RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-7, Number-4, November-2014

 

53.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 213-118 (2014)

 

Biodiversity and strategies for conservation of

rare, endangered and threatened medicinal plants

Sudharani N. 1, Akshay K.R.2, Anjali K.B.3, Deepak T.M.4 and Divyajyothi U.5

1,5KVK, Chitradurga, University of Agicultural Sciences,Bangalore , Karnataka, India

2,3,4Department of Horticulture, Chikkamagalur District, India

*e-mail: sudharani028@gmail.com

(Received: April 14, 2014; Revised received: July 12, 2014;Accepted: July 15,2014)

 

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Abstract: Biodiversity refers to the numbers, variety and variability of living organisms and ecosystem. India is one of the world’s top 12 mega diversity countries with 10 bio geographic regions. India alone includes two among the world’s eight biodiversity hotspots. The climatic and altitudinal variations, coupled with varied ecological habitats of this country, have contributed to the development of immensely rich vegetation with a unique diversity in medicinal plants which provides an important source of medicinal raw materials for traditional medicine systems, as well as for pharmaceutical industries in the country and abroad.World Health Organization has listed over 21000 plant species used around the world for medicinal purpose. In India, about 2500 plant species are being used in indigenous system of medicine. The red data book lists 427 Indian Medicinal plant entries on endangered species, of which 28 are considered extinct, 124 endangered, 81 rare and 34 insufficiently known(Gupta, 2004)..The dedicated medicinal plants are used by various tribal’s and local people to cure different ailments ranging from simple injuries, wounds, cuts, fever, diarrhoea, ulcers, swelling, bone fractures, potency, antidote, skin care, night blindness, toothache, asthma, cough & cold. Medicinal plants occupy a vital sector of health care system in India and represent a major national resource. Hence, there is an immense need for conservation of diversity of medicinal plant wealth for the present and fore coming generations, by adapting the suitable strategy with most appropriate method of conservation.

Key words: Biodiversity, Endangered species, Medicinal propeties and Ex-situ conservation

 

54.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 219-222 (2014)

 

Microbial fuel cell: need of clean environment

Roli Verma*, Ashima Srivastava, Pratibha Singh, N.N.Janhavi, Kirti Srivastava

Department of Chemistry, JSS Academy of Technical Education, Noida- 210301, India

*e-mail: roliverma@jssaten.ac.in

(Received:May 04, 2014; Revised received: July 28, 2014;Accepted: July 30,2014)

 

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Abstract: Green and clean forms of energy are one of society’s greatest needs. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) represent a completely new method of renewable energy recovery and are a new aspect of environmental engineering: the direct conversion of organic matter to electricity using bacteria and also treating wastewater. Fuel cells operate in principle similar to battery: They convert fuel to electricity by electrochemical means. However, unlike a battery, a fuel cell needn’t be recharged. In the long term more dilute substrates, such as domestic sewage, could be treated with MFCs, decreasing society’s need to invest substantial amounts of energy in their treatment. The present article reviews the methods for the generation of green electrical energy as well as the current status of research in this area.

Key words: Microbial fuel cells, Wastewater treatment, Electricity generation.

 

55.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 223-232 (2014)

 

Molecular markers exploited in crop improvement practices

Ram Baran Singh1, Seweta Srivastava1*, Jyoti Rastogi1, Gorakh Nath Gupta1, Niraj Nath Tiwari1, Balwant Singh2 and R. K. Singh1

1Sugarcane Research Institute, U.P. Council of Sugarcane Research, Shahjahanpur-242001 (U.P.), India.

2Swami Satyanand College of Management and Technology, Amritsar-143001, (Punjab), India.

*e-mail: shalu.bhu2008@gmail.com

(Received:March 28, 2014; Revised received: July 31, 2014;Accepted: August 02,2014)

 

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Abstract: Molecular markers are routinely used in various crop improvement programmes, ecological, physiological, genetic studies of plants and to improve the efficiency and precision of conventional plant breeding through marker assisted selection. In more than last ten years molecular markers have been developed based on the vast knowledge of genome structure. Considerable emphasis has been laid on the use of molecular markers in practical breeding and genotype identification. Development and constantly modification of molecular markers are being used to enhance their utility and bring about automation in the process of genome analysis. The invention of PCR (Polymerase chain reaction) was a landmark in this direction and proved to be a unique process that brought about a new class of DNA profiling markers. In this article detail review of fundamental principles, mechanism, applications with their considerable merits and demerits are given for 12 different molecular marker techniques:restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs), sequence characterized regions (SCARs),cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS),single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), targeted Region amplification polymorphism (TRAP), single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), sequence related amplified polymorphisms (SRAPs) and conserved intron scanning primer (CISP).

Key words: Crop improvement, Genetic diversity, Genome mapping, MAS, QTL analysis

 

56.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 233-236 (2014)

 

To study the economics of irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as influencedby crop geometry, row spacing and weed management practices

Raj Kumar Yadav1* Shishir Kumar2Ram Prawesh Prasad3 Ram Ashish Yadav4 and Joy Dawson2

1Department of Agronomy, Chandra Bhanu Gupta Agriculture Post Graduate College, Bakshi KaTalab,Lucknow,226201 (U.P.), India

2Department of Agronomy, Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed University, Allahabad - 211 007 (U .P.), India

3S.M.S. Plant Pathology, Krishi Vigyan Kendra Siwan-841408, R.A.U. Pusa Bihar

4Department of Agronomy, Chandra ShekharAzad University of Agriculture and Technology Kanpur, 208002 (U.P.), India

*e-mail: rjyadav108 @gmail.com

(Received: March 11, 2014; Revised received: July 14, 2014;Accepted: July 16,2014)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the winter season of 2003-04 and 2004-05, to studies the economics of irrigated wheat as influenced by crop geometry, row spacing and weed management practices. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with three replication by keeping combinations of two row direction (North-South, East-West) and two row spacing (15 cm and 20 cm) plus broadcast sowing in main plot and four weed control treatment (unweeded check, metsulfuron4 g/ha + isoproturon 1000 g/ha, sulfosulfuron 25 g/ha and weed free in sub plots. Direction North-South at 15cm spacing results in signiûcantly higher yield attributes, grain yield and then broadcasting. Direction North-South at 15cmspacing signiûcantly reduced weed count and weed dry biomass than broadcasting, test weight were unaffected by seeding methods. Among the weed-control treatments, weed free although recorded higher yield attributes grain and straw yields but was found at par with those recorded under sulfosulfuron 25 g/ha and signiûcantly higher than those recorded under metsulfuron and isoproturon. Net return recorded among the weed control treatment did not differ signiûcantly. It was higher in sulfosulfuron, followed by metsulfuron + isoproturon and weed free resulted in significantly higher grain yield and benefit cast ratio.

