RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-9, Number-12, December-2016

 

405

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1431-1433 (2016)

Radiation induced variability in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.)

Kayalvizhi K.*, M. Kannan and M. Ganga

Horticulture, Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, India

*e-mail: kkayal.flori@gmail.com

(Received: March 06, 2016; Revised received: September 04, 2016;Accepted: September 09, 2016)

 

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Abstract: An investigation on the induction of mutation in tuberose was carried out by using a physical mutagen viz., gamma rays (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kR). Bulbs of tuberose variety Prajwal were subjected to treatments at different doses. The percentage of bulb sprouting and survival was affected significantly at higher doses. The LD50 value for bulb sprouting and survival was observed at 1.5 and 2.0 kR treated bulbs. Reduction in sprouting, survival percentage, plant height, number of leaves, length of leaf, leaf width, leaf abnormalities and floral characteristics (number of spikes per plant, number of florets per spike, length of spike, length of floret, and internodal length) was observed with increase in the dosage of gamma rays. Floral characters were superior at lower doses namely 0.5 and 1.0 kR than control. Leaf abnormalities (leaf texture and chlorophyll variation) were noticed in 1kR and 1.5kR treated bulbs. Further, floral abnormalities were observed in most of the treatments except control. This study revealed that treating bulbs with 0.5 kR gamma rays resulted in economic traits namely, number of spikes per plant (3 nos.) and number of florets per spike (55 nos.).

Key words: Mutation, Tuberose, Gamma ray, Prajwal

406

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1434-1437 (2016)

Utilization for by products of banana - A Review

Anuj Yadav*1, Rewa Kumari2, Ashwani Yadav1,J.P. Mishra1 and Rajendra Kumar1

1U.P.Council of Agricultural Research, Lucknow, India

2Department of Food Science and Technology, Bilaspur University, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India

*e-mail: anuj.0720@gmail.com

(Received: December 28, 2015; Revised received: August 18, 2016;Accepted: August 24, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Today bananas plantains are best known as a food crop, almost every part of the plant can be used in one way or another. It is both cheap and full of nutrients are rich in nutrition, fiber, vitamins and minerals. Various parts of the banana plant itself can also be used for different purposes all over the world. In Indonesia, the banana plant is used to make traditional medicine and as animal feed. In indigenous systems of medicine, pseudostem juice is a well-known remedy for urinary disorders, stomach troubles like diarrhea, dysentery and flatulence; It helps in treatment for removal of stones in the kidney, gall bladder, and prostate..Banana leaves are used in eczema, as cool dressings for blister and burns disease. Banana flowers is used in dysentery and ulcer disease. Some of the other by products made from banana includes values added products from banana fruits like banana puree, banana powder, banana catsup, banana flour, banana chips dried banana fritter, banana vinegar, banana wine, banana jam, banana jelly sweet coat.

Key words: Banana pseudo stem, Banana plant, Banana peel, Banana fiber, Banana leaves

407

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1438-1442 (2016)

Studies on heterosis for fruit yield and qualitative attributes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) hybrids

Basavaraj, L.B.1, Vilas, D.G.1, Shivappa M. Karadi*2 and Vijayakumar, D.R.1

1Department of vegetable Science, KRCC, Arabhavi, Karnataka, India

2Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: shivukaradi@gmail.com

(Received: January 19, 2016; Revised received: September 01, 2016;Accepted: September 06, 2016)

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Abstract: The heterosis in tomato is estimated from 45 crosses combinations, these are derived by the use of 15 lines, three testers by pairing as per line x tester mating design, which are evaluated to know significance of heterosis along with a commercial check. Among 45 crosses namely 22, 4 and 4, 24, 42 and 30, 15, 5 and 18, 16, 8 and 9, 26, 11 and 25, 2, 1 and 7, 16, 5 and 5 crosses shown positive heterosis observed in F1 generation, which is Significant for tested characters over better parent, best parent and commercial check for yield per plant, rind thickness, total soluble solid, number of locules per fruit, pH, lycopene and a-carotene, respectively. These results would help to assess the prepotency of parents in hybrid combination.

Key words: Heterosis, Yield, Tomato, Qualitative traits, Solanum lycopersicum L.

408

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1443-1446 (2016)

Impact of conching on jaggery nuggets

Neha Kulkarni* and P.K. Omre

Dept. of post harvest process and Food engineering, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pant Nagar-263 145, India

*e-mail: klkrn45@gmail.com

(Received: November 18, 2015; Revised received: August 17, 2016;Accepted: August 22, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Chocolate products are the most important products that are popular with a lot, especially children and as a source of energy in addition to its high nutritional value. In chocolate industry, many of ingredients such as cocoa, sugar, cocoa butter, fats, emulsifiers and flavorings play an important role in product quality. This research aims to replace the jaggery powder as a sweetener in place of sugar and to optimize the jaggery based nuggets using response surface methodology (RSM). Thirty nugget formulations were processed by mixing basic ingredients: cocoa powder (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35g), cocoa butter (50, 55, 60, 65 and 70g) and black pepper powder (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3g) in per 100 g jaggery powder. The experimental design was based on Response Surface Methodology using Center Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) in 4 variables. Sensory evaluation score were taken as dependent variables representing the product quality. Optimum formulations were all the combinations of cocoa powder 8.59%, cocoa butter 26.98%, SMP 22.57% and black pepper powder 0.86% at 4 h. of conching at 55-60°C.

