RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-9, Number-5, May-2016

 

151

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)521-525 (2016)

 

Adaptation behavior of sugarcane varieties against high temperature stress in subtropical India

 

A.D. Pathak1, Arun K. Srivastava2, A.K. Shrivastava3, Rajesh Kumar4, R.K. Rai3 and Sangeeta Srivastava*1

1Division of Crop Improvement, 2Division of Agro-meteorology, 3Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry,

4All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Sugarcane, Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow-226 002, India

*e-mail: sangeeta_iisr@yahoo.co.in

(Received: November 04, 2015; Revised received: March 06, 2016;Accepted: March 09, 2016)

 

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Abstract: High temperature stress has emerged as a widely occurring problem in sugarcane growing tracts, in general and in subtropical India, in particular, affecting growth and development of sugarcane in early pheno-phases of establishment and shoot formation. Seventy one sugarcane varieties from Peninsular, North-west, North-central and North-eastern sugarcane zones of the country were screened for their tolerance to high temperature stress. The tolerance has been assessed on the basis of drying of leaf-tips and margins (leaf injury) and rolling of leaves. Some varieties have the potential to escape high temperature stress and some other varieties were able to tolerate high temperature induced stress. Some of the varieties suffered from excessive leaf injury and leaf rolling, indicating thereby their inability to tolerate high temperature stress. The leaf rolling during formative phase of the crop showed qualitative impact on the tonnage of the crop at harvest. These varieties may further be explored for their use in breeding programmes.

Key words: Escape mechanism, High temperature stress, Leaf burning, Leaf injury, Leaf rolling, Sugarcane, Tolerance

152

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)526-527 (2016)

 

Determination of damage caused by major insect pest in long duration pigeonpea genotypes

 

Raj Kumar, Ram Keval and Amit Yadav*

Department of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi -221 005, India

*e-mail: amitento21@gmail.com

(Received: July 08, 2015; Revised received: March 08, 2016;Accepted: March 16, 2016)

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Abstract: The experiment was conducted to evaluate the losses caused by major insect pest in long duration pigeonpea and the study revealed that the per cent pod damage caused by pod fly, pod bug and lepidopterous pod borer (LPB) was highest in genotype MAL-31 (43.0 per cent), MAL-32 (19.0 per cent), and BAHAR (7.66 per cent) in 2011-12, respectively. The per cent grain damage caused by pod fly, pod bug and lepidopterous pod borer (LPB) was highest in genotype MAL-31 (21.22 per cent), MAL-13 (5.72 per cent), and BAHAR (2.22 per cent) respectively. In general the grain yield of different genotype differed significantly and ranged from 910 to 1197 kg/ha-1 in different genotypes.

Key words: Lepidopterous pod borer, BAHAR, Genotypes

153

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)528-530 (2016)

 

Study of variability parameters in forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]

 

Ayush Diwakar *, B. R. Ranwah, D. B. Sharma and Sujit Kumar Sinha

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture & Technology, Udaipur- 313 001, India

*e-mail: Ayushkota@gmail.com

(Received: August 07, 2015; Revised received: March 01, 2016;Accepted: March 07, 2016)

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Abstract: The present experiment was carried out with 126 diverse genotypes of forage sorghum including two checks (SSG-59-3 and SMU-1) in Randomized Block Design with three replications during kharif, 2013. Observations were recorded for 24 characters. GCV ranged from 7.10 to 37.19 % with 6.5 SD and was high (> “mean + SD” i.e. >20.92) for stem juiciness (37.19). The magnitude of PCV ranged from 10.23 to 50.57 with 9.40 SD and was high ( mean + SD, i.e. >34.2) for stem juiciness (50.57). Heritability (h2) was high ( mean +SD, i.e. >54.58) for number of leaves per plant (74.05) and medium (in between mean+ SD, >15.32 to <54.58) for stem juiciness (54.09). The expected genetic gain was high (“mean +SD”, i.e. >29.22) for stem juiciness (54.35). Most selection responsive character was stem juiciness as it was having higher GCV, PCV and genetic gain and moderate heritability (h2). On the basis of heritability and genetic gain, selection criteria based on number of leaves per plant, leaf length leaf breadth, stem juiciness, protein per cent may be useful for further developing good quality and high yielding forage sorghum cultivars.

