signiűcantly higher yield attributes, grain yield than broadcasting. Row direction North-South at 15cm spacing signiűcantly reduced weed count and weed dry biomass than broadcasting, test weight were unaffected by seeding method. Among the weed-control treatments, weed free although recorded higher yield attributes grain and straw yields but was found at par with those recorded under sulfosulfuron 25 g/ha and signiűcantly higher than those recorded under metsulfuron and isoproturon. The difference in net return among the weed control treatment was not significant. It was higher in sulfosulfuron followed by metsulfuron + isoproturon and weed free.

 

Key words: Wheat, crop geometry, row spacing, seeding method, herbicides, yield

20.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 95 - 98 (2014)

 

Antibiotic sensitivity patterns and molecular characterization of P.multocida vaccine strain and field isolates

Sabia Qureshi and Hari Mohan Saxena*

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, College of Veterinary Science, GADVASU, Ludhiana, India 141004, Indiia

*e-mail: hmsaxena@yahoo.com

(Received: January 04, 2014; Revised received: April 14, 2014;Accepted: April 18,2014)

 

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Abstract:A study was conducted to compare in-vitro antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of the vaccine strain and field isolates of Pasteurella multocida. Three strains of P. multocida isolated from cattle and buffalo, were confirmed by biochemical tests and P. multocida specific Multiplex HSB-PCR. All the three field isolates belonged to P. multocida type B: 2 with amplified products of 460bp and 590 bp. The vaccine strain and isolates were tested against 17 different antibiotics by disc diffusion. Absolute resistance was observed among the field isolates to several antibiotics. The vaccine strain was resistant to amoxicillin, ofloxacin, sulfadiazine, streptomycin and cefuroxime. Isolate PB1 was resistant to sulfadiazine, streptomycin, cefoperazone, cephotaxime and oxytetracycline; PB2 was resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, sparfloxacin, ofloxacin, sulfadiazine, cefuroxime, cephotaxime, oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin; PC1 was resistant to enrofloxacin, cefuroxime, cefperazone and cephotaxime. The most effective antibiotics against the vaccine and field strains were pefloxacin, ofloaxcin, trimethoprim and sparfloxacin. The study has revealed the emergence of multidrug resistant field strains of P. multocida.

 

Key words: Antibiotic sensitivity, antibiotic resistance, Pasteurella multocida, Haemorrhagic Septicaemia

21.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9(2) 99 -100 (2014)

 

Ethno-veterinary medicinal plants of mahal village of dang district, Gujarat, India

Paresh Gayakvad1, D.B.Jadeja1, B.Thakre2, S.Bhalawe1 and D.Nayak*3

1Department of Silviculture and Agroforestry, 2Vanbandhu College of Veterinary Science &Animal Husbandry, 3Department of Natural Resource Management,ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari-396450 India

*e-mail: nutan.nayak@gmail.com

(Received: January 04, 2014; Revised received: April 12, 2014;Accepted: April 14,2014)

 

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Abstract: The present study deals with the identification and investigation was aimed to find out the ethno- veterinary medicinal plants of Mahal village of Dang District, Gujarat, used to treat the various veterinary diseases. In the present study, 32 medicinal plants belonging to 28 families used as veterinary medicines have been documented. According to this study, documenting the medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area and for effective treatment of various disease and disorders of domestic animals.

Key words: Ethno- veterinary medicinal plants, tribes

22.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 101-102 (2014)

 

Performance of rotavator for soybean crop in Raisen district of MP

S.S. Dhakad*1, K.V. Ramana Rao2, Vijay Agrawal3 and K.C. Mahajan4

1Agril Engg, Krishi Vigyan Kendra (RVSKVV), Shajapur-465001, 2IDED, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering (ICAR), Bhopal,

3Horticulture, College of Agricultural (JNKVV), Jabalpur, 4Agril.Engg, College of Agricultural (JNKVV) Basoda (Vidisha)

*e-mail: sudhirdhakad@rediffmail.com

(Received: January 05, 2014; Revised received: April 02, 2014;Accepted: April 08,2014)

 

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Abstract: Field experiments were conducted in the Raisen district of M.P. for two consecutive years to evaluate the performance of a tractor drawn rotavator as tillage implement and the same was compared with commonly used tillage implement cultivator. The soil inversion provided by single operation of rotavator was quite high (90.36%) as compared to cultivator (63.0%). Rotavator was found very effective for tillage as well as weed control implement and provided better tilth than other tillage implement viz. cultivator and for same tilth level; rotavator is more economical than cultivator. The plant growth attributes such as plant height, root length and number of root nodules was observed more in field prepared by rotavator as compared to cultivator.