Key words : CCRD, Conching, Jaggery Nuggets, RSM

409

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1447-1450 (2016)

Effect of integrated nutrient management on soil nutrient status after harvest of cluster bean

Usha Sharma*1, Arun A. David1, N.K.Yadav2 and Rajkishore Kumar3

1Department of Soil Science, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences , Allahabad-211 007, India

2Agricultural Research Station, SK Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner, Sriganganager-335 001, India

3Department of SoilScience and Agricultural Chemistry, BAU, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813 210, India

*e-mail: soilsurveybau@gmail.com

(Received: February 03, 2016; Revised received: September 06, 2016;Accepted: September 12, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Integrated nutrient management have key role in soil productivity and soil quality to sustain the crop growth especially in cluster bean crops. In this quest of these facts, an experiment was carried out on with different treatment combination with nine treatments in Factorial Randomized Block (FRBD). The results was found that, treatment T L2V1R1 (@ N20P40K40 NPK kg ha-1 +10 t vermicompost ha-1 + 200 g rhizobium 10 kg-1 seed (T11) was superior compared to other treatments after harvest of test crop in both the year as well as pooled basis. The pore space 50.98, 49.21 and 50.09% was found in 2013-14 and 2014-15 as well as polled basis. The bulk density and particle density was further decrease with Treatment T11 which was 1.03, 1.01, 1.02 and 2.21, 2.23 and 2.23, respectively in both the year as well as polled basis.The same trend was found in pH and EC of the soil under same treatments and whereas organic carbon was higher under same treatments. In respect of nutrient availability, available N and P2O5 was 333, 323, 328 and 34.57, 33.19, 33.88 Kg/ha respectively in both the year as well as polled basis. The available K2O was found highest in treatments T11 which was 217, 208 and 212 kg ha-1 respectively in both the year as well as pooled basis. The overall results indicated that the available N, P, K, OC, pH, pore space BD, PD, EC found to be numerically non-significant but it should be supply adequate amount in presence of organic fertilizer, increase the food grain production and ultimately improve the soil health and sustain the soil fertility.

Key words: Cluster bean, Integrated nutrient management (INM), Physical and Chemical properties, Soil health

410

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1451-1456 (2016)

Priming: A key for enhancing physiological parameters of seed

Bhim Jyoti

Department of Seed Science and Technology, College of Fortestry, V.C.S.G. UttrakhandUnivversity of

Horticulture and Forestry, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal, India

e-mail: bhimjyoti.2210@gmail.com

(Received: January 29, 2016; Revised received: September 08, 2016;Accepted: September 14, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Priming is important processthat increases the germination and reducedthe time taken for complete the germination. It may be define as pre-emergencetreatment inwhichseedsabsorbwaterand then will be dried so that the germination process is startedbuttheradicalemergenceisnothappened.ItimprovesgerminationbyearlyDNA replication, increases RNA and protein synthesis,accelerates embryogrowth,repairsthedamagedanddeteriorated seeds and causesa significant reduction in leakage of metabolites and finally results in bettergermination,seedlingestablishmentandbetteryieldoffield crops. There are several type of priming techniquethatare usedto enhance the germination and seedling growthwhich,ultimateresponsible for the production of higheryieldin agricultural and horticultural crops. Hydro, osmo, halo and biopriming are commonly used priming technique. It is also involved in enhancing rice resistance to environmental stress weed suppressive ability and rice yield. With the help of thisprocess crop an established under saline condition by significantly increasing the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and soluble sugar content and reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation under the salt stress condition in the seedlings.Nowadays moringa leaf extract are used as priming agent due to presence of micro and macro nutrient that have beneficial impact on seed germination and it have no harmful effect on plant growth. This technique protects plant against diseases and pests anddecreases theuse of fertilizers and pesticides. So priming is an important tool for obtaining rapid and uniform emergence that increase the seed yield and seeds are able to germinate under stress condition.

Key words: Priming, Germination, Seedling estsbishment, Stress condition, Morianga leaf extract

411

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1457-1460 (2016)

Effect of fertigation and mulching on yield and yield attributes studies in papaya under South Gujarat conditions

P. B. Jadhav*1, B.V. Padhiar1, A.K. Senapati1, Namdev D. Gaware2, Bhor R.A.3 andD.P. Nawalkar1

1Aspee College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat, India

2Cinnabaris SPY, PVT. Ltd., 3PDEA’S., Pirangut J. College, Pirangut, Pune, India

*e-mail: paragbjadhav11@gmail.com

(Received: November 11, 2015; Revised received: September 01, 2016;Accepted: September 05, 2016)

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Abstract: A study was undertaken to evaluate yield and yield attributes of papaya cv. Red Lady (786) with respect to fertigation and mulching as per the treatments viz., 1st factor three levels of N and K @ 100, 80 and 60% of recommended dose (200:200:250), 2nd factor two levels of splits and 3rd factor two levels of mulching of black plastic mulch @ 20% area coverage (50 Micron(µ) and it was analyzed in randomized block design with factorial concept. An overall result of yield attributes of papaya was found higher value in the treatment fertigation level @ 100% recommended dose fertilizer. Adoption of fertigation level @ 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (200g N, 200 g P2O5 and 250 g K2O) recorded significantly highest average fruit weight (1.13 and 1.10 kg) and fruit yield (74.34 and 69.34 tonne/ha) in both the locations as compared to control.

Key words: Papaya, Drip irrigation, Split, Black plastic mulch (BPM) and Fertigation

412

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1461-1466 (2016)

Effects of hydropriming and different sowing dates on growth and yield attributes of Lentil (Lens culinaris M.)

V.P. Singh, S. Nath, S.S. Patra, S. Sahoo and S. Rout*

School of Forestry and Environment, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad-211 007, India

*e-mail: sandeeprout1988@gmail.com

(Received: January 31, 2016; Revised received: September 03, 2016;Accepted: September 09, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the “effects of hydropriming and different sowing dates on growth and yield attributes of Lentil (Lens culinaris M.) during Rabi season of2014-15. The experiment was conducted in Randomised Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The highest mean germination percentage was recorded at H2 [12 hrs of hydropriming] (92.21%), highest mean plant height at 80 DAS (38.58 cm), highest mean number of branches at 60 DAS (8.93), highest mean number of grain per plant (81.11), highest mean test weight (29.44 g), highest mean grain yield (11.87 q/ha), mean highest harvest index (37.92%) were recorded in similar hydropriming treatment. Therefore it may be concluded that 22nd Nov with 12 hrs of hydropriming treatment can be recommended to Lentil (Malika variety) grower for obtaining better growth and yield.