Keywords: Forage sorghum, Variability, GCV, PCV, Heritability and Genetic gain

154

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)531-533 (2016)

 

Impact of Karnataka Co-operative oilseed growers federation limited (KOF), Raichur regional union (RRU) on oilseed production, Raichur, Karnataka, India

 

R. S. Bhawar*1, Suresh, S. Patil2 and Parameswarnaik, J.3

1Dairy Economics Statistics and management (DES&M) Division, National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal-132001, India

 2Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur Karnataka-584 104, India

3Extension Division, National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal-132 001, Haryana, India

*e-mail: rsiddubhawar@gmail.com

(Received: July 07, 2015; Revised received: April 11, 2016;Accepted: April 14, 2016)

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Abstract: Impact of the society on oilseed production can be judged by the area allotted under oilseed crops and per acre yield obtained by members and no-members and yield obtained by members (3.56q/acre) was relatively higher than non-members (3.05q/acre) since, encouragement, guidelines and technical assistance provided by RRU has made good impact on the production. The study has provided that, 91.91 per cent of non members were willing to become members of society, Only 8.89 per cent of them were not willing to become members of OGCS because they had personal relationship with traders and commission agents. Hence the federation should take note on the suggestion made by members to improve its service to the oilseed and the ongoing price policy should be directed towards assuring appropriate remunerative prices to oilseed growers in the state in general and study area in particular.

Key words: OGCS, RRU, CAG, Oilseeds

155

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)534-536 (2016)

 

Effect of seed treatment by gamma rays on growth, flowering and yield of papaya (Carica papaya L.)

 

Mahesh Kumar*1, Mukesh Kumar1, Satya Prakash1,Yogesh Prasad1, M.K. Singh1 and Pooran chand2

1Dept. of Horticulture, 2Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding,S.V.P. University of Agriculture & Technology, Meerut-250110, India

*e-mail: mkrao477@gmail.com

(Received: August 14, 2015; Revised received: April 16, 2016;Accepted: April 18, 2016)

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Abstract: In the present study, the papaya seeds of cv. Pusa Dwarf were treated with different doses of gamma rays viz, 05, 10, 15 and 20 krad to observe the influence oftreatmenton growth, flowering and yield of papaya. The results revealedthat fruiting attributes of papaya were significantly influenced with 10 krad gamma rays. For instance, earliest sprouting, maximumgermination , survival and stem girth were observed with this treatment. The vegetative growth of plants was effectively reduced by seed treatment with gamma rays than untreated (control) plants which had maximum height, number of leaves per plant, leaf and petiole length. The plants obtained from the seeds treated with 10 krad gamma rays had significantly maximum fruit length, number of fruits per plant and fruit yield during both the years of study. Latest flowering was however, observed in plants obtained from untreated seeds.

Key words : Gamma irradiation, Seed germination, Growth, Yield, Papaya

156

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)537-539 (2016)

 

Effect of different source and rate of fertilizer application through drip irrigation on yield, nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency by aerobic rice

 

Rekha, B*., Jayadeva, H. M., Gururaj Kombali, Geetha Kumari, A., and Muniratna, C. M.

Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bangalore -560065, India

*e-mail: mbrekhamb@gmail.com

(Received: August 19, 2015; Revised received: April 11, 2016;Accepted: April 13, 2016)

Efficiency

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Abstract: Fertigation allows precise timing and uniform distribution of applied nutrients to meet the crop nutrient demand with ensures substantial saving in fertilizer usage. In this study the effect of different source and rate of fertilizer application through drip irrigation system were evaluated on growth, yield and nutrient uptake by aerobic rice grown on sandy loamy soil, during Kharif 2013 at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra, the experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) comprising of 3 replications and 10 treatments. Application of 100 per cent RDF through drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizer recorded grain and straw yield of 6503 and 9285 kg ha-1, respectively and higher nutrient uptake (141.20, 19.47 and 97.17 kg N, P and K, respectively) but application of 50 per cent RDF through drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizer recorded significantly higher N, P and K use efficiency (97.20, 194.40 and 194.40 kg kg-1, of NPK respectively).

