Volume-7, Number-3, August-2014



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 137-142 (2014)


Endochitinase: engineered resistance against fungal plant pathogens

Manish Shukla and Syed Uzma Jalil*

Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India


(Received: February 19, 2014; Revised received: April 24, 2014;Accepted: April 25,2014)


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Abstract: Plants can suffer from infections caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, and other pathogens. Various high-tech approaches have been proposed to protect plants from harmful afflictions. To date, most interest has been focused on virus resistant transgenic plants, but using biotechnology to confer resistance to fungi, bacteria, or nematodes has also been gaining attention. Fungi are responsible for a range of serious plant diseases such as blight, grey mould, bunts, powdery mildew, and downy mildew. Crops of all kinds often suffer heavy losses. Fungal plant diseases are usually managed with applications of chemical fungicides or heavy metals. In some cases, conventional breeding has provided fungus resistant cultivars. Besides combatting yield losses, preventing fungal infection keeps crops free of toxic compounds produced by some pathogenic fungi. These compounds, often referred to as mycotoxins, can affect the immune system and disrupt hormone balances. Genetic engineering enables new ways of managing fungal infections. Introducing genes from other plants or bacteria encoding enzymes like chitinase or glucanase. These enzymes break down chitin or glucan, respectively, which are essential components of fungal cell walls. Chitinase is one of the most important PR (Pathogenesis Related) proteins, which is used to improve plant defence against fungal pathogens. Chitinases have been shown to possess an antifungal role in disease resistance. These genes have originated from several sources including bacteria and plants. For the past one decade, fungi have been identified as better producers of chitinase than bacteria and plants. Gene encoding Chitinases have been isolated and cloned from many fungi, such as, Saccharomyces, Rhizopus oligosporous, Candida albicans and Trichoderma hazianum. The enzyme inhibits the spore germination and hyphal elongation of various fungal pathogens in vitro.

Key words: Chitinase, Disease resistance, Fungus



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 143-146 (2014)


Assessment of genetic variability for morpho- economic traits in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes


S.V. Sunil Kumar1*, J. Chandra Prakash1, B. Arunkumar2, T. Onkarappa1 and H. B. Manoj Kumar1

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru, Karnataka (State), India.

2Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi-591 310, Karnataka, India


(Received: March 13, 2014; Revised received: May 20, 2014;Accepted: May 24,2014)


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Abstract: The present investigation was carried out by using hundred chickpea genotypes to study various morphological and economically important traits under field conditions to estimate the existing genetic variation in simple lattice design with two replications. Analysis of variance for yield and its component traits revealed significant differences between genotypes for nine out of ten traits studied. Highest range of variability recorded for by number of pods per plant followed by days to maturity, test weight, plant height, seed yield per plant, days to 50 % maturity, number of secondary branches per plant, number of primary branches per plant, reaction to fusarium wilt disease and seeds per pod. High phenotypic variance was found to be greater than genotypic variance for all the characters, indicating environmental influence on these traits. Similarly, genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) were highest for reaction to fusarium wilt disease, number of pods per plant and seed yield per plant whereas the lowest for days to 50% flowering. Higher GCV and PVC were recorded for most of the characters indicating higher magnitude of variability for these characters. High heritability, coupled with high genetic advance was observed for reaction to fusarium wilt disease, number of pods per plant, seed yield per plant, test weight and number of seeds per pod indicating that these characters are controlled by additive gene action. The directional selection for these traits could be effective for desired genetic improvement.

Key words: Chickpea, Genetic variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Seed yield


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 147-148 (2014)


Stability of pistillateness in hybrid seed parents of castor (Ricinus communis L.)