Key words: Wheat, Crop geometry, Row spacing, Weed control method, Herbicides, Yield, Economics

57.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 237-342 (2014)

 

Response of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) varieties to irrigation methods and graded levels of fertilizer

Sunil A. Satyareddi and S. S. Angadi

Department of Agronomy,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580005

*e-mail: sunil.satyareddi@gmail.com

(Received: May 02, 2014; Revised received: July 12, 2014;Accepted: July 15,2014)

 

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Abstract: An experiment on performance of turmeric genotypes under different irrigation methods and graded levels of fertilizer was conducted for two consecutive years. Significantly higher plant height, number of tiller per plant, number of leaves per plant, leaf area, LAI and LAD were observed in drip irrigation method as compared to other methods.Cudappah variety was superior over Pratibha in the observed growth attributes. Among the fertilizer levels, application of 270:135:180 kg N:P2O5:K2O per ha recorded higher growth attributes over other levels. Influence of irrigation methods, varieties andfertilizer levels on turmeric yield attributes (weight of mother, primary, secondary and tertairy rhizome per plant) and yield was also significant and followed simlar trends of growth attributes. Among the interactions, treatment combination of drip irrigation with Cudappah variety and application of 270:135:180 kg N:P2O5:K2O per ha recorded significantly higher growth, yield attributes and yield (26.13 t ha-1) which was comparable to combination of drip irrigation with cv. Cudappah with application of 225:112.5:135 kg N: P2O5: K2O per ha.

Key words: Fertilizer levels, Irrigation methods, Varieties, Yield

 

58.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 243-346 (2014)

 

Impact of weather changes on sugarcane production

S. C. Mali1, P. K. Shrivastava2* and H. S. Thakare2

1Main Sugarcane Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari

2Department of Natural Resource Management, ACHF, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari – 396 450, Gujarat

*e-mail: pkshrivastavanvs@yahoo.co.in

(Received: May 17, 2014; Revised received: July 8, 2014;Accepted: July 10,2014)

 

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Abstract: Sugarcane is a major C4 crop grown in canal irrigated areas of the country. It was observed that due to climatic aberrations especially rainfall and maximum temperature affect productivity, sugar recovery and burning in sugarcane crop. Study was taken up to evaluate the weather parameters that have an impact on cultivation of sugarcane crop. The study reveals that climatic deviations like uneven distribution of rainfall during monsoon followed by variations in relative humidity results in flowering in certain varieties of sugarcane. It was also found that rainfall is negatively correlated with sugar recovery, which indicates nutrients are leached during rains. Burning in sugarcane is found to be inversely correlated with rainfall. Bright sunshine hours and evaporation are positively correlated with burning.

Key words: Rainfall, Sugar recovery %, Sugarcane yield, Temperature and Whether parameters

59.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 247-250 (2014)

 

Response of Bt cotton to nutrients applied based on target yield

Manjunatha S. B., Biradar D. P. and Aladakatti Y. R.

Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka- 580005

*e-mail: sbmanjusb@gmail.com

(Received: May 04, 2014; Revised received: July 10, 2014;Accepted: July 12,2014)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at University of Agricultural Sciences, MARS Dharwad for two years (2012-13 and 2013-14) under assured rainfed condition to study the response of Bt cotton hybrids to nutrient applied based on target yield. The pooled data of two years indicated that, among the different Bt cotton hybrids Mallika Bt recorded significantly higher seed cotton yield (3392 kg ha-1) and seed cotton yieldper plant (214 g plant-1) as compared to other hybrids, however, it was on par with Brahma Bt (3338 kg ha-1, 210 g plant-1, respectively). Application of nutrients as per the target yield of 4.0 t ha-1 (195:100:200 NPK kg ha-1) recorded significantly higher seed cotton yield (3940 kg ha-1 ) andseed cotton yield per plant (234.7g) over other nutrient levelsbased on target yielded.

Key words: Bt cotton, Target yield, Economics

60.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 251-252 (2014)

 

Epidemiologial aspects responsible for the conidial germination of Erysiphe polygoni DC on green gram

Divyajyothi, U.1, Hundekar, A. R.1, Lingaraju, S.1 Shamarao Jahagirdar1, Matiwade P. S.2 and Veena1

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka- 580005, 2 ARS, Nipani

*e-mail: jyothi4291@gmail.com

(Received: April 19, 2014; Revised received: June 18, 2014;Accepted: June 19,2014)

 

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Abstract: Powdery mildew of green gram caused by Erysiphe polygoni DC has become major constraint in green gram growing areas. The germination of conidia was maximum at 200C (70.31%) followed by at 150C and 250C. The temperature range of 15 to 250C was the most congenial for conidial germination. The optimum temperature required for conidial germination was 200C. The relative humidity of 80 per cent was found to be optimum for conidial germination (70.50%). Maximum germination of conidia was observed at 2.0 per cent dextrose solution (75.50%) at 24h after incubation. Very poor germination was recorded in sterile water compared to tap water.