Keywords:Aerobic rice, Fertigation, Nutrient uptake, Nutrient use

157

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)540-542 (2016)

 

Effect of three levels of zinc, iron and boron on flowering and yield of custard apple (Annona sqamosa L.)

 

S.J. Makhmale, Akula Venu* andD.V. Delvadia

Dep. of Horticulture, COA, J.A.U., Junagadh-362001, India

*e-mail: venunaiduhorti038@gmail.com

(Received: July 15, 2015; Revised received: April 05, 2016;Accepted: April 07, 2016)

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Abstract: The present investigation entitled “Effect of foliar sprays of zinc, iron and boron on flowering, yield and quality of custard apple (Annona squamosaL.) cv. Sindhan” was carried out at during the Kharifseason of the year 2012-13. The result of the present investigation revealed that the combination effect of zinc, iron and boron that treatment T7 (0.5% Zinc sulphate + 0.5% Ferrous sulphate + 0.3% Borax)were gave significant effect on the yield attributes i.e. highest number of flowers per shoot (26.57%), fruit set (20.30%), maximum fruit retention (87.75%),minimum flower drop (79.70%) and fruit drop (12.25%),fruit yield (20.06 kg/tree and 5571 kg/ha),same as physical parameters i.e.maximum fruit weight (173.56g), girth of fruit (7.33cm), fruit length (6.86cm), and pulp weight (93.53g).As well as improved quality parameters like total soluble solids (16.29%), reducing sugars (14.29%) and non-reducing sugars (2.73%).

Key words: Custard apple, Yield, Quality and Micronutrients

158

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)543-545(2016)

 

Influence of different levels of sulphur on growth and yield of onion under eastern dry zone of Karnataka

 

Mustafa Haris M., Anjanappa, M.*, Sureshkumara, B. and Kiran Kumar, R.

Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, UHS Campus, GKVK Post, Bengaluru-560 065, India

*e-mail: m_anjanappa@rediffmail.com

(Received: July 30, 2015; Revised received: April 04, 2016;Accepted: April 07, 2016)

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Abstract: Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different levels of sulphur on growth and yield of onion. The treatment T4-Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) + 45 kg S ha-1 was recorded maximum plant height at 30 days after planting (DAT) (16.79 cm), 60 DAT (19.65 cm) and 90 DAT (24.68 cm), maximum number of leaves per plant at 30 DAT (7.63), 60 DAT (9.75) and 90 DAT (9.83), collar thickness (1.53 cm), neck thickness (0.78 cm), polar diameter of bulb (5.83 cm), equatorial diameter of bulb (5.78 cm), number of rings per bulb (7.75), average bulb dry weight (12.35 g bulb-1), bulb yield per plot (27.48 kg plot-1), total bulb yield (45.79 t ha-1) and marketable bulb yield (44.09 t ha-1) which was followed by treatment T5- RDF + 30 kg S ha-1 and T5- RDF + 60 kg S ha-1. Therefore, among the different levels of sulphur treatment, application of 45 kg of S ha-1 along with recommended dose of fertilizer is recommended to increase growth and yield of onion.

Key words: Growth, Sulphur fertilizer, Yield, Onion

159

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)546-549 (2016)

 

Genetic variability for root and shoot traits under moisture stress in G. hirsutum cotton

 

Suresh S. Handi and I. S. Katageri*

Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, India

*e-mail: katageriis@uasd.in

(Received: July 16, 2015; Revised received: April 07, 2016;Accepted: April 11, 2016)