T. Onkarappa*, H. Shivanna, A. Mohan Rao and S. Ramesh

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India


(Received: February 10, 2014; Revised received: May 20, 2014;Accepted: May 24,2014)


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Abstract: Pistillateness is an environment sensitive trait. Therefore, Stability of pistillateness of seed parent is essential to produce hybrids of highest genetic purity. Pistillate lines are being used as seed parents for developing and deploying hybrids in castor. Under this premise ten pistillate lines were evaluated in different dates of sowing to detect genotype x environment (G x E) interactions and identify most stable pistillate lines during 2007 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station (ZARS), Hiriyur, Chitradurga District, Karnataka. Significant mean squares due to genotype environment suggested differential behavior of the pistillate lines for number of female flowers across the four dates of sowing for all the three spike orders studied. A perusal of the estimates of environmental indices indicated that October and November sowings were most congenial than August and September sowing for the expression of pistillateness in primary and secondary spikes, while, for the expression of pistillateness in tertiary spikes, September, October and November sowings are congenial. The pistillate lines DPC-9, M-574, VP-1 and Geetha are most stable for pistillateness across sowing dates. These pistillate lines are suggested for use in the production of new hybrids in castor.

Key words: Pistillateness, Spikes, Ricinus, Hybrid, Stability


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 149-152 (2014)


Ecological studies near express highway (NH 25) in Unnao district of U.P. state, India


Abhay Kumar Verma1, R.B. Singh2 and S.N. Pandey1*

1Botany Department, Lucknow University, Lucknow - 226007, Lucknow

1Department of Physics, Lucknow University-226007, Lucknow


(Received: February 13, 2014; Revised received: June 05, 2014;Accepted: June 06,2014)


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Abstract:Some important parameters of ecological studies to evaluate soil, water and vegetational status near a national express highway (NH 25) were undertaken. The adjacent areas of NH 25 were uneven and eroded; soil was alkaline with high content of Ca++, caCO3 and heavy metals (Fe, Ni and Cr). The poor and scattered vegetation indicated poor fertility of the land near NH 25 (0-100 m). The surface water in pits was found turbid, light darkish in colour; and high content of solids (>7000 mg l-1), hardness (> 400 mg l-1) and chloride contents. Elevated levels of heavy metals (Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) also determined in soil and water. The density, frequency and abundance of species near NH 25 was poor as compared to plant species away from the express highway NH 25. Eco-friendly management plan may help to reduce these ecological problems.

Key words: Ecological studies, Express highway, Density of species


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 153-156 (2014)


Effect of microbial enrichment on microbial population and nutritional status of vermicompost


N. Khare1*, D.V. Pathak2, S. Sangwan1 and N. Chawla1

1Department of Microbiology, 2Regional Research Station, Bawal, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, India


(Received: February 15, 2014; Revised received: May 11, 2014;Accepted: May 14,2014)


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Abstract: Vermicompost enriched with nitrogen-fixing bacterium (Azotobacter chroococcum), phosphate solubilizing bacterium (Pseudomonas spp.), a fungal antagonistic bacterium (Pseudomonas maltophilia) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mossae) in different combinations was analysed for microbial population and nutritional status. While organic carbon decreased in the microbially enriched vermicompost due to degradation of organic matter by microbial activity, total N and P contents were increased due to inoculation of Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas spp., and AM fungi respectively. Ammonical-N, nitrate-N and available P were significantly increased in the enriched vermicompost as compared to unamended vermicompost on 30th day of inoculation (after 30 days of inoculation). Over uninoculated control, microbially enriched vermicompost signaled higher population of A. chroococcum, Pseudomonas spp. and P. maltophilia upto 30 days.


Key words: Vermicompost, Microbial population and Nutritional status


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 157-160 (2014)


Physcomitrium pyriforme in relation to contents of protein and some heavy metals in samples collected from some selected areas of Lucknow


P.K.Tandon1 and Manjul Misra2*

1Department of Botany University of Lucknow, Lucknow, 2Directorate of Environment, U.P.,Lucknow


(Received: January 22, 2014; Revised received: May 28, 2014;Accepted: May 29,2014)


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Abstract: Moss Physcomitrium pyriforme samples were collected from some selected areas of Lucknow. Samples were collected from soils and moist brick walls and analysed for determination of heavy metals Pb, Cu, Co, Cr and Ni. Samples collected from garden and monument areas were treated as control. Samples collected from residential areas showed higher level of heavy metals in comparison to the samples collected from garden and monument sites. Higher content of lead, copper and cobalt was found in the residential areas as compared to the garden and monument areas.However variable results were obtained with regard to protein content in the moss samples collected from different locations of Lucknow.