Key words: Powdery mildew, Erysiphe polygoni DC, green gram, Epidemiology, Invitro

61.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 253-258 (2014)

 

Screening vegetables under shadenet for yield and quality during summer and winter seasons

M. Rajasekar1, T. Arumugam2, S. Ramesh Kumar3*, S.Balakrishnan4 and S. Krishnasamy5

1 Department of Horticulture,5Department of Agronomy, Agricultural College and Research Institute, TNAU, Madurai-625 104,India

2 Imayam Institute of Agriculture and Technology, Kannanur-621 206, TNAU, India

3 Department of Horticulture, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Pollachi-642 103, TNAU, India

4 Horticulture College and Research Institute, Periyakulam- 625604, TNAU, India

*e-mail: rameshamar06@gmail.com

(Received: March 24, 2014; Revised received: July 03, 2014;Accepted: July 06,2014)

 

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Abstract: In the past very little efforts has been done on the performance of vegetbales under protected structures. Investigations were carried out to determine the influence of shadenet house and open field cultivation of tomato, eggplant, chilli, bhendi, cucumber, cluster bean, radish, coriander, amaranthus and chilli during summer and winter seasons in 2010-2011 at Madurai, India. There were differences for all yield and quality characters studied. Vegetables grown under shadenet house had higher yield per plant compared to open field culture, except for cluster bean and bhendi which had higher yield under field culture. The percent increase in yield was highest in the shadenet house in both seasons. The ascorbic acid content was highest in chilli under field culture in both seasons. The highest crude fiber content was in fruit of bhendi grown in the shadenet house during both seasons. Tomato, eggplant, chilli, cucumber, coriander and radish performed well in the shadenet house and bhendi, cluster bean performed well under field culture during both seasons. Hence, these vegetables can be exploited under shade net house to get higher productivity as well as meet out the growing demand.

Key words: Protected cultivation, Traits, Season, Selection

62.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 259-262 (2014)

 

Performance of vegetable crops as intercrops with guava plantation

S.K. Singh1*, M. Raghuvanshi2, P.K. Singh1, and J. Prasad1

1Department of Horticulture, N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj- 224 229, India

2Department of Horticulture U.P. Autonomous College, Varanasi-221002. , India

*e-mail: shail_vns1981@rediffmail.com

(Received: March 18, 2014; Revised received: June 15, 2014;Accepted: June 19,2014)

 

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Abstract: The investigation on suitability of vegetable crops as intercrops was conducted at the Main Experiment Station, Department of Horticulture, N.D.U.A. & T., Kumargaj, Faizabad (U.P.). The maximum plant height (93.71 cm), plant spread (71.13 cm) and stem diameter (3.62 cm) were observed in suran followed by turmeric and bunda. The maximum fresh and dry weight of corms/ cormels per plant was recorded in suran (923.13 and 853.50 g/plant) followed by bunda (366.50 and 332.25 g/plant) and arvi (226.50 and 206.00 g/plant); whereas, fresh and dry weight of rhizomes of turmeric was 298.00 and 270.15 g/plant, respectively. The maximum marketable yield was obtained in Turmeric (130.70 and 118.70 q/ha.) followed by suran (128.40 and 118.70 q/ha) and bunda (103.80 and 94.10 q/ha) and lowest was in arvi 63.52 q/ha and 57.77 q/ha. The maximum fruit yield (46.84 kg/tree) was obtained in sole crop during the rainy season, followed by intercropping of bunda (46.45 kg/tree). While during the winter season crop, the maximum fruit yield (24.74 kg/tree) was recorded by intercropping of arvi followed by suran (23.12 kg/tree) as compared to other cropping systems.

Key words: Guava, Arvi, Bunda, Suran, Turmeric, Intercropping, Productivity, Intercrops, Orchard, Compost

 

63.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 263-266 (2014)

 

Nutrient uptake of major, minor and microbial population studies with different cotton genotypes through participatory approach

T. Sudha, Ramesh Babu, D. P. Biradar and V. C. Patil

Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka - 580 005

*e-mail: sudhagron@gmail.com

(Received: May 07, 2014; Revised received: August 02, 2014;Accepted: August 03,2014)

 

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Abstract: The nutrient uptake study pattern of major, minor nutrients and population of microorganisms was studied in cotton field under participatory mode of research in black soil under rainfed condition. The field experiment was conducted in farmers field during 2008-09 and 2009-10 using different cotton genotypes. The uptake of major nutrients, secondary and micronutrients increased with increased growth of the crop. The higher uptake of the nutrients was observed in MRC-6918 Bt at different stages of crop growth as compared to other genotypes. The significantly higher gross returns of Rs. 90,415/ha and net returns of Rs. 67,924/ha was obtained in MRC-6918 Bt as compared to all other cotton genotypes. Higher population of methylotrophs was recorded in MRC-6918 Bt (30 x 102/ g soil) at flowering and harvest of the crop. At flowering stage, significantly higher population of P-solubilizers was recorded in RCH-2 Bt and at harvest with RCH-708 as compared to all other genotypes. Mallika Bt recorded significantly higher population of (0.49 x 106/ g soil) Azospirillum as compared to all other genotypes at harvest.

Key words: Nutrient uptake, Microbial population, Cotton genotypes, Participatory approach

64.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 267-270 (2014)

 

Evaluation of cotton (Gossyipium hirsutum L.) genotypes for their reaction to Thrips tabaci Lindemann

Yogesh Patel*1 and Preeti Patel2

1Jawahalal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidhyalaya, College of Agriculture,Ganjbasoda Distt. Vidisha -464221 India,

2S.S. Girls Degree College, Ganjbasoda Distt. Vidisha- 464221 India

*e-mail: yogeshpatelt2@rediffmail.com

(Received: April 03, 2014; Revised received: July 30, 2014;Accepted: August 03, 2014)

 

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Abstract: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) genotypes were evaluated for resistance against Thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindemann. The experiment was laid out in RBD with three replication, in plot size 6X3.6 square meter. The genotypes were categorized on the basis of observed, population of Thrips, as resistant, tolerant and susceptible. Perusal of the data revealed that among the fifteen hirsutum cotton genotypes, ten genotypes K-3, K-2, KH-120, KH-121, KH-122, KH-113, JKHy-1, JK-4, KH-111 and KH-119 were categorized as tolerant while five genotypes KH-117, KH-134, KH-143, KH-138 and KH-132 as susceptible. No genotype was found resistant to Thrips infestation. Hirsutum cotton genotype K-3 recorded minimum Thrips population and gave maximum seed cotton yield, followed by KH-121 and K-2.