Key words: Hydropriming, Lentil, Unprimed, Sowing

413

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1467-1470 (2016)

In vitro shoot proliferation in commercial cultivars of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

M.R. Mishra1, S. Beura2, S. Rout*3, R. Beura4 and P.N. Jagadev5

1Department of Biotechnology, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam-530 045, India

2Biotechnology-cum-Tissue Culture Centre, 4College of Basic Science and Humanity, 5Dean of Research,

Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751 003, India

3School of Forestry & Environment, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Allahabad-211 007, India

*e-mail: sandeeprout1988@gmail.com

(Received: March 09, 2016; Revised received: September 09, 2016;Accepted: September 12, 2016)

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Abstract: A study was carried out with the objective to standardize the media supplements for shoot proliferation of Co 86032 and Co 7805. The result revealed that MS medium fortified with Kinetin 3.0 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l BAP were found to be optimum for early shoot initiation, Kinetin 2.5 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l significantly produced maximum number of shoot (5.10) in sugarcane cv. Co 86032. MS medium fortified with Kinetin 2.0 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l BAP was found to be most suitable for early shoot initiation. Kinetin 2.0 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l BAP significantly enhanced available days for shoot proliferation (10.00), Kinetin 2.5 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l BAP significantly increased number of shoots (4.32) in cv.7805.Hence the protocol is useful for shoot proliferation, rapid in vitro propagation and production of large quantity of quality planting material of this sugarcane cultivars.

Key words: Bio regulators, Explants, In vitro, Saccharum officinarum, Shoots

414

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1471-1473 (2016)

Effect of different levels of sulphur on growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L.) under drip irrigation

M. Mustafa Haris, M. Anjanappa*, B. Sureshkumara and R. Kiran Kumar

Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, UHS Campus, GKVK Post, Bengaluru-560 065, India

*e-mail: m_anjanappa@rediffmail.com

(Received: January 25, 2016; Revised received: September 10, 2016;Accepted: September 15, 2016)

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Abstract: Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of sulphur on growth and yield of onion. The treatment T4-Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) + 45 kg S ha-1 was recorded maximum plant height at 30 days after planting (DAT) (19.35 cm), 60 DAT (22.45 cm) and 90 DAT (23.38 cm), maximum number of leaves per plant at 30 DAT (8.38), 60 DAT (9.9) and 90 DAT (10.88), collar thickness (1.47 cm), neck thickness (0.73 cm), polar diameter of bulb (7.23 cm), equatorial diameter of bulb (6.28 cm), number of rings per bulb (7.92), average bulb weight (88.88 g) average bulb dry weight (14.35 g bulb-1), bulb yield per plot (37.8 kg plot-1), total bulb yield (61.96 t ha-1) and marketable bulb yield (59.06 t ha-1) which was followed by treatment T5- RDF + 30 kg S ha-1 and T5- RDF + 60 kg S ha-1. Therefore, among the different levels of sulphur treatment, application of 45 kg of S ha-1 along with recommended dose of fertilizer is recommended to increase growth and yield of onion.

Key words: Growth, Sulphur fertilizer, Yield, Onion

415

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1474-1477 (2016)

Impact of water stress on physiological and biochemical parameters of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.)

Hina Khatoon* and Vir Singh

Department of Environmental Science, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (U.S. Nagar), Uttarakhand, India

*e-mail: hinakhatoon29@gmail.com

(Received: January 26, 2016; Revised received: September 11, 2016;Accepted: September 17, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The present investigation attempts to evaluate the effect of water stress on some physiological (chlorophyll content, relative water content) and biochemical (proline content) parameters in two landraces of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.), black finger millet and brown finger millet, through different levels of drought (15, 30, 45 days) and at different developmental stages of the plants. Chlorophyll content (1.35 and 1.42 mg/g fr.wt) and proline content (27.38 and 28.57 µmoles g-1fr.wt) in Black and Brown landraces of finger millet under different drought levels respectively recorded significant (p<0.05) differences, whereas relative water content (67.35 and 68.24%) for the Black and Brown finger millet landraces respectively registered non-significant (p>0.05) difference. It was concluded that Brown finger millet had higher degree of tolerance for water stress compared to Black finger millet and these parameters could be useful and reliable indices for selection of drought resistant landraces of finger millet in the millet growing areas of India.

Key words: Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.), Water stress, Chlorophyll content, Relative water content (RWC), Proline content

416

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1478-1481 (2016)

Effect of the efficacy of foliar application of water soluble fertilizers in vegetable cowpea

Vivek Kumar Singhal1, G.G. Patel1, Uttam Kumar2, Thaneshwar Kumar2 and Bindiya Painkra2

1Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, N.M.C.A., NAU, Navsari-396 450, India

2Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, C.O.A., IGKV, Raipur-492 012, Chhattisgarh, India

*e-mail: vivek.nau44@gmail.com

(Received: February 06, 2016; Revised received: September 13, 2016;Accepted: September 18, 2016)

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Abstract: The field experiment comprised of seven treatments of spraying of water soluble fertilizers; viz., Mixed fertilizer 19:19:19 @ 0.5%, Urea @ 1%, MCP @ 0.5%, MOP @ 0.5, DAP @ 2%, Banana pseudostem enriched sap @ 1% and Water spray as control was conducted to study the effect of foliar application of fertilizers in cowpea. Three sprays of banana pseudostem enriched sap @ 1% resulted in achieving the highest commercial green pod yield (9.71 t/ha), protein content (21.46%) as well as total N (74.66 kg/ha), P (12.97 kg/ha) and K (52.12 kg/ha) uptake by cowpea and was found at par with three sprays of mixed fertilizer 19:19:19 @ 0.5% in all cases. whereas, maximum absorption of N through leaves was noted with spraying of urea @ 1% (T2) while P and K with spraying of mixed fertilizer 19-19-19 @0.5% (T1) and in most of the cases, treatment (T6) receiving enriched sap @ 1% remained statistically at par during all the sprays. Hence, 3 sprays of enriched sap (T6) or mixed fertilizer (19:19:19) is recommended for cowpea.