Key words: Heavy Metals, Pollution, Residential areas, Moss, Bio-monitoring


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 161-164 (2014)


Management of alternaria blight in Indian mustard through genotypes, date of sowing and micronutrients


H. K. Singh*1, R. B. Singh1, Mahesh Singh1 and K. N. Maurya2

1Department of Plant Pathology, N. D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad -224229 (U.P.), India

2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, N. D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad -224229 (U.P.), India


(Received: February 02, 2014; Revised received: May 28, 2014;Accepted: May 30,2014)


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Abstract: Alternaria blight caused by Alternaria brassicae (Berk) Sacc. and A. brassicicola (Schw) Wiltshire is one of the most common and destructive disease of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]The experiments were conducted under field condition to develop effective management strategies for this disease through evaluation of genotypes for resistance, having higher yield, date of sowing and application of micro-nutrients. Out of 36 promising genotypes evaluated for resistance, minimum disease severity was found in RGN-303 (23.11%) followed by NDR-08-1 (23.16%), RGN-298 (23.56%), NDR-2001-1 (24.0%), with the seed yield of 2289, 2074, 1885, 1852 kg/ha, respectively. Genotypes recorded promising in respect of disease severity and yields were sown on normal and late situation. Genotypes RGN-303 exhibited least disease severity (14.50% and 29.75%) and higher yield (23.80 and 16.20 q/ha) in normal and late sown condition, respectively.This was followed by genotypes RGN-298 and NDR- 2001-1 which have disease severity of 15.02%, 32.70% and 17.22%, 38.35% with seed yield of 18.70, 13.30 and 21.65, 16.0 q/ha in normal and in late sown condition, respectively. In general disease severity was recorded higher in late sown crop as compared to normal in each genotype. Among the micronutrients tested, minimum disease severity of 27.0% on leaves and 15.02% on pods with higher seed yield of 1666.66 kg/ha were recorded with the mixture of ZnSO4 @ 15kg/ha + Borax @ 10kg/ha + S @ 40kg/hafollowed by mixture of ZnSO4 @ 15kg/ha + Borax @ 10kg/ha and mixture of Borax @ 10kg/ha + S @ 40kg/ha which have disease severity of 32.65%, 17.47% and 33.84%, 18.06% on leaves and pods with yield of 1499.99 and1488.97 kg/ha, respectively.

Key words:Indian mustard, genotypes, date of sowing, micro-nutrient, management, Alternaria blight


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 165-168 (2014)


Survey and integrated management of fungal foliar diseases of greengram


Veena1 , Yashoda R. Hegde1, Divya jyoti U.1 and Priya H. R.2

1Department of Plant Pathology, 2Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad- 580005, India


(Received: March 06, 2014; Revised received: June 02, 2014;Accepted: June 03,2014)


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Abstract: Greengram is leguminous crop of Asia and it is suffers from Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) caused by Cercospora canescens and powdery mildew (PM) caused by Erysiphe polygoni. Roving survey was conducted during Kharif 2011 in Dharwad, Belgum, Baglkot and Gulbarga districts of Karnataka to know the severity ofCLS andPM diseases. The maximum disease severity of CLS (78.52%)and PM ( 75.32%) was noticed in Dharwad district where as CLS disease was absent in Baglkot and Gulbarga districts and PM disease was observed in all the four districts. Fiftyfour greengram genotypes were screened against CLS and PM under field condition. Among these, IC283869 genotype showed multiple disease resistantandspraying with 0.1% hexaconazole and difenconazole helped to manage the CLS and PM successfully and which resulted in 80 – 85%decrease in disease and 40 – 45%increase in yield (7.52 q/ha) over untreated control.