Key words: Cotton, Genotypes, Thrips, Resistance

65.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 271-274 (2014)

 

Recovery of fertilizer nitrogen by carnation grown with nutripellet pack and soil nitrogen retention using 15N tracer

R. Muthukrishnan1*, K. Arulmozhiselvan2, M. Jawaharlal2, T. Padmavathi2,

V.P. Duraisami2, S. Krishnakumar1 and S Rameshkumar1

1Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Pollachi, India, 2Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India

*e-mail: rajdhana004@yahoo.co.in

(Received: April 07, 2014; Revised received: July 28, 2014;Accepted: August 03, 2014)

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Abstract: In a cropped land plant and soil utilizes nitrogen (N) mainly from fertilizer. Deep placement of fertilizer N enhances added N use efficiency. Nutripellet Pack technique is a way of deep placing fertilizer in the root zone simultaneously when sowing the seed. A Green house experiment with 15N tracer technique was conducted during 2013 at M/s. Elkhill Agro Tech Pvt Ltd, Ooty to evaluate the effect of application of fertilizers in carnation by Drip fertigation and Nutripellet Pack. In tracer studies with 15N conducted in polyhouse in carnation crop N use efficiency and retention in soil were found out for the Nutripellet pack placement. Concentration of 15N (%Ndff) in plant parts of carnation was relatively low in stem (31.4%), leaf (15.2%), flower (8.5%) and root (2.8%) with NP(DAP)K and high in stem (32.0%), leaf (17.0%), flower (9.0%) and root (2.8%) with NP(SSP)K. Recovery of 15N was high in stem (48.9%), leaf (5.5%), flower (1.1%) and root (0.6%) with NP(DAP)K. accounting for the highest N use efficiency of 56.2 percent. Nutripellet pack with NP(SSP)K recorded N use efficiency of 44.4 per cent. At harvest, fertilizer N retained in soil was 11.4 per cent in Nutripellet Pack with NP(DAP)K and 9.41 per cent in NP(SSP)K.

Key words: Nutriseed pack technique, Deep placing fertilizer, 15N tracer, Carnation, Nitrogen use efficiency

66.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 275-278 (2014)

 

Seasonal effect on variability and trait relationship in radish

S. Sivathanu1, G. Mohammed Yassin1 and S. Ramesh Kumar2*

1Department of Horticulture, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, Karaikal-609 603, Puducherry, India

2Department of Horticulture, Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Manakkadavu, Pollachi-642 103, India

*e-mail: rameshamar06@gmail.com

(Received: May 27, 2014; Revised received: August 19, 2014;Accepted: August 20, 2014)

 

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Abstract: Variability needs to be studied to develop new cultivars for commercial cultivation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Ten genotypes were evaluated for 14 characters during the rabi, summer and kharif seasons to determine mean performance, variability parameters and characters association. The study was conducted during 2012-2013. Season altered estimates of genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance as percent of mean. Number of leaves, root diameter, fresh weight of the plant, dry weight of the plant and fresh weight of root per plant had high genetic variability in combination with high heritability and genetic advance in all seasons, indicating the possibility of improvement of these traits through simple selection. Correlation and direct effect of component traits on root yield were, in general, influenced by season in direction and magnitude. Root length, root diameter, root/leaves ratio and dry weight of root per plant exhibited direct and positive correlation with root yield in all seasons which and would be appropriate selection parameters for improvement of root yield in radish.

Key words: Heritability, Genetic gain, Association of characters, Selection

67.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 279-282 (2014)

 

Evaluate the different levels of zinc and methods of boron application on growth, yield and protein content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Lal Babu Singh1, Raj Kumar Yadav*2 and Thomas Abraham1

1Department of agronomy, allahabad agriculture institute – deemed university, allahabad-211007

2Department of agronomy, chandra bhanu gupta agriculture college, bakshi ka talab, lucknow-227201

*e-mail: rjyadav108@gmail.com

(Received: May 12, 2014; Revised received: August 20, 2014;Accepted: August 22, 2014)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of zinc levels and methods of application of boron on the growth, yield and protein content of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend.Fiori & Paol.) during the winter (Rabi) season in two consecutive years, i.e. 2003-04 and 2004-05 at the Allahabad agricultural Institute – Deemed University, Allahabad. Texture of the soil was sandy loam, slightly alkaline in nature, nitrogen (61.70, 68.62 kg/ha), phosphorus (10.48, 15.45kg/ha) and potash (188.23, 220.03 kg/ha). The treatments comprised of three levels of zinc (0,3.5 and 7 kg ha-1) through zinc sulphate and four methods of application of boron (0, soil application @ 0.5 kg ha-1, foliar spray @ 0.5kg ha-1 at 45 and 60 days after sowing, and soil application @ 0.25 kg ha-1 + foliar spray @ 0.25 kg ha-1 at 45, 60 DAS) as borax, making 12 treatment combinations, each replicated three times. On the basis of the findings of the experiment, zinc @ 7 kg ha-1, soil application of boron @ 0.25 kg ha-1 + foliar application of boron @ 0.25 kg ha-1 and their combination (i.e., 7 kg ha-1 zinc + soil application of boron @ 0.25 kg ha-1 + foliar application of boron @ 0.25 kg ha-1) was found superior over all other treatments in relation to plant height, dry weight, effective tillers yield and yield attributes and protein content in grains, of wheat crop.

Key words: Wheat, Zinc, Boron, Zinc sulphate, Borax, Foliar spray

68.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 283-284 (2014)

 

Selection of high yielding varieties of tomato

for light soils environment during spring season

Amar Singh1, R.A. Singh1* and Adesh Kumar2

1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Anogi, Jalalabad, Kannauj-C.S. Azad university of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur- 208002, India

2Department of Vegetable Science, N D University of Agriculture and Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad- 224 229, India

*e-mail: rasinghcsau@gmail.com

(Received: May 02, 2014; Revised received: September 09, 2014;Accepted: September 10, 2014)

 

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Abstract: The on farm trial was conducted during spring/summer season of 2010-11at farmers fields of Kannauj district. The pilot area situated in the catchments area of river Kali. For assessment of tomato varieties, the adoption technology was refined with inclusion of selected varieties. Rupali variety of tomato was found superior and it gave highest yield by 277.00 g/ha closely followed by Naveen-2000 (266.00 q/ha). The lest yield was harvested by 181.40 q/ha from the use of conventional variety (Kuber Geeta). The highest net return of Rs. 292409/ha and BCR (1:8.15) were recorded by sowing of variety Rupali followed by cv. Naveen 2000 (Rs. 279089/ha and 1:7.80). The lowest net return of Rs. 145232/ha computed under local check cv. Kuber Geeta.