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Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine the extent of genotypic variability in a diverse set of 320 cotton germplasm collections for root and shoot traits in 85 days old plants which experienced natural moisture stress due to low rainfall, 27.66 % (549 mm) of the past 20 years average (759 mm). The cotton germplasm lines were evaluated in randomized complete block design with five checks viz., Sahana, Surabhi, MCU-5, DS-28 and ARBH-813. High PCV and GCV for number of secondary roots, secondary root length, fresh leaf and shoot weight, number of squares, dry leaf, shoot and root weight, total dry matter accumulation, fresh and dry root to shoot ratio and seed cotton yield in germplasm lines. The traits which showed high heritability was associated with high genetic advance for number of secondary roots, fresh shoot weight, number of squares per plant, moisture content of squares and dry leaf, shoot and root weight. This shows the variation was due to additive gene effects. The germplasm lines viz., CPD-424, CPD-2007-4, CPD-443, RDT-17 and HBS-123 recorded 25% higher secondary root length (30.8 to 38.0 cm) than ARBH 813 (24.26 cm) and their primary root length (19.0 to 29.5cm), number of secondary roots (17.0 to 34.5) and root weight (11.5 to 18.0 g/plant) were comparable to checks. The genotypes viz, AKA-081, EC560327, GISV-272, JBWR-23, HBS-102 and RDT-17 recorded 40 percent more number of secondary roots (34.5 to 41.0) than superior check, DS 28 (24.5). They recorded primary root length (20.0 to 26.0 cm) and secondary root length (10.5 to 31.0 cm) comparable to checks.

Key Words: Moisture stress, Root and shoot traits, Genetic variability

160

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)550-552 (2016)

 

Response of with and without Azotobacter biofertilizer with different levels of nitrogen and sulphur fertilizers combination on growth, yield attributes and yield of maize (Zea mays L.)

 

Kunwar Faizan Khan*1, Gautam Ghosh1, Kunwar Zeeshan Khan2 and Manisha Pandey2

1Department of Agronomy, 2Department of Plant Pathology, Allahabad School of Agriculture, SHIATS, Allahabad - 211007, India

                    *e-mail: khankf001@gmail.com

(Received: August 01, 2015; Revised received: April 04, 2016;Accepted: April 06, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at crop research farm, Department of Agronomy, Allahabad School of Agriculture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agricultural, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad (U. P). It is on the near of the river Yamuna to study the effect of Azotobacter, levels of nitrogen and sulphur on growth and yield of maize (Zea maysL.) during kharif season at 2014.It was consisting of combination of twelve inorganic and organic fertilizers combination in which nitrogen sixth with Azotobactorviz., Azotobactor + nitrogen+ sulphur and other sixth without Azotobactor viz., nitrogen + Sulphur. The field experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The results showed that application (T6) Azotobacter + 140 kg N ha-1 + 30 kg S ha-1 had a significantly maximum growth yield and yield attributes, plant dry weight (3.00, 19.99 and 76.18 g at 25, 50 and 75 DAS),Crop growth rate (g m-2 day-1) (0.66, 3.76 and 12.69 g at 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 DAS), relative growth rate (g g-1day-1) (0.043 and 0.075 g at 0-25,and 25-50 DAS), number of leaves plant-1, seed yield(6.16 t ha-1), stover yield (8.83 t ha-1), number of cobs plant-1 (1.73), weight of cob-1 (184.66 g) respectively than other application of fertilizers application levels in treatments.

Keywords: Azotobacter, Nitrogen, Sulphur, Maize

161

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)553-557 (2016)

 

High frequency of shoot regeneration on nodal explants of Bacopa monnieri - Ahigh value medicinal plant

 

Dhiraj Kumar Choudhary*, Shiv Kumar Verma and Anand Kumar

School of Biochemical Engineering,IIT-BHU, Varanasi, India

*e-mail: dhirajrau@gmail.com

(Received: August 21, 2015; Revised received: March 20, 2016;Accepted: March 22, 2016)

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Abstract: The paper highlights the significance of plant tissue methods and usage in producing planting materials of medicinal plant species, varieties and cultivars. Three experiments from nodal explants of Bacopa monnieri were demonstrated. In combination with MS medium, different concentration ofBAP (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 mgl-1) and NAA (1.0 mg/l) were used for callus induction, IAA (mg/l) and 2, 4-D (0.5, 1.0 mg/l) wereadditionally used in shoot regeneration experiment. The largest numbers of adventitious shoot buds were induced in 100% cultures from the explant when 6-benzylaminopurine was used at a concentration of 0.5mg/l. For root induction experiment differ concentration of sucrose (14.16, 18, 20.22 and 24 g/l) were used. The largest numbers of adventitious root were induced in the medium supplemented with sucrose at concentration of 20g/l. The success in mass clone propagation through tissue culture from selected individuals might improve rate of growth and quality of selected traits and resulting in short-term mass production. Rooting was achieved in microshoots on full strength basal liquid medium supplemented with sucrose (1%) and indole-3-butyric acid (0.5 mg/l). The obtained plantlets have been successfully acclimatized ex vitro.