Key words: Greengram, Leaf spot, Powdery mildew, Survey, Screening,Management



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 169-170 (2014)


Domestication and conservationof a palm (Pinanga dickonii Bl.) for multistorey cropping


S. N. Singh1, S. C. Gaur1 and L. B. Gaur2*

1Department of Agricultural Botany, Baba Raghav Das P.G. College, Deoria – 274001 (U.P.). India

2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi- 221005 (U.P.), India


(Received: February 15, 2014; Revised received: June 08, 2014;Accepted: June 10,2014)


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Abstract: An effort was made to domesticate a supposedly multipurpose palm (Pinanga dicksonii Bl.) with the twin objectives of testing its adaptability in northern Indian plains and using it in high density orcharding and multistory cropping as a standard. In historical times, this palm was so abundant in the evergreen forests of Karnataka that its seeds were used to adulterate the betelnut (Areca catechu L.). After seeing its decimation, a hidden agenda of this effort was to conserve this palm ex-situ. Both kinds of propagules of this palm, the genets and the ramets, have been successfully introduced here in terai region of eastern Uttar Pradesh and are surviving since last two years. However, the growth is not satisfactory so as to test it as a standard in multistory cropping. The cause of its slow growth might be non-establishment of suitable mycorrhizal association and/or absence of suitable climatic conditions. This failure in achieving a satisfactory growth has clicked an idea of on farm slow growing plants as part of our ex-situ conservation strategy similar to the idea of slow growth cultures. This idea could be tried in ex situ conservation of a number of plant genetic resources with mycorrhizal association.


Key words: Crop Ideotype, Ex-situ conservation, Multistorey cropping, Mycorrhizal association, Palm, Pinanga dicksonii


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 171-174 (2014)


Effect of tillage practices, weed control methods and nitrogen levels on yield of rainfed maize in alluvial soils


Awadhesh Kumar1*, V.K. Kanaujia2 and V.B. Jaiswal3

1Department of Soil Conservation and Water Management, 2Programme Coordinator, Directorate of Extension (K.V.K.) and

3SMS (Agronomy) C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208 002 (U.P.)


(Received: March 03, 2014; Revised received: June 15, 2014;Accepted: June 16,2014)


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Abstract: This study was carried out during kharif 2003 and 2004 at the Soil Conservation and Water Management farm of C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur to find out the effect of tillage practice, weed control methods and nitrogen levels on yield and root parameters, soil moisture content and yield of rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) in alluvial soils of Northen India. In this study, yield attributing characters like cobs weight, grain rows per cob, grains per cob, 1000- grain weight, root development characters like root depth and dry weight, soil moisture content up to 100 cm depth at various plant growth stages and maize yield was registered the higher in plots deep ploughed with MB plough (T4) followed by two ploughing with cultivator (T2) and two ploughing with desi plough (T1) but the lowest was under one ploughing with disc harrow (T3). These parameters were also found higher under pre-emergence application of Atrazine. The increasing levels of N upto 120 kg ha-1 has significantly increased the yield and yield parameters of maize and also resulted the trend in length, breadth and dry weight of root, but the highest moisture content upto 100 cm soil depth was found under control plot (No) followed by 60 kg N and the lowest under 120 kg N ha-1.


Key words: Tillage practices, Nitrogen levels, Yield, Root parameters, Soil moisture, Rainfed, Alluvial soils,, Northern India, Pre-emergence, Maize


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 175-178 (2014)


Genetic variability, correlation coefficient and path analysis in chilli (Capsicum annuum l.) genotypes


H.M. Vijaya1, A.P. Mallikarjuna Gowda1 And S.D. Nehru2*

1Post Graduate Centre, UHS Campus, GKVK, Bangalore - 560 065, Karnataka, India

2Scientist, AICRP on chickpea, UAS (B), Bangalore – 560 065


(Received: November 21, 2013; Revised received: May 03, 2014;Accepted: May 06,2014)