Key words: Assessment and refinement, BCR, Kuber geeta variety, Kali river catchments, Pilot area

69.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 285-286 (2014)

 

Effect of pre-harvest and post-harvest

treatments on storage life of guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.)

Vijay Agrawal*1. R.K. Jaiswal2 and S.S. Dhakad3

1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture,JNKVV, Jabalpur (MP), 2College of Agriculture (RVSKVV), Indore (MP)

3Agril Engg., Krishi Vigyan Kendra (RVSKVV) Shajapur, (MP), India

*e-mail: agrawal.kvk@gmail.com

(Received: May 08, 2014; Revised received: August 05, 2014;Accepted: Auguist 8, 2014)

 

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Abstract: The purpose of this research was to estimate the storage life of guava fruits by the use of different chemicals in normal conditions. The effect of pre and post harvest applications of 2.0 % calcium nitrate on storage life of guava after harvest upto 9.30 days was determined. The results also showed that the fruit weight loss and rotting percentage were significantly decreased in calcium treatment in comparison to control. Hence it could be concluded that post harvest chemical treatment with Calcium nitrate has the potential to control rotting incidence, prolong the storage life and preserve valuable attributes of post harvest guava, presumably because of its effect on inhibition of ripening and senescence process.

Key words: Guava, Post-harvest treatments, Physiological weight loss, Rotting percentage, Storage life

70.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 287-288 (2014)

 

Response of phosphorus and bio-fertilizers on yield attributes and yield of chickpea under late sown chickpea

Vinod Kumar Yadav* And Ravi Shanker Singh

1Department of Agronom, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229

*e-mail: vknduat@gmail.com

(Received: May 19, 2014; Revised received: August 25, 2014;Accepted: Auguist 26, 2014)

 

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Abstract: Field experiment was carried out during two consecutive years 2010-11 and 2011-12 to assess the effect of phosphorus levels and bio-fertilizers on yield attributes and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under late sown condition. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with 4 level of P2O5 (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) and 4 seed inoculants (Uninoculation, Rhizobium, Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and Rhizobium + PSB) and were replicated thrice. In this paper, information pertaining to effect of phosphorus levels and seed inoculation with bio-fertilizers increased the yield attributes as well as yield and economic return by chickpea. Most of the yield attributes viz. number of pods plant-1, number of grain pod-1, grain weight g. m-1 row length and 100-seed weight and yield was significantly increased with increasing levels of phosphorus up to 60 kg P2O5. However, non-significant variation was observed with 90 kg P2O5 during both the years of experimentation. Bio-fertilizer, Rhizobium + PSB significantly increased yield contributing characteristics of chickpea as compared to other seed inoculants. The economics as an also affected by phosphorus levels and seed inoculations. Highest B:C ratio was worked out with the 60 kg P2O5 conjunction with Rhizobium + PSB , Thus, treatments combination 60kg P2O5 along with Rhizobium + PSB better to farmers for cultivation of late sown chickpea.

 

Key words: Chickpea, Phosphorus, Rhizobium and PSB

 

71.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 289-292 (2014)

 

Response to foliar application of nutrients on yield and quality traits of wheat

 Pavithra A. H.,Priya H.R., Madhu B.M., Madhusudanand Nandini R.

Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shimoga, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: ahpavithra88@gmail.com

(Received: May 19, 2014; Revised received: August 25, 2014;Accepted: August26, 2014)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad on medium black soil during rabi season of 2011-12 to study response of wheat to foliar application of nutrients on yield and quality traits. Among different treatments, foliar application of starter @ 2% at 15 and 45 DAS + Booster @ 2% at 55 and 70 DAS recorded significantly higher yield components like effective tillers per square meter, number of grains per ear head,1000-grain weight (43.10 g), grain yield (39.97 q ha-1) and quality parameters i.e. grain appearance score (8.13),protein (13.48%), gluten (51.37 %), starch (62.40 %), zeleny (58.78 %), zinc content (37.60 ppm) in wheat grains. Among the interaction effects, foliar application of Starter @ 2% at 15 and 45 DAS +Booster @ 2% at 55 and 70 DAS in timely sowing recorded significantly higher yield and yield components like effective tillers per square meter, number of grains per ear head, thousand grain weight (44.21g), grain yield (40.97 q ha-1) and its quality parameters i.e. grain appearance score (8.73), protein (14.60 %), gluten(54.50 %), starch(64.20 %), zeleny (62.15 %)and zinc content (37.85 ppm)in wheat grain.

 

Key words: Wheat yield, Grain quality, Foliar application, Starter, Booster

 

72.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 293-294 (2014)

 

Effect of foliar feeding of nutrients and plant growth regulators on vegetative growth and yield of phalsa (Grewia subinaequalis D.C.)

 Saurabh Kumar, A.L. Yadav, Govind Vishwakarma and D.K. Yadav

Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj- Faizabad- 224 229, India

*e-mail: govind0139@gmail.com

(Received: April 26, 2014; Revised received: August 20, 2014;Accepted: August 22, 2014)

 

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Abstract: The present investigation entitled “Effect of foliar feeding of nutrients and plant growth regulators on vegetative growth and yield of Phalsa (Grewia subinaequalis D.C.)” was carried out at the Main Experiment Station, Department of Horticulture, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Narendra Nagar (Kumarganj), Faizabad (U.P.) during the year 2011-2012. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments and replicated in four times, considering two plants as a unit. The shoot length, number of shoots, leaves , internodal length, number of fruits, fruiting node and yield were recorded maximum significantly with foliar application of GA3 @ 20ppm + NAA @ 50ppm + ZnSO4 @ 0.4% + Urea @ 2% followed by GA3 @ 20 ppm + Urea @ 2 % whereas minimum with control.