Keywords: Bacopa, Medicinal, Herpestine. Bacosides, Memory chemicals, Nodal explants

Abbreviations: MS, Murashige and Skoog’s medium; BAP, 6-benzylaminopurine; NAA, Naphthalene acetic acid; IBA, indole-3-butyric acid; 2, 4-D, 2, 4, Di-chloro acetic acid

162

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)558-560 (2016)

 

Effect of pruning intensity and different levels of potassium chloride on

vegetative growth and yield of phalsa fruits (Grewia subinaequalis D.C.)

 

 Pradeep Kumar Yadav, A.L.Yadav* and Geeta Goley

Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad-224 229, India

*e-mail: dralyadav01@gmail.com

(Received: August 04, 2015; Revised received: March 22, 2016;Accepted: March 25, 2016)

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Abstract: The present investigation was carried out during the year 2014-15. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with nine treatments and replicated in three times, considering two plants as a unit.The treatments significantly increased the vegetative growth and yield of phalsa’ the maximum vegetative growth attributes like as shoot length(203.00cm), number of shoots per plant(103.33), number of leaves per shoot(27.00), internodal length (6.66), yield attributes like number of fruits per node(14.33), number of fruiting nodeper shoot(16.00), fruit yield per plant(3.50 kg) and per hactare (58.30 q) were recorded with the spray of KCl @ 0.4 per cent with 50cm pruning intensity.

Key Words: Foliar application of nutrients, Vegetative growth, Yield attributes of phalsa

163

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)561-562 (2016)

 

Constraints identified in livestock rearing in hilly areas

 

Banarsi Lal1, Vikas Tandon2 and Shahid Ahamad*3

1KVK, Tanda, Reasi (SKUAST-J)-182301; 2KVK, Rajouri, 3KVK, Reasi, India

*e-mail: kvkreasi@gmail.com

(Received: August 04, 2015; Revised received: March 22, 2016;Accepted: March 25, 2016)

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Abstract: Livestock farming is an important occupation in hilly rural areas. Livestock plays an important role in livelihood for the farmers of hilly areas. Animal acts as the capital reserve for these farmers. The hilly area farmers face lot of constraints in animal rearing which affect their animals’ productivity. In order to identify the constraints faced by the farmers of hilly areas, the present study was conducted in hilly district Reasi of Jammu and Kashmir which was selected purposively. A sample of 20 per cent farmers (200) was selected randomly from the selected villages. The major constraints identified were lack of green fodder in the off season of the year, lack of improved breeds of the animals and lack of animal health aid. Majority of livestock rearers opined that there was need to encourage the farmers to grow the fodder even in off season of the year, improved breeds of the animals and training –cum-awareness for the better health care of animals.

Keywords: Livestock rearing, Hilly areas, Animal health

164

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)563-565 (2016)

 

Management of root rot disease of bael (Aegle marmelos Correa) with Trichoderma spp. invitro

 

Pankaj Kumar Tiwari, Sanjeev Kumar*, Santosh Kumar, Devesh Anand Singh and Rekha Yadav

Department of Plant Pathology, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Narendra Nagar, Faizabad-224229, India

*e-mail: drsanjeev44@gmail.com

(Received: August 22, 2015; Revised received: March 26, 2016;Accepted: March 28, 2016)

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Abstract: The bael (Aegle marmelos Correa) is an important indigenous arid zone fruitbelonging to family rutaceae often termed as underutilized minor fruit. The population of F. solani infested soil could be minimized by treating the soil with T. harzianum, T. virens and T. viride. Trichoderma harzianum and T. virens grew very fast. Beside T. harzianum parasitized over F. solani, resulted into lyses of its hyphae. The antagonistic activity of T. viride happened due to its yellow pigments secreted in the rhizosphere. The yellow coloured metabolite was toxic and killed the hyphae of F. solani. Thereafter, T. viride grow over the space cleared by its metabolite on the basis of the results of the present experiment. Application of T. viride and T. virens as preventive measures and that of T. harzianum as curative one may be suggested.