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Abstract: Twenty-four chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes collected from different parts of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh were evaluated to estimate the genetic variability, heritability, correlation coefficient and path analysis in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The overall values of PCV were higher than those of GCV. The highest phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variations were observed for dry fruit yield per plant, number of fruits per plant and for quality parameters like capsaicin, capsanthin and oleoresin content. Higher heritability coupled with high genetic advance as per cent of mean was also observed for these characters indicating importance of additive gene effects for these traits. The number of fruits per plant, number of primary branches per plant, fruit length and oleoresin content were exhibited positive and significant correlation with dry fruit yield. The perusal of path analysis revealed that the traits viz., number of fruits per plant; pericarp weight and plant spread had higher direct and positive contribution towards dry fruit yield. Therefore, greater emphasis should be given for aforesaid characters while selecting for yield and quality related traits.


Key words: Genetic variability, Correlation coefficient, Path analysis, Chilli genotypes


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 179-182 (2014)


Nutritional quality of multicult fodder sorghum (CoFS-29) as influenced by different row spacings and nitrogen levels under irrigated condition


Manjunatha S.B1*., Angadi V.V1., Palled Y.B1 and Hosamani S.V.2

1Department of Agronomy, 2Department of Animal Science, UAS Dharwad 580005


(Received: March 13, 2014; Revised received: May 12, 2014;Accepted: May 14,2014)


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Abstract: Field experiment was conducted at University of Agricultural Sciences during Kharifrabiand summer of 2010-11 under irrigated condition. The result obtained from the study revealed that among the differentrow spacing of 45 and 60 cm recorded significantly higher yield of crude protein, crude fibre, and ether extract compared to 30 cm (S1) row spacing. Among the different nitrogen levels 300 kg N ha-1 recorded significantly higherCrude protein content compared to lower levels of nitrogenin all the cuttings. However, green forage and dry matter yield also higher with a row spacing of 45 cm and 60cm with application of 300 kg nitrogen per ha as compared to lower level of nitrogen and was 40.0, 26.2 and 11.9 per cent higher over 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha-1, respectively.


Key words: CoFS-29 (multicut sorghum), Green fodder yield, Nitrogen levels, row spacings


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 183-186 (2014)


Dry matter production and nutrient uptake in kharif sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Moench) as influenced by integrated weed management


H. R. Priya*, V. S. Kubsad, K. S. Chethan and A. H. Pavithra

Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Dharwad University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka 580 005


(Received: March 24, 2014; Revised received: June 22, 2014;Accepted: June 25,2014)


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Abstract: A field trail was carried out in vertisols during kharif season of 2011 at Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad, Karnataka, to investigate the effect of integrated weed management practices on dry matter production and nutrient uptake by weeds and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) at 60 days after sowing and harvest. Integrated weed management consisted of pre-emergence application of atrazine @ 0.5 kg/ha followed by post emergence application of atrazine @ 0.75 kg/ha, 2, 4-D @ 0.5 kg/ha, metsulfuron methyl @ 4 g and 6 g/ha, intercultivation and hand weeding. The major weed flora observed in the experimental field was Cynodon dactylon, Digitaria sanguinalis, Dinebra retroflexa, Echinochloa colonum, Cyperus rotundus, Acalypha indica L, Ageratum conyzoides L, Amaranthus viridis, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera sessilis L, Commelina benghalensis, Cyanotis cucullata, Euphorbia geniculata, Phyllanthus niruri, Physalis minima and Mollugo verticillata L. The results revealed that pre-emergence application of atrazine @ 0.5 kg/ha (PE) followed by 2, 4-D @ 0.75 kg/ha (PoE) at 20 DAS and intercultivation at 30 DAS recorded a significant reduction in total weed population and weed dry weight. The total dry matter production, grain yield (4.42 t/ha), fodder yield (9.83 t/ha) and uptake of NPK nutrients by sorghum were significantly higher with same treatment compared to weedy check. This was at par with weed free check. Higher nutrient uptake by weeds and lower dry matter production by crop was recorded in unweeded check.