Key words:Efficacy, Foliar application, Nutrient uptake and Water soluble fertilizers

417

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1482-1483 (2016)

Genetic variability studies in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)

J. Patil*, S.S. Vijayapadma and S. Koppad

Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic crops, College of Horticulture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad-500 030, India

*e-mail: jyotipat612@gmail.com

(Received: January 28, 2016; Revised received: September 12, 2016;Accepted: September 18, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Twenty five genotypes of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) were studied for variability, heritability and genetic advance. High estimates of phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation were recorded for number of pods per plant which indicates the presence of high amount of genetic variability for this character. The difference between phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) were high for seed yield per plant, seed yield per plot, fresh weight of the plant and dry weight of the plant indicating that these traits were influenced by the environment, while the differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation were less for days to first flowering, days to 50% flowering and days to pod maturity. High heritability estimates along with high genetic advance as per centof mean was observed for plant height, number of primary branches, fresh weight of the plant, dry weight of the plant, number of pods per plant, harvest index (HI) and hundred seed weight indicating predominance of additive gene effects for these traits. It was concluded that improvement in the seed yield of fenugreek is possible through selection of plant height, number of branches, fresh weight of the plant, dry weight of the plant, number of pods per plant, harvest index and hundred seed weight.

Key words: Variability, Heritability, Fenugreek

418

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1484-1486 (2016)

Effect of pre storage pulsing, wet and dry storage on vase life of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.)

Ch. Girija*1, Sujatha A. Nair2, Meenakshi Srinivas2 and G.K. Seetharamu1

1Dept. of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot-507 103, India

2Division of Ornamental Crops, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bengaluru-560 065, India

*e-mail: girijakumarich@gmail.com

(Received: February 02, 2016; Revised received: September 16, 2016;Accepted: September 21, 2016)

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Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of pulsing and wet (400 ppm citric acid solution and water) and dry storage (wrapping spikes in polypropylene sheet and news paper) on vase life of cut flowers of tuberose cv. Prajwal and observations were recorded based on the parameters like freshness of the flowers, colour retention, days to fifty per cent wilting, number of fully opened florets, floret shattering, physiological loss in weight and water uptake. Results showed that wet storage of the tuberose spikes with 400 ppm citric acid and the pre-storage pulsing with 20 % sucrose recorded for 20 hours the minimum number of shattered florets, maximum water uptake in pulsed spikes after 24 and 48 hours of storage.

Key words: Tuberose, Cut flowers, Pulsing, Dry and wet storage, Vase life

419

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1487-1492 (2016)

Genetic variability, inter-relationship and path analysis studies in single cross quality protein maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids

Jay Prakash1, Naresh Thakur1, Aman Rana1,Ankita Sood2, Anju Pathania1, J.K. Sharma1 and S. Lata1*

1CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-176 062, India; 2Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141 004, India

*e-mail: slatasharma@gmail.com

(Received: February 05, 2016; Revised received: September 15, 2016;Accepted: September 21, 2016)

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Abstract: The present study was undertaken with the objective to determine the nature and magnitude of variability, degree of inter-relationship between yield and its component traits and their direct, indirect effects on grain yield in 45 single cross Quality Protein Maize hybrids (Zea mays L.). The results indicated that the hybrids showed significant variability for most of the traits studied. The range of PCV was observed from 2.56 to 30.63% for the traits under study which provides a picture to the extent of phenotypic variability in the hybrids. The PCV was noted high for the grain yield per plant (30.63%) and moderate for grains per row (16.25%). Genotypic coefficient of variation ranged from 2.35 to 30.12%. Maximum GCV was observed for grain yield per plant (30.12%). Grain yield per plant was found to be significant positively associated with plant height, cob placement height, 100-seed weight, cob length, cob girth, grains per row and protein content at genotypic level.Days to 50% silking exhibited the highest magnitude of direct effects on grain yield followed by 100-seed weight, grains per row and plant height. The component traits viz., plant height, 100-seed weight and grains per row with grain yield per plant showed positive and significant correlation (0.6647, 0.8182 and 0.8314) and also exhibited positive and strong direct effects (0.3244, 1.0809 and 0.9167) on grain yield per plant.

Key words: QPM, Hybrids, Genetic parameter of variability, Correlation, Path analysis, Zea mays L.

420

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1493-1496 (2016)

Improving post-harvest vase life of cut gerbera using antioxidants and mineral salts

Bhanu Murthy K.C.1*, Prashanth. P.2 and Lakshmi narayana D.2

1Division of Ornamental Crops, ICAR-IIHR, Hessarghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru-560 089, India

2COH, Mojerla, SKLTSHU, Telangana-509 001, India

*e-mail: k.c.bhanumurthy1989@gmail.com

(Received: February 23, 2016; Revised received: September 18, 2016;Accepted: September 22, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The vase life of cut gerbera is often limited by bending of the flower stalk called as scape bending, a premature senescence apart from normal senescence. Senescence of cut gerbera could be differed with floral preservatives in vase solution. The cut gerbera were precooled at 5oC for6 hours followed by pulsing with sucrose 20% and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 50 ppm for12 hours and then held in antioxidants and mineral salt solutions i.e. ascorbic acid, salicylic acid, calcium chloride and their combinations in different concentrations kept at ambient temperature. The cut gerbera kept in calcium chloride 0.1% + sucrose 4% significantly increased vase life (10.98 days) over control-distilled water (4.54 days). The treatment calcium chloride 0.1% + sucrose 4% showed maintenance of better water relations and reduced scape bending curvature (5.10 degrees). Total soluble solids recorded in calcium chloride 0.1% + sucrose 4% was also higher (9.40 oBrix) than control (5.11 oBrix). Antimicrobial activity of calcium chloride reduced the microbial proliferation (4.35 x 105 cfu/ml) in calcium chloride 0.1% + sucrose 4% as indicated by lower optical density (0.041) compared to control (0.116).

Key words: Gerbera, Vase life, Ascorbic acid, Salicylic acid, Calcium chloride, TSS

421

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1497-1500 (2016)

Effect of juice extraction techniques on juice recovery and total soluble solids of wood apple (Feronia limonia) juice

Harsh P. Sharma* and D.C. Joshi

College of Food Processing Technology and Bio-energy, Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110, India

*e-mail: harshsharma1983@yahoo.co.in

(Received: February 18, 2016; Revised received: September 20, 2016;Accepted: September 26, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Authors studied the effect of juice extraction techniques on juice recovery and total soluble solids of a under exploited fruit, Wood apple (“Feronia Limonia). Pretreatments i.e. steaming ( 2, 4, 6 and 8 minutes) and enzyme treatment (pectinase enzyme) followed by three juice extraction methods at different rpm was studied for juice extraction from wood apple (Feronia limonia) fruit pulp and evaluated for juice recovery and TSS content of juice. Juice extractor evaluated were Basket centrifuge (BC), Screw type juice extractor (SE) and fruit pulper (FP). Combined pretreatment (steaming and enzyme) i.e. 6 min of steaming, 30 mg/100g enzymatic concentration, 6 hrs of incubation time at 40oC incubation temperature obtained maximum juice recovery (82.36%) and TSS content (5.3oBx) of the wood apple juice. The Screw type juice extractor obtained highest juice recovery (85.62%) and TSS (5.6 °Bx) at 150 rpm followed by Basket centrifuge (BC) and fruit pulper (FP).