Keywords: Aegle marmelos Correa, Root rot, F. solani, Trichodermaharzianum, T. virens and T. viride.

165

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)566-569(2016)

 

The effect of foliar application of micro- nutrients zinc sulphate, borax, copper sulphate and calcium chloride on quality attributes of aonla

 

Shashank Verma*1, P. N. Katiyar1, Sandeep Kumar rajvanshi2, Madhvendra singh2

1Department of Horticulture. C.S.A.U.A.T., Kanpur, India

2Department of Applied Plant Science-Horticulture, Baba sahib Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow- 226 025, India

*e-mail: shashank3978@gmail.com

(Received: September 27, 2015; Revised received: March 24, 2016;Accepted: March 29, 2016)

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Abstract: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of foliar application of micro- nutrients Zinc sulphate, Borax, Copper sulphate and calcium chloride on quality attributes of aonla cv. NA -7 during 2012-13. Among all the treatments the application of ZnSO4 0.1% + Borax 0.6% proved most effective inducing earliest flowering (70 days), reducing fruit drop (35.31%) and highest fruit retention (64.72%). However, the quality traits i.e. total sugar, Ascorbic acid, TSS and yield/hectare were maximized under the influence of ZnSO4 0.1% + Borax 0.6% + Cacl2 0.1%. Whereas, all the Physico- chemical parameters studied in the present investigation were noted minimum under control.

Key words: Foliar application, Quality attributes of Aonla and Micronutrients

166

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)570-572 (2016)

 

Studies on biochemical differences in regular and biennial bearing varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

 

Santosh Kumar, Sanjay Pathak and Naresh Chandra Pushkar*

Department of Horticulture, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad-224229, India

*e-mail: pushkar.marigold@gmail.com

(Received: August 22, 2015; Revised received: March 25, 2016;Accepted: March 29, 2016)

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Abstract: The experiment was layout in randomized block design with 3 replication. The experimental material consist of 9 cultivars of mango viz., Mallika, Amrapali, Totapuri, Neelum, Dashehari, Chausa, Bombay Green and Safeda. In biochemical parameter the chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll were counted maximum in biennial bearing variety during ‘on’ year and in ‘off’ year it was observed maximum in regular bearing variety. However, percentage of Carbohydrate, Nitrogen, Phenol and Auxin were recorded in highest in biennial bearing variety during both ‘on’ and ‘off’ year.Thus, it can be said, that alternate bearing problems of mango varieties can be minimize by increasing the C/N ratio and applying the morphological and Phenological measures viz. debloosming cultural practices and application of plant growth regulators.

Key words: Mangifera indica, Biennial bearing, Carbohydrate, Nitrogen, Phenol and Auxin

167

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)573-574 (2016)

 

Productivity enhancement of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) through improved production technologies/ frontline demonstrations

 

Anand Naik*, Devappagouda H. Patil, Raju, G. Teggelli and Zaheer Ahamed, B.

Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburagi, UAS, Raichur, Karnataka 585 101, India

*e-mail: anandnaik2@gmail.com

(Received: August 27, 2015; Revised received: March 25, 2016;Accepted: March 29, 2016)

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Abstract: Sesame is one of the important oilseeds crop in India, which plays a major role in supplementing the income of small and marginal farmers. One of the major constraints of traditional sesame farming is low productivity of local varieties. To replace this anomaly, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburagi has conducted frontline demonstration at adopted farmer’s field. The results shows that cultivation of high yielding varieties of sesame, DSS-9 recorded increase yield of 10.43 and 17.01% during 2010-11 and 2013-14, respectively over local check. The technology gap which shows the gap in the demonstration yield over potential yield were 6.35 and 7.36 q/ha for 2010-11 and 2013-14, respectively. The highest extension gap of 1.07 was recorded in during 2010-11 this high extension gap requires urgent attention by the extension and development agencies. The technology index is 26.40 and 36.50 per during 2010-11 and 2013-14, respectively which shows the good performance. There is a need to adopt multi pronged strategy that involves enhancing sesame production through area expansion and productivity improvements through better adoption of improved technology.