Key words: Dry matter production, integrated weed management, Nutrient uptake, Sorghum, Weed flora


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 187-190 (2014)


Correlation between weather and yield attributes of mango


M. Kumar*, V. Ponnuswami, S. Ramesh Kumar and V. Arumugam

Faculty of Horticulture, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Pollachi, Tamil Nadu, India.-642103


(Received: March 24, 2014; Revised received: June 28, 2014;Accepted: June 30,2014)


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Abstract: Ten diverse cultivars of mango were selected from the Kanyakumari and Tenkasi locations of Tamil Nadu during both main season and off season during2010–2012 to determine the correlation along with their weather parameters viz., Max temperature, Minimum temperature, Relative humidity and Rain fall of independent characters and dependent variables offlowering characters viz., number of inflorescence m-2, hermaphrodite flower per cent, fruit set percent, number of fruits tree-1 and yield of fruits per tree through correlation coefficients analysis in mango as to estimate the contribution of most important characters towards yield. The result revealed that, the maximum temperature (320C), minimum temperature (20.300C), relative humidity (84.50 per cent) and average rainfall (130.00 mm) had highly significant and positive correlation with all the flowering and fruiting parameters of both main and off-season of mango cultivars. At Tenkasi location, the maximum temperature (330C), minimum temperature (20.700C) and average rainfall (115.00 mm) showed the positive and significant association with all the flowering and fruiting characters of mango cultivars during both the seasons. In combination with weather parameters and flowering and fruiting characters of correlation coefficient, it was found that the weather parameters had significantly influences the number of number of inflorescence m-2, hermaphrodite flower per cent, fruit set percent fruits per plant gave significant positive correlation coefficients with yield and also produce the high positive direct effect. Thus, it was clear that number of inflorescence m-2, hermaphrodite flower per cent, fruit set per cent and number of fruit per tree are the major component of fruit yield in mango.


Key words: Correlation studies, Weather, Yield attributes, Main season, Off-season



Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 191-192 (2014)


Effect of temperature on growth of cercospora canescens causing leaf spot disease in greengram


Veena* and Yashoda R. Hegde

Departmentof plant pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580005, Karnataka, India


(Received: March 24, 2014; Revised received: June 08, 2014;Accepted: June 10,2014)


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Abstract: The temperature studies revealed that maximum mycelial weight of fungus was observed at temperature of 200C (442.50 mg), which was followed by 250C (382.50mg). The least growth was observed at 15 and 400C (20.00 mg). Maximum radial growth was observed at temperature 250C (8.65 cm) followed by 200C (7.03 cm). The optimum temperature range for C. canescens was 20 to 250C. Temperature playsimportant role among the external factors which influence the growth and reproduction of fungi. All the fungi have minimum temperature, below which they cannot grow and above which they are inactivated or killed. Each fungus has its temperature range for the growth.


Key words: Greengram, Cercospora canescens, Temperature, Growth


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 193-196 (2014)


Diversity studies in selected maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm of eastern Uttar Pradesh


Manoj Kumar Meena, Rajesh Singh, Amita Sharma* and P.K. Bhati

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi- 221005, India


(Received: March 24, 2014; Revised received: June 19, 2014;Accepted: June 22,2014)


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Abstract: In order to assess the divergence among 25 genotypes in maize, Mahalanobis D2 statistics was applied based on 11 traits. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for all the traits. The genotypes were grouped into 5 clusters, where cluster I was the largest containing 16 genotypes followed by cluster III with 4 genotypes, cluster II with 3 genotype and cluster IV and V with 1 genotype each. The maximum inter cluster distance was observed between cluster IV and cluster V indicating wider genetic diversity among genotypes in these groups and lowest between cluster I and cluster III. While, Intra cluster D2 value was maximum in cluster III. Based on inter cluster distance and per se performance of genotypes, the entries viz., CM-145, HUZM-478, HUZM-88, HUZM-60, 1105, V-336, V-388, HUZM-185, HKI-162, HKI-287, HUZM-509 and HUZM-80.1were selected which could be intercrossed to obtain high heterotic expression and also to recover desirable transgressive.