 

Key words: Rotavator, Cultivator,Soybean, tillage

23.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 103- 106 (2014)

 

Effect of scheduling irrigation on mustard (brassica juncea L.) in central plain zone of U.P.

Sanjiv Kumar1, Ripudaman Singh2 and Awadhesh Kumar3

1,2Department of Agronomy, 3Department of Soil Conservation and Water Management,

C.S. A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208002

*e-mail: rsycsa@gmail.com

(Received: December 08, 2013; Revised received: March 29, 2014;Accepted: March 30,2014)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the winter (rabi) seasons of 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10 on sandy loam soil of students instructional farm of C.S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur (U.P.) to study the response of irrigation scheduling on Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L) (Zeru & coss). The results of the study revealed that seed yield of mustard was maximum with three irrigation levels (IB+F+SD) which was higher by 4.82, 7.04, 13.62, 21.54, 25.11, 42.27 and 63.61 per cent than IB+IF, IF+ISD, IB, IF, ISD and I0 treatments. The water use efficiency was calculated highest (10.75 kgha-1) in treatment IB+F, followed by IB+SD, IB, IF, I0, IF+SD, ISD and IB+IF+SD treatments and highest net profit was achieved Rs 23840 ha-1 with the IB+IF+SD treatment.

 

Key words: Irrigation scheduling, water use efficiency, siliqua development, crop scheduling

24.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 107-110 (2014)

 

Study of growth and N2 metabolism in rice field biofertilizerAzolla microphylla exposed to cadmium stress

Abhishek Chris

Department of Botany, Wilson College, Mumbai, India

e-mail: achris1@rediffmail.com

(Received: January 18, 2014; Revised received: April 22, 2014;Accepted: April,2014)

 

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Abstract: This paper deals with the study of changes in growth (chlorophyll), nitrate uptake, nitrate reductase, ammonium uptake, glutamine synthetase and nitrogenase in Azolla microphylla exposed to cadmium stress which was given in the form of CdCl2. It was observed that all the growth (Total chlorophyll) was decreased with the increasing concentration of Cd in medium. The values of Nitrate and ammonium contents of fronds were also decreased in a concentration dependent manner. As the level of cadmium increased, a concomitant reduction in the nitrate reductase as well as glutamine synthetase activities were also noted. Nitrogenase enzymes the main enzyme of nitrogen fixation was found highly damaged.

 

Key words: Azolla microphylla, Growth, N.R, G.S,Nitrogenase

25

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 111-114 (2014)

 

Heavy metal accumulation and chlorophyll content in moss samples collected from heavy traffic sites

Manjul Misra1* and P.K. Tandon2

1Directorate of Environment, U.P.,Lucknow, 2Department of Botany University of Lucknow,Lucknow

*e-mail: doemanjulmishra@yahoo.com

(Received: December 15, 2013; Revised received: April 15, 2014;Accepted: April 16,2014)

 

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Abstract: Moss (Octoblepharum albidum Hedw.) samples collected from Heavy Traffic sites andwere analysed for heavy metals Pb, Cu, Co, Cr and Ni. Samples were also analysed for chlorophyll content from both the sites. Samples collected from garden and monument sites have been taken as control. Higher accumulation of Pb, Cu, Co and Cr have been found in mosses collected from heavy traffic sites in comparison to the mosses collected from garden and monument sites(treated as control). it is observed that crossings and roads with higher vehicular density and with full of commercialized activities are highly polluted. Higher content of chlorophyll was found in the samples collected from garden and monument sites as compared to the heavy traffic sites.