Key words: Wood apple juice, Steaming, Juice extractor, Juice recovery, TSS

422

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1501-1503 (2016)

Drudgery reduction of farm women through groundnet decorticator

S.P. Tripathi*, Jayshree Tiwari, Sonam Tripathi and S.P.S. Somvanchi

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Mandsaur, RVS Agriculture University, Gwalior, M.P., India

*e-mail: tripathisun84@gmail.com

(Received: January 31, 2016; Revised received: September 21, 2016;Accepted: September 27, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Groundnut cultivation is mainly dependent on human and animal power using conventional devices. Groundnut decorticator is predominantly manual operation, which requires large number of human work force during harvesting season. Women in agriculture are generally employed in the operations, which are either not mechanized or least mechanized and involve a lot of drudgery. A study was conducted to assess ergonomically the efficiency of improved post harvest technologies viz. groundnut decorticator, carried out on farm women in adopted villages Aghoriya and Daluda Rail under On Farm Testing and Front Line Demonstration programme conducted by KVK, Mandsaur (M.P.). Eighteen farmwomen were selected to assess and compare the impact of improved technology over conventional practice. It was clearly depicted that groundnut decorticator has been proved efficient on time and output parameters as it increases the output when compared with traditional decortication by hand. The average cardiac cost of work was decreased by 83.00% with the use of groundnut decorticator. Drudgery reduction was found 84.26 per cent by use of groundnut decorticator and it also saves time by 96.00% when compared to traditional practice, The physiological cost of work and energy expenditure in terms of heart rate were observed to be lower while performing selected activities with groundnut decorticator when compared to the traditional practice. The work output was also found higher with the improved technology.

Key words: Groundnut decorticator, Cleaning efficiency, Drudgery, Cardiac cost, Farm women

423

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1504-1507 (2016)

Impact of simulated transportation and packaging materials on physiological properties of Ber

Preeti*, Goyal R.K. and Bhanukar Manoj

Department of Horticulture, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India

*e-mail: parmar.preeti80@gmail.com

(Received: February 19, 2016; Revised received: September 22, 2016;Accepted: September 27, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The present study was undertaken to find out the impact of simulated transportation and packaging materials by providing simulation vibration of 50 rpm for time duration of 3 and 6 hours on physiological properties of ber fruits cv. Umran during transportation and storage under ambient conditions. Among various treatments, it was found that fruits simulated at vibration of 50 rpm for 3 hours and packed in corrugated fibre board boxes showed minimum mechanical injury, physiological loss in weight and decay losses. These fruits also maintained the fruit firmness and total chlorophyll content for a longer storage period. The maximum losses were noted in fruits given simulation vibration for 6 hours and stored in nylon netted bags. Packaging of fruits in CFB boxes was found most effective in reducing all the losses as compared to other types of packages used.

Key words: Ber, Corrugated fiber board boxes, Nylon netted bags, Simulation vibration, Umran

424

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1508-1509 (2016)

Studies on the vegetative growth, flowering and yield characters of different cultivars of China aster (Callistephus chinensis L. Nees) under hill zone of Karnataka

Savitha, K.H.*, V. Srinivasa, J.L. Ramesha and Shivayya Mathapati

Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture,College of Horticulture, Mudigere-577 132, India

*e-mail: savitakh94@gmail.com

(Received: January 27, 2016; Revised received: September 23, 2016;Accepted: September 28, 2016)

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Abstract: The present study was conducted in the experimental field of Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture, Mudigere during the year 2013-2014. The study was conducted to identify suitable China aster cultivars under hill zone of Karnataka. Among the nine cultivars studied, there were highly significant variations observed in performance with respect to growth, flowering and yield parameters. The cultivar Phule Ganesh White produced maximum plant height (62.25 cm), number of primary branches per plant (18.21), stem girth (12.08 mm), flower yield per plant (308.68 g) and seed yield per plant (8.70 g). However, early flowering (53.53 days) was recorded in cultivar Shashank followed by Poornima (58.40 days). While, maximum flowering duration (35.17 days) was recorded in cultivar Kamini, maximum number of flowers per plant (57.27) was recorded in cultivar Phule Ganesh Violet.

Key words: China aster, Asteraceae, Cultivar

425

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1510-1512 (2016)

Integrated nutrient management options for growth, yield and quality of elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius L)

Brij Mohan Singh*1, P.K. Singh1, R.B. Verma2 and Anil Kumar1

1Department of Vegetable Science, N. D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229, India

2Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bhagalpur, India

*e-mail: singhbm09@gmail.com

(Received: December 22, 2015; Revised received: September 03, 2016;Accepted: September 07, 2016)

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Abstract: To explore the possibility of various nutrient management options in elephant foot yam,an experiment was carried out in randomized block design with three replications. Results revealed that the growth parameters like shoot height (95.12cm) and girth of stem (13.42cm) were maximum when crop was supplemented with 150: 60:120kg NPK/ha and substituted additional 50kg N through vermicompost and FYM, respectively, while yield attributes i.e. number of corms (1.50) per plant, fresh weight of corms (2.39kg/plant), total biomass (163.55kg/plot) and yield (50.87t/ha) andnet return per rupee investment (1.86). were obtained highest in the treatment receiving 125: 60:100kg NPK/ha + 50kg N through FYM followed by 125: 60:100kg NPK/ha + 50kg N through Vermicompost. Quality parameters remained unaffected due to various nutrient management options.