 

Key words: Foliar application of nutrients, Plant growth regulators, Growth, Yield and Phalsa

73.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 295-298 (2014)

 

A study on the natural food of mahseer (Tor tor)

cultured in pond at powerkheda, Hoshangabad, Madhya Pradesh

Jyoti Sharma, Alka Parashar and Pratibha Bagare

Department of Zoology, Sarojini Naidu Government Girls P.G. (Autonomous) College, Bhopal, 462016, India

*e-mail: palki87@yahoo.co.in

(Received: April 25, 2014; Revised received: August 28, 2014;Accepted: August 29, 2014)

 

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Abstract: Planktons are an incredibly diverse group of organisms that forms the foundation for natural food for fish species. Plankton abundance in culture pond depend on the factors such as ambient nutrient concentration, the physical state of the water. Mahseer (T.tor) known as the state fish of Madhya Pradesh is one of the most important game and food fish that have an endangered status so its conservation is very important for its feeder protection. It is an omnivorous feeder. By liming and fertilizing with manures and fertilizers the production of plankton is undertaken which are the fish food organisms. On monthly sampling 15 species of phytoplankton, of which chlorophyceae are recorded as the highest. They are followed by zooplankton in which Rotifers are recorded as the dominant group. The gut analysis revealed the existence of highest range of zooplankton followed by phytoplankton. The importance of natural food is reflected properly in its relative contribution to the gut content.

 

Key words: Plankton, Qualitative, Quantitative analysis

74.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 299-304 (2014)

 

Decolorization and degradation of textile dyes by bacterial Isolates

Kamran Ali Khan1 and Seweta Srivastava2*

1Department of Biotechnology and Biochemistry, S.B.S.P.G. Institute of Bio-Medical Sciences and Research, Dehradun- 248 161, India.

2Sugarcane Research Institute, U.P. Council of Sugarcane Research, Shahjahanpur-242 001, India

*e-mail: shalu.bhu2008@gmail.com

(Received: April 29, 2014; Revised received: August 14, 2014;Accepted: August 16, 2014)

 

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Abstract: Harmful effects of textile industry effluents are a huge problem for now a day. The capabilities of several bacterial isolates were explored for the degradation of textile azo dyes. Out of 6 bacterial isolates, 5 isolates were screened for their sulfanilic acid and dye decolorization capability. Through morphological studies it was inferred that all the 5 strains were gram negative, and out of these 4 were small rod shaped and 1 was cocci. Growth of these isolates was studied on different medium i.e. nutrient media, minimal media and mineral media. For the sulfanilic acid degradative capability of the isolates was studied and best result was observed by the KN 6 strain. Dye decolorization was best observed by KN 3, KN 5 and KN 6 strains. It could be conclude from the present study that the isolated bacterial strains showed the degradation capability of dye Methyl orange and sulfanilic acid.

 

Key words: Azo dyes, Bacteria, Degradation, Isolation, Strains

75.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 305-306 (2014)

 

Economic comparison of potato with vegetable pea in central alluvial tract of U.P.

Amar Singh1, R.A. Singh1* and Adesh Kumar2

1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Anogi, Jalalabad, Kannauj-C.S. Azad university of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208002, India

2Department of Vegetable Science, N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology,Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229, India

*e-mail: rasinghcsau@gmail.com

(Received: May, 01, 2014; Revised received: September 18, 2014;Accepted: September 19, 2014)

 

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Abstract: The on farm trial was laid out during autumn season of 2010-11 at farmers fields of Kannauj district. The pilot area situated in the catchments area of river Kali. For assessment of return obtain from potato and vegetable pea, the cropping system was refined with the inclusion of vegetable pea in the traditional cropping system. In water receding area, the tubers yield of potato was reaped by 276.00 q/ha. the green pods yield of vegetable pea was recorded as 116.00 q/ha under similar condition. The yield contributing traits of both crops were concordance to their yields. The higher gross return of Rs. 116000/ha, net return of Rs. 91191/ha and BCR of 1:4.67 were recorded with reaping of marketable size pods of vegetable pea than the gross return of rs. 110400/ha, net return of Rs. 66397/ha and BCR of 1:2.50 computed under test crop of potato. Therefore, potato can be replaced by cultivation of vegetable pea in water receding area for obtaining equal or more net return.

 

Key words: Assessment and refinement, catchments area, grey and dark grey area, relay cropping, water receding area

76.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 307-310 (2014)

 

Comparative study of various lactic cultures used for cottage cheese production

Samar Jeet Singh, Anoop Singh Chauhan, M.P.S. Yadav, T. N. Tripathi and R.B. Singh

Department of A.H. and Dairying, C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208 002India

*e-mail: sengar2055@gmail.com

(Received: May, 14, 2014; Revised received: September 12, 2014;Accepted: September 14, 2014)

 

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Abstract: Five lactic acid cultures – L. lactisvar. Lactis (S1), L. lactis var. Cremoris (S2), S. thermophilus (S3), L. bulgaricus (S4) and S. thermophilus + L. bulgaricus (S5) were screened to assess their effects on manufacturing procedure, yield, sensory and chemical to assess their of cottage cheese. Excellent quality cottage cheese could be produced from culture S1 followed by S2. There was no significant variation in quality cottage these could also be made with yoghurt culture (S5). Using independent culture S3 and S4 very good quality cottage cheese could be produced but the body and texture of cottage cheese made with culture made with culture S3 was compact having no particle shape and size.

 

Key words: Lactic cultures, Cottage cheese, Cow skim milk, Heat treatment, Lactic acid cultures.

77.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 311-314 (2014)

 

Exotic flora of Lucknow University main campus, India

Ram Kumar*, Rohit Kumar, Rajeew Singh and Y. K. Sharma

Department of Botany, University of Lucknow, Lucknow- 226007

*e-mail: ramkumar320031@gmail.com

(Received: April, 11, 2014; Revised received: September 21, 2014;Accepted: September 22, 2014)

 

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Abstract: This study was conducted to analyze the exotic flora of the main campus of University of Lucknow, India. A total of 164 exotic plant species are reported from the university campus, represented by 55 families. This study reveals that families Asteraceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae are dominant to the University of Lucknow campus. The flora of American and rest of Asian origin dominates the exotic floristic composition of Lucknow University campus. Herbaceous exotics dominate over woody exotics.