 

Key words: Heavy Metals, Pollution, Heavy traffic sites, Garden and Monument sites, Moss, Bio- monitoring

26

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 115-118 (2014)

 

Estimation of genetic association and path analysis for yield and yield attributing traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

S.V. Sunil Kumar1*, J. Chandra Prakash1, Kapil Patil2, B. Arunkumar2 and T. Onkarappa1

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore, Karnataka (State), India

2Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi-591 310, Karnataka (State), India

*e-mail: sunisv07@gmail.com

(Received: February 02, 2014; Revised received: April 24, 2014;Accepted: April 25,2014)

 

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Abstract: The present experiment was conducted to estimate the nature and magnitude of association of seed yield with other component traits and their direct and indirect effects on seed yield were studied in Chickpea. Hundred chickpea genotypes were evaluated for yield and yield attributing characters at Zonal Agricultural Research Station (ZARS), GKVK, Bangalore, Karnataka (State), India. Association analysis revealed that number of secondary branches per plant, number of pods per plant and test weight showed significant and positive association with seed yield per plant at genotypic level. Whereas at phenotypic level of correlation seed yield per plant was significantly and positively associated with number of secondary branches per plant and test weight. Test weight had maximum positive direct effect on seed yield. Number of primary branches per plant, days to 50 per cent flowering and number of seeds per pod exhibited high indirect effect on seed yield per plant via pods per plant. These traits can be used for the selection of high yielding chickpea genotypes.

 

Key words: Correlation, Path analysis, Chickpea, Seed yield

27

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 119-122 (2014)

 

Studies on stability parameters for yield and its component characters in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

T. Onkarappa*, H. Shivanna, S.V. Sunil Kumar and N. Marappa

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore, Karnataka (State), India

*e-mail: onkarappat7@gmail.com

(February 02, 2014; Revised received: April 24, 2014;Accepted: April 25,2014)

 

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Abstract: The stability parameters for 15 castor hybrids grown in three environments (Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Hiriyur during Kharif and Rabi 2009 and at Agricultural Research Station, Arasikere during Kharif 2009) were studied. Analysis of variance for stability indicated highly significant differences among the hybrids for all the characters. Significant mean squares due to genotypes × environment for plant height and seed yield suggested differential behavior of the hybrids across the locations for these two characters.The Kharif season of Hiriyur 2009 was most congenial than either Kharif season of Arasikere 2009 and Rabi season of Hiriyur 2009 for the expression of plant height, number of capsules, effective spike length, seed yield, 100 seed weight and oil content followed by Rabi season Hiriyur 2009 for expression of number of spikes, effective spike length and number of capsules. It was observed that none of the test hybrids were found to be stable for all the characters. Nevertheless the hybrid TH-2 was identified as highly stable for days to 50 per cent flowering, number of spikes, effective spike length, number of capsules and seed yield and the hybrid TH-7 was also found stable for plant height, effective spike length, seed yield, 100 seed weight and oil content.

 

Key words: Castor, stability, yield, oil content

28

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 123-126 (2014)

 

Evaluation of safed musli cv. bidar local for yield and yield attributing traits under tamarind based intercrop

B. Arunkumar1*, S.V. Sunil Kumar2, Kapil Patil1, N.K. Hegde1 and T. Onkarappa2

1Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi-591 310, Karnataka, India

2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: arunuhs@gmail.com

(February 02, 2014; Revised received: April 24, 2014;Accepted: April 25,2014)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study performance of safed musli cultivar Bidar local for yield and yield attributing traits in tamarind plantation compared to sole cropping in open area under irrigated condition. The experiment was laid out in well established eight years old tamarind plantation spaced at 6m x 6m (as intercrop) with three replications. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception by safed musli crop at 90 days after planting (DAP) as intercrop in tamarind plantation was 31641 lux compared to 46514 lux in open area. Significantly higher number of fresh weight of tubers per plant (36.73) and dry weight of tuber recorded under intercropping (8.81 g/plant) compared to sole cropping (36.73 and 8.81 g/plant). Safed musli grown as intercropping in tamarind plantation recorded higher yield (9.94 q/ha) compared to sole crop in open area (7.04 q/ha).