Key words: INM, FYM, Yield, Net return, Vermicompost

426

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1513-1516 (2016)

Performance of banana genotypesfor growth and yieldunder northern dry zone of Karnataka

B.S. Sagar, B. Raju, Kulapati Hipparagi, G. Manjunatha, R. Sumaand Kanthesh Gandolkar

Department of Fruit science, College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot-587 103, India

*e-mail: sagar99022@gmail.com

(Received: February 11, 2016; Revised received: September 24, 2016;Accepted: September 29, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the perfomance of banana genotypes for growth, yield to find the suitable genotype for Bagalkot region of Karnataka. Twenty three genotypes viz., Karibale, Kayipallebale, Rajapuri, Red banana, Rasabale, Elakkibale, Kanayibanasi, Mitli, Bargibale, Balbisiana, Pisanglilin, FHIA-3, Lalchakrakeli, Basrai Dwarf, Monthon, Robusta, Kadali, YangaviKM-5, Sakkarebale, Karpuravalli, Poovan, Pisangawak and Hanuman were evaluated. Among the genotypes investigated, Monthon was found the tallest (305.00 cm) and YangaviKM-5 exhibited the maximum plant girth (76.27 cm). The important characters like leaf length (166.67 cm), leaf area (0.82 m2), Finger girth (17.53 cm) and finger weight (243.27g) were found maximum in Robusta genotype. The maximum number of leaves (17.33), finger length (22.43 cm), fingers per hand (24.62), bunch weight (38.77 kg) and yield per hectare (43.07 t ha-1) were recorded best in the genotype Hanuman. Among the genotypes evaluated, the genotype hanuman was found the best with respect to yield under Bagalkot region of Karnataka.

Key words: Banana, Evaluation, Genotypes, Growth, Yield

427

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1517-1521 (2016)

Efficacy of biocontrol antagonist Pseudomonas fluorescens against root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato

Shital C. Raut* and S.N. Mahapatra

1Department of Nematology, Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, India

*e-mail: shittu18@gmail.com

(Received: January 23, 2016; Revised received: September 23, 2016;Accepted: September 29, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Soil drenching with the liquid formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens@ 10ml/litre at transplanting and again at 30 DAT at same dose proved to be the best amongst all the treatments in improving the growth of tomato plants and mitigating the multiplication of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Soil drenching with the liquid formulation of P. fluorescens @ 10ml/litre at transplanting and again at 30 DAT at same dose resulted 17.3, 20.0 and 20.5% significant increase in shoot height, dry weight of shoot and root respectively, as compared to untreated check. Drenching with the bio-agent caused reduction in number galls and egg masses per plant as well as final nematode multiplication in soil and root to the tune of 38.2, 35.7, 25.1 and 30.0% respectively. However, drenching with P. fluorescens @ 10ml/litre at transplanting alone also resulted significant increase in shoot height (15.9%), dry weight of shoot (16.4%) and root (18.4%). Host infection in terms of number galls and egg masses per plant as well as final nematode multiplication in soil and root was decreased by 33.6, 32.6, 24.4 and 28.2%, respectively. Both the above treatments (P. fluorescens @ 10ml/litre at transplanting + at 30 DAT and P. fluorescens @ 10ml/litre at transplanting only) were statistically at par. The bio-agent P. fluorescens, drenching pot soil @ 5ml/litre at transplanting alone, either could not produce any significant result.

Key words: Efficacy, Root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, Tomato cv. Pusa ruby, Pseudomonas fluorescens

428

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1522-1525 (2016)

Effect of biofertilizers and growth regulators on rooting and growth of hard wood cutting of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Thompson seedless

Abhinav, Burman, R.N. Kanpure, S.R. Anjanawe, A. Haldar,R.P. Patel, Tejasvi Singh*, and S.K. Yadav

Department of Fruit Science, RajmataVijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, College of Horticulture Mandsaur Madhya Pradesh, India

*e-mail: tejasvisingh1991@gmail.com

(Received: January 25, 2016; Revised received: September 25, 2016;Accepted: September 29, 2016)

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Abstract: A poly bags open field experiment was conducted to study the effect of biofertilizers and growth regulators on rooting and growth of hardwood cuttings of grapevine during the year 2008-09. The results revealed that all the growth and root characters of grape vine cuttings i.e. days taken to start sprouting (15.61), 50% sprouting (25.25), cutting takes (62.36), success percentage (48.56), number of shoots per cutting (2.63), shoot length at 100 days (26.09) total no. of leaves per cutting (17.17), leaf area index (3.94), No. of roots per cutting (14.52 cm ), length of roots (14.28 cm) ,diameter of roots (1.86 mm), fresh weight of roots (10.44) and dry weight matter of roots (43.15%) were recorded significantly higher. Similar trends also observed with the application of IBA @ 2000ppm with all the growth and rooting parameters. The combined application of PSB and IBA 2000ppm were significantly increases the cuttings take per cent (70.44), total no. of leaves per cutting (23.78), no. of roots per cutting (16.56) and length of root (15.73 cm).

Key words: Biofertilizer, PSB, Azotobacter, IBA and NAA

429

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1526-1527 (2016)

Screening of different grains substrates for quality spawn production and morphology of Pleurotus folorida

Susheel Kumar*1, Ved Ratan3, S.K. Pande1 , Neeraj Kumar4, Vimlesh Kumar2, Shivam5 and Santosh Kumar Yadav6

1Department of Plant Pathology, 2Department of Vegetable Science, 4Department of Seed Science and Technology,

5Department of Extension Education, NDUA&T Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229, India

3Departent of Plant Pathology, 6Department of Agricultural Extension, CSAUA&T, Kanpur-, India

*e-mail: susheel8263@gmail.com

(Received: January 11, 2016; Revised received: September 26, 2016;Accepted: September 30, 2016)

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Abstract: The evaluation of different grains substrates for production of spawn.The study was conducted with the object to most suitable rain substrate, experiment comprise different grains, namely wheat, bajra, sorghum and maize alone and in their different combination. The study revealed that the period for complete spawn preparation varied from 12 to 20 days, Minimum period of 12 days was taken for spawn preparation when sorghum was used alone followed by wheat grain alone which took 15 days. However the spawn prepared with jowar grain lostthere viability early. The experiment concluded that the sorghum grain substrate suitable for spawn production of Pleurotus folorida.

Key words: Pleurotus folorida, Grains, Wheat, Bajra, Sorghum and maize, Spawn production

430

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1528-1531 (2016)

Association and quantification of defoliators in cauliflower and their correlations with abiotic factors in eastern U. P.