 

Key words: Exotics, Flora, Herbaceous, Species and Fabaceae

78.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 315-316 (2014)

 

Comparative efficacy of Rose bengal plate test, standard tube agglutination test, microagglutination test and Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis

Paviter Kaur, N. S. Sharma, A. K. Arora, Deepti and Mudit Chandra

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, COVSc, GADVASU, Ludhiana-141004

*e-mail: paviterkaur@rediffmail.com

(Received: June, 01, 2014; Revised received: September 28, 2014;Accepted: September 29, 2014)

 

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Abstract: The present study was carried out to evaluate the comparative efficacy of four different serological techniques (Rose bengal plate test- RBPT, Standard Tube Agglutination Test- STAT, Microagglutination Test- MAT and Indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay- I-ELISA) for diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. A total of92 serum samples (75 samples from cattle and 17 from buffaloes) were tested for the presence of Brucella antibodies. Out of a total of 92 serum samples tested, 35 (38.04%) samples were positive by RBPT, 45 (48.9%) by STAT, 42 (45.6%) by MAT and 53 (57.6%) samples were positive by I-ELISA. I-ELISA was found to have 97.25% sensitivity and 67.85% specificity when compared to RBPT, 93.7% sensitivity and 81.8% specificity in comparison to STAT and 95.45% sensitivity and 77% specificity in comparison to MAT.

 

Key words: Brucella, Cattle, Buffaloes, RBPT, STAT, MAT, I-ELISA

79.

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 317-318 (2014)

 

Effect of foliar feeding of nutrients and plant growth regulators on physico-chemical attributes of phalsa (Grewia subinaequalis D.C.)

Saurabh Kumar, A.L. Yadav, Govind Vishwakarma and D.K. Yadav

Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj- Faizabad- 224 229 (U.P.)

*e-mail: govind0139@gmail.com

(Received: April, 26, 2014; Revised received: October 15, 2014;Accepted: October 16, 2014)

 

(Download full paper)

 

Abstract: The present investigation entitled “Effect of foliar feeding of nutrients and plant growth regulators on physico-chemical attributes of Phalsa (Grewia subinaequalis D.C.)” was carried out at the Main Experiment Station, Department of Horticulture, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Narendra Nagar (Kumarganj), Faizabad (U.P.) during the year 2011-2012. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with nine treatments and replicated in four times, considering two plants as a unit. The treatments significantly increased the quality of fruit. The maximum fruit size (length and breadth), fruit weight, juice per cent, T.S.S., total sugars, ascorbic acid and minimum acidity were recorded with the combined spray of GA3 @ 20 ppm + NAA @ 50 ppm + ZnSO4 @ 0.4 % + Urea @ 2 % followed by GA3 @ 20 ppm + Urea @ 2 %.

 

Key words: Foliar application of nutrients, Plant growth regulators, Fruit quality, Physico-chemical attributes and phalsa

80.

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Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 319-322 (2014)

Organic management of rhizome rot of ginger in foothills of North Western Himalayas

Shahid Ahamad* and Banarsi Lal

Krisihi Vigyan Kendra, Reasi, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu,J & K- 180 009, India

*e-mail: shahid_2056@yahoo.co.in

(Received: October, 25, 2014; Revised received: November 16, 2014;Accepted: November 22, 2014)

 

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Abstract: Rhizome rot of ginger, caused by Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitz, is a major constraint for the production of healthy rhizome, sometimes causing total failure of crop. Chemical control of this pathogen is not economical because of high cost of chemicals; break down of resistance, environmental pollution, deleterious effect to non target beneficial soil micro-organism and ultimately the choice of the consumer for a organic product. The per cent mean disease incidence was found highest in the case of check i.e. 77.0 % while it was the highest in Kharif 2013 i.e. 82.5% and 72.5% during kharif 2014. The lowest per cent mean disease incidence was recorded in case of foliar spray of B. diffusa root extract 10% i.e. 23.5% followed by foliar sprayof foliar spray ofGarlic 5% i.e. 36.5 % and neem oil 0.3% i.e.37.5% .While per cent diseases incidence was recordedfoliar spray of B. diffusa root extract 10% was found to be the best i.e.25.5%and 21.5%during Kharif 2013 and 2014 respectively, followed by foliar spray ofGarlic 5%. i.e. 35.5% and 38.5 % respectively in both the years andin case offoliar spray of Neem oil 0.3%. i.e. 42.5 and 32.5% respectively in both the years.The mean yield of ginger was recorded in case of Foliar spray of B. diffusa root extract 10% i.e. 127.5 q/ha followed by 114.0 q/ha in case of Foliar spray ofGarlic 5% and 111.5 q/ha in case of Foliar spray of Neem oil 0.3% respectively. The yield during Kharif 2013 was found highest in case of B. diffusa root extract 10% i.e. 125.0 q/ha followed byFoliar spray ofGarlic 5% i.e. 112.5 q/ha and Foliar spray of Neem oil 0.3% i.e.105 q/ha. While in Kharif 2014 it was found 130.0, 118 and 115.5 q/ha in case of B. diffusa root extract, Neem oil 0.3% and spray of Garlic 5% respectively.

Key words: Ginger, Pythium aphanidermatum, rhizome rot of ginger, Organic management

81.

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Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 323-326(2014)

Status of rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea in Rajouri and Poonch districts of Jammu region

Shahid Ahamad*1, Rani Mughal2 and Satish K.Sharma3

1*Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Rajouri, 2Govt. Degree College, Poonch, 3Directorate of Research

Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu,(J.&K.), India

*e-mail: shahid_2056@yahoo.co.in

(Received: October, 22, 2014; Revised received: November 15, 2014;Accepted: November 18, 2014)

(Download full paper)

Abstract: Rice blast is an economically important disease and has received attention in all major rice growing countries because of its severe destruction. Several epiphytotics of the disease have been recorded in different parts of the world resulting in serious losses in yield. Four commercial rice growing districts of Jammu region viz., Rajouri and Poonch were surveyed for incidence of leaf and neck blast of rice. The surveyrevealed that disease occurred in all the surveyed areas of Rajouri and Poonch in varying proportions during all the cropping seasons with maximum leaf and neck blast incidence recorded in district Poonch78.00%and29.25% in Rajouri, respectively .Whereas highest leaf blast incidence was recorded 75.00 and 78.00% in Rajourisub division followed by in Buddal 75.00 and 78.00% and mean was 76.50 % . Neck blast disease incidence was 28.5 and 30.00% in Rajouri sub division during 2008 & 2009 and mean was 29.25%.While in Poonch sub division recorded leaf blast incidence i.e. 78.00 and 72.00% in both years and mean was 75.00% followed by in Mendhar sub division, it was 74.00 and 67.00% and mean was70.50 % and neck blast was 22.5 and 20.50% in both the years and mean was 21.50% followed by 20.00 and 22.00% and mean was 21.00% in Mendhar sub division of Poonch district.       