 

Key words: Safed musli, intercropping, photosynthetically active radiation, tamarind

29

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 127-130 (2014)

 

Screening efficient strains of yeast for production of

bio-ethanol by using sugarcane juice

H.B. Manoj Kumar1*, H.V.Vijay Kumar Swamy1, K.M.Harini Kumar1, S.B. Yogananda2, S.V.Sunil Kumar3, Neetha Jayaram3 and G.S. Anil Kumar

1 Department of Plant Biotechnology, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore – 560 065, India

2 Zonal Agricultural Research Station, V. C. Farm, Mandya – 571 405, India

3 Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore – 560 065, Karnataka (State), India

4 Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, UAS, Dharwad – 580 005, India

*e-mail: manojhb07@gmail.com

(February 15, 2014; Revised received: April 25, 2014;Accepted: April 28,2014)

 

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Abstract: The investigation was carried out to isolate yeast strains from their natural habitats and to screen them for ethanol tolerance and production. Out of 40 microbial culture 10 were identified as Saccharomyces strains based on colony type and budding characters. Saccharomyces species were screened for the ability to tolerate different ethanol concentrations from 0-18%. Growth in different ethanol concentrations varied from one strain to another. Yeast strains showed tolerance level from 7-16%. Even though some strains had tolerance at 16% but the growth was less. Yeast strains isolated from molasses and grapes showed highest tolerance among 10 isolates up to 16%. Isolated yeast strains mutated by UV light with time intervals of 1, 3 and 5 minutes at 25 and 50 cms distance were subjected to screening under different ethanol concentrations. Mutants showed decreased growth and tolerance under high ethanol stress compared to their original isolates.

 

Key words: Sugarcane, Yeast, Molasses, Bio-fuel, Bio-ethanol

30

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 131-134 (2014)

 

Grain yield and quality of rice in response to soil zinc application to soil low in available zinc

Shikha Yadav* and Digvijay Singh

Department of Botany, Lucknow University, Lucknow-226007

*e-mail: shikhagzp@gmail.com

(January 05, 2014; Revised received: April 27, 2014;Accepted: April 28,2014)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at farmer’s field to assess the effect of zinc application on reproductive growth and grain yield of rice. Four treatments given in three replicates included control (without Zn), 5 Kg Zn, 10 Kg Zn and 10 Kg Zn + 120 Kg urea ha-1. Basal doses of fertilizers consisting of half the dose of nitrogen were applied before sowing of wheat. The other half of the nitrogen was applied at 25 days after sowing as top dressing with ammonium nitrate except the treatment in which urea was applied. Fresh fully expanded young leaves were brought to the laboratory, in an ice pack, for the estimation of enzymatic activities (carbonic anhydrase and ribonuclease) at day 35. Plants were harvested after determination of growth attributes at day 90 for dry matter yield, tissue Zn concentration and grain quality parameters such as starch and protein contents.

 

Key words: Carbonic anhydrase, protein, ribonuclease, starch, zinc

 

31

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(2) 135-136 (2014)

 

Assessment of genetic diversity among castor genotypes (Ricinus communis L.)

T. Onkarappa1*, S.V. Sunil Kumar1, O.R. Lakshmipathaiah2 and K.R Vasanth2

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

2Department of Horticulture, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: onkarappat7@gmail.com

(February 02, 2014; Revised received: April 24, 2014;Accepted: April 25,2014)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted with 24 castor genotypes including four pistillate lines to study the diversity among the genotypes by using Mahalonobis D2 statistics. The genotypes were grouped into four clusters. Cluster I had maximum number of genotypes (19) and Cluster II with 3 genotypes. The maximum inter cluster distance was observed between Cluster II and III (7.81) followed by Cluster II and IV (7.19). In Cluster II genotypes showed maximum values for number of spikes (11.17), effective spike length (44.67) , number of capsules (44) and seed yield (15.75kg/ha.), with least mean value for plant height (31.67). Number of capsules contributed the maximum to the total divergence (30.29) followed by effective spike length (23.91) and oil content (20.80). The cultivars included in the diverse clusters can be used as promising parents for hybridization programme for obtaining high heterotic response and thus better segregants in castor.

 

Key words: Castor, diversity, pistillate lines, cluster

 

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