Rudra Pratap Singh*1 and Narendra Pratap2

1Entomology, CCSPG College, Heonra (Saifai), Etawah, India; 2SMS (GPB), NDUAT, Kumarganj, Faizabad-224 229, India

*e-mail: rudra.agento@gmail.com

(Received: January 14, 2016; Revised received: September 27, 2016;Accepted: September 30, 2016)

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Abstract: The extensive studies on Defoliators insects associated with cauliflower during present study 9 species were, Tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura was important and major pest fallowed by Diamond back moth, Plutellaxylostella; Cabbage caterpillarPierisbrassicae; Grasshopper, Acridaexaltata; Cabbage semilooper, Thysanoplusiaorichalce; Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilarctiaobliqua; Mustard sawfly, Athalialugensproxima; Castor semilooper, Achaea janata and Red pumpkin beetle, Aulacophorafoveicollisinsects associated with cauliflower in N.D.U.A. T, Faizabad range of U.P. were recorded.

Key words: Defoliators, Cauliflower, Abiotic factors

431

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1532-1535 (2016)

Effect of planting season on seed quality in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]

Jitender*, Axay Bhuker, V.S. Mor, R.C. Punia and Rajesh Yadav

Seed Science & Technology Section, Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125 004, India

*e-mail: jeetuhau23@gmail.com

(Received: March 26, 2016; Revised received: September 30, 2016;Accepted: October 04, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Fifteen genotypes of mungbean viz., MH 318, MH 565, MH 709, MH 729, MH 1-25, MH 534, MH 805, MH 810, MH 735, MH 736, MH 539-1, MH 919, MH 560, MH 421 and MH 2-15 were evaluated for their performance for different viability and vigour parameters. The results revealed that summer season crop showed superiority over kharif season for all the parameters. Significantly higher value for standard germination (90.13%), seedling length (41.95cm), test weight (41.10g), seed density (1.29), vigour index-I (3786.25), vigour index-II (1.84), Hard seeds (7.62%), tetrazolium test (94.87), dehydrogenase activity test (0.638), field emergence index (10.71), seedling establishment (63.16) and lower values for electrical conductivity (0.274) were recorded in seed harvested from summer crop while lower values for standard germination (83.16%), seedling length (37.40cm), test weight (35.66g), seed density (1.17g/cc), vigour index-I (3117.49) , vigour index-II (1.440, tetrazolium test (91.11%), dehydrogenase activity test (0.517), field emergence index (9.35), seedling establishment (58.47%) and higher values for electrical conductivity (0.371) were observed in kharif season crop. It can be concluded that summer produce had better seed quality compared to kharif produce, thus can be considered as a better option for production of basic seed.

Key words: Planting season, seed quality, mungbean, genotypes, germination

432

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1536-1539 (2016)

Economics and impact of various herbicides on the diversity of weed flora in french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and residual effect on

succeeding sorghum crop under irrigated conditions

Narinder Panotra*1 and Ashwani Kumar2

1Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences &Technology of Jammu, Chatha, Jammu and Kashmir-180009, India.

2VAEA, Dept. of Agriculture, Zone Vijaypur, SAMBA Jammu and Kashmir-184121, India

*e-mail: dr.narinderpanotra@gmail.com

(Received: April 22, 2016; Revised received: October 03, 2016;Accepted: October 07, 2016)

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Abstract: Field experiments were conducted to economics and impact of various herbicides on the diversity of weed flora in French bean and residual effect on succeeding sorghum crop under irrigated conditions of western U.P. Herbicides were applied alone or combined with Hand weeding at 30 DAS. Among the different weed control treatments, application of fluchloralin @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha and pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha reduced the population of weed species included Anagallis arvensis, Melilotus alba L., Melilotus indica L. and Phalaris minor and decrease dry weight of weeds were significantly than weedy check treatments in comparison. Maximum yield was recorded in fluchloralin @ 1.00 kg a.i./ha and pendimethalin @ 1.00 kg a.i./ha treatments with a corresponding value 11.12 and 11.08 q/ha of French bean and 371.50 and 362.45 q/ha of Sorghum during two cropping seasons. The maximum gross returns Rs 50040 per hectare and 49860 per hectare and net returns of Rs 27095 per hectare and Rs 26432 per hectare was recorded with fluchloralin @ 1.00 kg a.i./ha and pendimethalin @ 1.00 kg a.i./ha.

Key words: French bean, Sorghum, Weed Flora, Economics and yield

433

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1540-1543 (2016)

Quantification of mineral nutrient variation at different growth stages of litchi fruit (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

Yogeshwari*1, U.K. Singh1, Hemant Kumar2 and Feza Ahmad1

1Dept. of Horticulture, BAU, Sabour, Bhagalpur-813 210, India; 2School of Forestry and Environment, SHIATS, Allahabad-211 007, India

*e-mail:yogeshwari.bau@rediffmail.com

(Received: April 20, 2016; Revised received: October 04, 2016;Accepted: October 07, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The present study was conducted to quantify nutrient variation at different growth stages of litchi fruit (Litchi chinensis Sonn.).Experimental result shows that the highest amount of nitrogen (1.51%) and manganese (31.83ppm) was accumulated in cv. Dehra Rose and while iron content was highest in cv. Ajhauli (159.81ppm) among the cultivar investigated. However, no significant differences were recorded in respect to fruit phosphorus, calcium and magnesium content in all varieties .As far as potassium content is concerned, the highest potassium was registered in cv. Ajhauli and Shahi (0.96%). Micronutrient like zinc content was found maximum in cultivar Purbi (31.88ppm), while copper content was found maximum in cv. Shahi (78.67ppm).In general, mineral nutrient like nitrogen (1.62%) was observed highest at fruit initiation stage and decrease with the fruit growth. However, very least difference in mineral nutrient content among stages was observed in phosphorus, calcium and magnesium. While the maximum concentration of potassium (1.05%), iron (286.92ppm) and manganese content (41.28ppm) was observed during stone hardening stage and decreases in later stages. While, the maximum concentration of zinc (32.48ppm) and copper (95.78ppm) content was observed in harvest stage (based on pulp). However, no significant difference was observed in phosphorus and magnesium.