Key words: Genetic diversity, Genotypes, Hybrids, Zea mays L.


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 197-200 (2014)


Effect of climate on reproductive parameters of surati buffaloes reared under surati buffalo calf rearing project, Gujarat.


Jeetendra K.Raval1*,Kartik.M.Patel2, Jignesh.M.Patel3 And Harilal.D.Mehta4

1Subject Matter Specialist (Animal Science), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, NAU, Di.Tapi ,Vyara-394650

2Depttt. of Livestock Production and Technology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry ,S.K Nagar

3Deptt. of Veterinary Pathology, Vanbandhu College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry ,NAU,Navasari

4Regional Rice Research Station,.NAU, Di.Tapi ,Vyara-394650 (Guj)


(Received: March 31, 2014; Revised received: June 28, 2014;Accepted: June 29,2014)


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Abstract: Surati Buffalo Calf Rearing Project, Navasari Agricultural University (NAU) ,Vyara ,Di.Tapi, Gujarat,is catering needs of both science as wellasextension since year 2003. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of climatic changes on reproduction performance of surati buffaloes with the help ofretrospective analysis ofreproductive and climatic data .The reduced temperature and humidity along with better rainfall were found to havepositive effect on reproduction parameters like age atfirst calving, calving interval and service periodand vice versa. Significantly increased age at first calving (1603 days) in year 2008 as compared to year 2011 (i.e 1278 days) was in harmony withincreased relative humidity ( 80.20%) in year 2008 as compared to year 2011 (i.e 75.02 %) .Increased annual average temperature (26.350C) in year 2010 as compared to 25.300C in year 2008 was observed to have parallel effect on increased calving interval (i.e. 494.40 days) in year 2010 as compared to 449.25 days in year 2008. Significantly improved service period of the years 2010 (37.25 days) and 2011 (87.75 days) were in tune with comparatively better rainfall of year 2010 (270.08 mm) and 2011 (294.00 mm). Higher reproduction efficiency can be achieved by alleviation of climate related stresses with the help ofsuitable remedial measures.The study data can be useful for further research and reference purpose.


Key words: Surati Buffalo Calf Rearing Project, Reproduction parameters, Climate, Remedial measures


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 201-204 (2014)


Effect of Cu application on growth, yield and biochemical responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Gomti-upland alluvial soil


Pankaj Giri*, Ram Kumar, Rajeew Singh and S. N. Pandey

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow- 226007


(Received: April 01, 2014; Revised received: July 15, 2014;Accepted: July 16,2014)


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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during winter season Lucknow University (New Campus) to study the response of copper (Cu) application on wheat reproductive yield, Cu uptake, sugar, proline and protein contents and activity of amylase, catalase and peroxidase enzymes. Cu were added to soil @ 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 kg h-1 as CuSO4 at the time of sowing in all the treatments Least significant difference analysis of data revealed that yield parameters (No. of tillers plant-1, No. of ear plant-1, Ear length plant-1 and Ear weight plant-1), proline and protein contents of wheat plants were significantly increased up to 8 kg h-1. As compare to control, content of Cu were significantly (p<0.01) increased in root and shoot of wheat plants by 1666 and 1449% while grown at 12 kg h-1 Cu. Number of grain ear-1, grain seed-100 weight significantly (p<0.01) increased by 112 and 33.5% in wheat plants grown at 12 kg h-1 Cu. Pigments synthesis under Cu application increased up to 4 kg h-1 levels then decrease up to higher levels. Proline contents in the leaves of wheat plants increased up to higher level while protein contents increased up to 8 kg h-1 cu supply. Activity of catalase, peroxidase and amylase were found to be significantly increased by 54%, 157% and 130% respectively in the leaves of wheat plants grown in soil amended with 12 kg h-1compared to control.