Keywords:Magnaportheoryzae, Rice blast, Neck blast; Leaf blast,Incidence.

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Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 327-328(2014)

Fungicidalmanagement of yellow rust diseases of wheat in Jammu

Shahid Ahamad

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Jammu, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu,(J.&K.), India

*e-mail: shahid_2056@yahoo.co.in

(Received: October, 26, 2014; Revised received: November 18, 2014;Accepted: November 20, 2014)

(Download full paper)

Abstract: Rice blast is an economically important disease and has received attention in all major rice growing countries because of its severe destruction. Several epiphytotics of the disease have been recorded in different parts of the world resulting in serious losses in yield. Four commercial rice growing districts of Jammu region viz., Rajouri and Poonch were surveyed for incidence of leaf and neck blast of rice. The surveyrevealed that disease occurred in all the surveyed areas of Rajouri and Poonch in varying proportions during all the cropping seasons with maximum leaf and neck blast incidence recorded in district Poonch78.00% and 29.25% in Rajouri, respectively .Whereas highest leaf blast incidence was recorded 75.00 and 78.00% in Rajouri sub division followed by in Buddal 75.00 and 78.00% and mean was 76.50 %. Neck blast disease incidence was 28.5 and 30.00% in Rajouri sub division during 2008 & 2009 and mean was 29.25%.While in Poonch sub division recorded leaf blast incidence i.e. 78.00 and 72.00% in both years and mean was 75.00% followed by in Mendhar sub division, it was 74.00 and 67.00% and mean was70.50 % and neck blast was 22.5 and 20.50% in both the years and mean was 21.50% followed by 20.00 and 22.00% and mean was 21.00% in Mendhar sub division of Poonch district.

Keywords:wheat varieties, management, wheat, Puccinia striiformis

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Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 329-331(2014)

Vegetative growth, flowering, fruiting and yield affected by drip irrigation regimes and mulching methods on Aonla, cv. N. A – 10 under sodic soil condition

Mohd. Suhail1 and Shahid Ahamad2

1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Lakhimpur-Kheri, CSAUAT, Kanpur (U.P.), India

2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Reasi, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, (J.&K.), India

*e-mail: drsuhail.lmp@gmail.com

(Received: May, 01, 2014; Revised received: June 22, 2014; Accepted: June 28, 2014)

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Abstract: Vegetative growth of plant (height, girth and spread) significantly increased, initiation of flower and duration of flowering significantly delayed in irrigation at higher regime I1 (IW/CPE = 1.0). Number of fruit retained per shoot & yield (20.74) & (43.96) significantly maximum in I3 (IW/CPE = 0.6) irrigation regime. Higher level (I1) of water significantly delay flowering and decreased duration of flowering. Among the mulches black polythene most effect in respect increasing of vegetative growth of plant, delayed initiation of flower & increased duration of flowering, significantly more fruit per shoot (19.84) and yield (44.53) per plant. The maximum vegetative growth I1M1, fruit per shoot (26.78) in I3M1 and yield (56.20) in I4M1 treatment combination.

Keywords: drip irrigation, mulches, vegetative growth, fruiting, yield

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Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 332-334 (2014)

Effect of irrigation regimes and mulches on moisture depletion, consumptive use

of water and water use efficiency on aonla (Emblica officinalis Greaen)

Mohd. Suhail1, Anand Singh1 and Shahid Ahamad2

1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Lakhimpur-Kheri, CSAUAT, Kanpur (U.P.), India

2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Reasi, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, (J.&K.), India

*e-mail: drsuhail.lmp@gmail.com

(Received: May, 09, 2014; Revised received: June 29, 2014; Accepted: July 03, 2014)

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Abstract: The moisture depletion and consumptive use of water were higher in I1 (IW/CPE = 1.0) irrigation regime from both soil layer and water use efficiency was maximum in I3 (IW/CPE = 0.6). Among the mulching treatments the moisture depletion and water use efficiency was higher in control (M3) from both layer of soil and black polythene mulch, respectively. Consumptive of water was found increased with black polythene mulching. Irrigation at I1 (IW/CPE = 1.0) level with no mulching record maximum depletion form both layer of soil. Water efficiency was higher under irrigation at I3 (IW/CPE = 0.6) along with mulching with polythene (I3M1) & minimum I4M3 combination.

Keywords: drip, mulches, moisture depletion, consumptive use of water, water use efficiency

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Res. Environ. Life Sci., 7(4) 335-337 (2014)

Effect of drip irrigation and mulching on Physico-Chemical parameters of aonla (Emblica officinalis) fruit under sodic soil condition

Mohd. Suhail1 and Shahid Ahamad2

1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Lakhimpur-Kheri, CSAUAT, Kanpur (U.P.), India

2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Reasi, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, (J.&K.), India

*e-mail: drsuhail.lmp@gmail.com

(Received: May, 22, 2014; Revised received: July 08, 2014; Accepted: July 12, 2014)

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Abstract: The physical parameters (Length, diameter weight and volume) of the fruit was significantly improved by irrigation at full evaporation replacement I1 (IW/CPE = 1.0). T.S.S. content (10.84), ascorbic acid and acidity (721.338 & 4.05) was significantly increased by decrease level of irrigation I4 (IW/CPE = 0.4) regime. Mulching methods and interaction of both treatments non-significantly affected on physical quality of fruits except fruit diameter (4.58 cm). Among the mulches black polythene mulch significantly affect the T.S.S, while ascorbic acid and acidity was found superior in paddy straw (M2) mulch. However, these parameters were maximum in black polythene mulch in combination of I1 (IW/CPE = 1.0) irrigation regime. Irrigation at I4 (IW/CPE = 0.4) in conjunction with paddy straw mulch proved best treatment combination in respect of ascorbic acid and acidity of fruit pulp.

Keywords: drip, mulches, physical quality, TSS, ascorbic acidity

 

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