Keywords: Litchi, mineral nutrients, growth stage, variety and quantification

434

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1544-1547 (2016)

Climate change impacts on production of fruit crops

Akula Venu*1, R.L. Chitroda1, J.S. Parasana1 and Bhalani, R. B.2

1Department of Horticulture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362001; 2KVK, Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388001

*e-mail: venunaiduhorti038@gmail.com

(Received: March 08, 2016; Revised received: October 01, 2016;Accepted: October 05, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Over the years, environmental changes playing a significant role like occurrence of erratic rain and snowfall, droughts increase in temperature etc resulting in variation in the fruit production in India. Big fluctuation in temperature, rainfall, more frequent occurrence of drought and severe storms are characteristic symptoms of apparent impacts in the area from the global climate change. A significant change in climate at global and national level is certainly impacting horticulture and affecting fruit production and quality. Extreme climates have led to total crop failure in fruit crop production and warmer nights have deteriorated the fruit quality and particular fruit flavor. Storms have lashed seriously and uprooted many fruit crops, e.g., banana, litchi, papaya and mango while chilling injury by frosts destroyed various crops. More frequent draught occurrence also decreased crop yield and in some cases even caused total crop failure. Adaptation to and mitigation of the negative impacts from climate change including political policies, social awareness and technical measures are required to ensure the sustainable development offruit industry in India. Early technical preparations embraces breeding desirable new varieties of better stresses resistance and high quality produce under field or protected growing conditions.

Key words: Fruits, Climate, Temperature, Management and India

435

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1548-1551 (2016)

Estimation of physiological parameters related to abiotic stress in sunflower genotypes

R.K. Sheoran, Bunty Sharma and Vivek K. Singh*

Oilseeds Section, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, CCC HAU, Hisar

*e-mail: vks.slay@gmail.com

(Received: March 10, 2016; Revised received: October 03, 2016;Accepted: October 06, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Stress is becoming an acute problem most constraining plant growth, terrestrial ecosystem productivity, in many regions all over the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas. To survive the stress, numerous morphological, physiological and biochemical changes occur in various plants species. High chlorophyll “b”, relative water content and soluble sugar are related to resistance. Electrolyte leakage and osmotic potential has been recommended as a valuable tool for identification of stress resistance cultivars. Sixteen hybrids and their parents were tested with some biochemical and physiological parameters related with stress like relative water content, membrane stability index, soluble sugars, osmotic potential and chlorophyll content (“a”, “b”, total chlorophyll). Hybrids showed better performance than most of parents except than 91A. The hybrid, HSFH 1194 showed maximum values for chlorophyll “a” (1.491 mg/g), chlorophyll “b” (1.206 mg/g), total chlorophyll (2.69 mg/g), soluble sugar (31.73 mg/g), relative water content (93.97 %), osmotic potential (-1.79 m OS/kg) and minimum value for membrane stability index (10.81%). Soluble sugar content varied from 30.44- 41.75 and 7.84- 99.97 mg/g. for parents and hybrids respectively. Range for relative water content in parents was 67.88-97.64% and for the hybrids variation was 64.32-99.97%. The range for osmotic potential in parents was from -0.92 to -1.79 m OS/kg and the hybrids from -1.6 to -1.81 m OS/kg. Out of all hybrids HSFH 1194 showed better performance than other hybrids and most of parents.

Key words: Chlorophyll, RWC, OP, MSI, Soluble sugars, Sunflower

436

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1552-1557 (2016)

Greenhouse microclimate modeling under cropped conditions - A review

Mahesh Chand Singh*, Abrar Yousuf and J.P. Singh

Department of Soil and Water Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, Punjab, India

*e-mail: mahesh-swe@pau.edu

(Received: March 02, 2016; Revised received: October 04, 2016;Accepted: October 08, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Growing vegetable crops in greenhouse conditions has become popular throughout the world. The greenhouse technology supports a favorable environment for crop growth and development. Greenhouse climate is the major driving force which directly affects the plant metabolic activities, fruit quality and therefore the production of crops. The greenhouse microclimate is a combination of physical processes involving energy and mass transfer processes which are governed by environmental conditions, greenhouse structure, crop type and state, and effect of the control actuators. Solar radiation, temperature distribution and relative humidity are the main microclimatic parameters needed to evaluate the climate suitability in a region for crop growth under protected cultivation. Numerous models have been developed in the past to describe the microclimate under different greenhouses and crops conditions. Still, there exists a scope for better understanding of the relationships between microclimate and plants community by means of appropriate modeling techniques. Here, we have made an attempt to review the greenhouse microclimate modeling studies during last few couple of decades.

Key words: Greenhouse, Microclimate, Modeling, Microclimatic parameters

437

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (12) 1558-1560 (2016)

Evaluation of copper toxicity on soil health, biochemical parameters and accumulation in maize with interaction of iron

Dharam Singh*1 and Kamlesh Nath2

1Department of Environmental Science, I.B.S.B.T., C.S.J.M. University, Kanpur-208002, India

2Department of Environmental Science, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007, India

*e-mail: ds_envi@rediffmail.com

(Received: March 11, 2016; Revised received: September 24, 2016;Accepted: September 29, 2016)

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Abstract:The soil culture experiment was performed to study the effect on soil, biochemicalparameter and metal accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) under the influence of different concentrations of copper. The antioxidant activity of catalase (ml of H2O2 hydrolyzed/gm fresh weight) and peroxidase (D O.D./gm fresh weight of tissues) were increased after 30,60 and 90 days, and high accumulation of copper after 90 days also observed. The activities of antioxidants were found gradually increased with increase exposed copper concentration at 30, 60 and 90 days respectively. Likewise fresh weight and moisture content decreased with increase copper concentration. The plants grown on copper treated soil along with 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1 along with iron applicationshowed significant effects (p<0.05) regarding increase in plant growth, yield, pigment, protein and sugar contents, and decreased antioxidant activity. This indicates that copper translocation in grains, above soil physiology seemed to be well regulated, as their concentrations were fairly constant. The accumulation of metal in plant tissue was found in the order of Fe>Cu and their translocation were found less in grain than the plant.

Key words: Copper, Iron, Soil, Antioxidants, catalase,peroxidase

 

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