Key words: Wheat, Cu, Growth, Peroxidase and Sugar


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 205-208 (2014)


Genetic analysis to assess the parental lines for

grain quality traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)


Doddabhimappa R. Gangapur*, K. Thiyagarajan and Santoshkumar Magadum

Department Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641003


(Received: April 05, 2014; Revised received: July 18, 2014;Accepted: July 19,2014)


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Abstract: The present investigation was carried out with the objective to develop heterotic rice hybrids with heat tolerance. Four diverse CGMS lines and 50 tester parents were selected for hybridization. Two hundred hybrids were developed by line x tester mating design. Analyses were made to identify best combining parents and hybrids. The CGMS line COMS 24A was found to be a good general combiner for hulling per cent, milling per cent and kernel length/breadth ratio. The tester CB00-14-56 was a good general combiner for hulling per cent and milling per cent. The other testers CB00-14-82 and CB00-13-97 were good general combiners for hulling per cent and milling per cent. These genotypes can be used as potential donors in the breeding rice programme for developing hybrids with superior grain quality traits.


Key words: Rice hybrids, Parental lines, Combining ability, Grain quality traits


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 209- 210 (2014)


Toxin production and induction of sporulation among isolates of cercospora canescens causing leaf spot disease in mungbean


1Veena*,1Yashoda R. Hegdeand 2 RaheesaKhatib

1Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580005

2Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences,Bangalore-560065, Karnataka, India


(Received: March 24, 2014; Revised received: July 01, 2014;Accepted: July 02,2014)


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Abstract: Cercospora leaf spot(CLS) caused by Crcospora canescens is most destructive disease of mungbean. Six isolates of Crcospora canescens were tested for toxin production and sporulation. Six isolates of C. canescens were tested for production of toxin and induction of sporulation inmodified potato dextrose agar with different concentration of dextrose. Among all the isolates, Amargola isolate produced maximum toxin in culture filtrate and resulted in minimum vigour index of seedlings. Based on vigour index the isolates were classified into three groups. Group I consisted of three isolate like Amargola, Bailahongal and Nippani isolate with vigour index ranging from 1000-2000. Group II consisted of two isolates viz., Hosur and Sogal isolate, ranging from 2000-3000. Group III consisted of oneisolate (Dharwad isolate) withvigour index ranging from 3000-4000 with low toxin production. Sporulation was completely absent in 2%, 4% and 10% dextrose concentration, which indicated that higher (10%) and lower concentration (2-4%) of dextrose suppressed sporulation. Moderate concentration of 6-8%dextrose favoured sporulation and good growth of mycelium in some isolates. Sporulation was observed in majority of isolates in 6-8%dextrose concentration.


Key words: Cercospora canescens, Mungbean, Toxin production, Sporulation


Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(3) 211-212 (2014)


Effect of ridge and furrow system on the growth character and productivity of rainfed soybean in Vidisha district of M.P.


S.S. Dhakad*1, Vijay Agrawal2 and Sangeev Verma3

1Krishi Vigyan Kendra (RVSKVV) Shajapur-465001,2Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, JNKVV Jabalpur

3Krishi Vigyan Kendra (JNKVV) Hoshangabad, India


(Received: April 14, 2014; Revised received: July 11, 2014;Accepted: July 12,2014)


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Abstract: Field demonstration was conducted during Kharif season 2009 and 2010 to study ridge and furrow system for soybean crop at farmer’s fields in Vidisha district under Vindhya plateau agro-climatic region of Madhya Pradesh. Result showed that growth character (plant height, number of branches per plant and number of root nodules per plant) and yield contributing character viz. number of pods per plant, seed yield weight per plant, seed index, seed yield, straw yield and harvest index (%) found higher in ridge and furrow system compared to the normal flat bed sowing which subsequently resulted in yield enhancement to the extent of 27.2 % for soyabean crop.


Key words: Soybean, Ridge and Furrow, growth character, yield, B:C ratio,Vertisols