Key Words: Frontline Demonstration, Technology gap, Extension gap, Technology index

168

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)575-580 (2016)

 

Shelf life extension and post harvest quality of mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Dashehari as affected by gamma radiation and packaging material

 

Nishith Gupta*1, B.S. Baghel2 and S.P. Mishra3

1Horticulture, RVSKVV, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dewas-455 001, India; 2Faculty of Agriculture, R.V.S.K.V.V., Gwalior-474 002, India

3Dept. of Crop Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, MGCGVV, Chitrakoot, 485780, India

*e-mail: nishithgupta_kvk@rediffmail.com

(Received: July 29, 2015; Revised received: March 09, 2016;Accepted: March 11, 2016)

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Abstract: This experiment was conducted to find out the effect of gamma radiation and packaging material on shelf life and post harvest quality of mango fruits cv. Dashehari. During both the years mango fruits were irradiated with 0.0 Gy (G1), 100 Gy (G2), 200 Gy (G3), 300 Gy (G4) and 1 kGy (G5) gamma radiation and packed in different packaging material viz. bamboo basket (P1), plastic basket (P2), CFBB (P3) and perforated polythene bags (P4) and stored under ambient conditions (24.5-330C with 61-84.5% RH). The data on physiological loss in weight, retention/shelf life of fruits and different chemical composition viz. TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid (vitamin-C), reducing, non-reducing and total sugar was recorded at 4, 8 and 12 DAS. The results of this study showed that mango fruits treated with 200 Gy gamma radiation and packed in corrugated fibre board boxes significantly influenced the physico-chemical properties with minimal changes in chemical content during storage. Lowest physiological loss in weight (5.23%, 7.27% and 10.27%) was observed with G3P4 interaction after 4, 8 and 12 days of storage, while, the shelf life of fruits could be extended upto 8 days with 100% retention of fruits without adversely affecting the fruit quality in terms of skin and flesh colour and texture under G3P3 .

Key words: Gamma irradiation, Mango, Shelf life, Packaging material, Physiological loss in weight

169

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)581-584 (2016)

 

Study on correlation and path analysis among yield and its component traits in maize

 

Anshuman vashistha*1, S. Marker1, S.K. Sharma2

1Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology & Sciences, Allahabad, India

2Department of Agriculture Botany, Ch. Shivnath Singh Shandilya P.G. College, Machhra, Meerut, India

*e-mail: anshuman.vashistha87@gmail.com

(Received: August 05, 2015; Revised received: March 14, 2016;Accepted: March 17, 2016)

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Abstract: The present experiment was conducted at department of genetics and plant breeding, Allahabad school of agriculture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences, Deemed University. Analysis of variance showed highly significant differences among 20 genotypes for grain yield and its compent characters. In the present investigation, relative higher magnitude for the genotypic correlation than the phenotypic correlation was noted there by indicating strong inherent association among various characters. Correlation coefficient analysis indicated that ear girth, ear length, harvest index, biological yield, 100 grain weight and number of grains per row showed positive significant correlation with yield. Hence indirect selection for these traits could be helpful in the improvement of grain yield. Path analysis showed that, days to 50 per cent tasseling, plant height, ear girth, ear length, number of grains per row, biological yield, harvest index, ear height, days to 50 per cent silking and 100 grain weight had very strong relationship with grain yield per plant. An increase in any one of these or all of there quantitative characters would bring simultaneous increase in yield. Direct selection for these traits can help improve maize grain yield per unit area.

Key words: Genotypic, Phenotypic, Correlation, Path analysis

170

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)585-587 (2016)

 

First report of false root-knot nematode (Nacobbus sp.) in Buckwheat from Sikkim, India

 

Sobita Simon*, Abhilasha A. Lal, Kamaluddeen and Ratna K. Subba

Department of Plant Pathology, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad- 211007, India

*e-mail: sobitasimon@gmail.com

(Received: August03, 2015; Revised received: March 15, 2016;Accepted: March 17, 2016)

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Abstract:Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is a moisture loving, cool climate, annual grain with much potential for use in sustainable tropical cropping systems. It is a reliable cover crop in summer to fit a small slot of warm season for establishment. It establishes quickly and suppresses summer weeds. Buckwheat plants grow quickly and produce seeds in about 6 weeks and ripening at 10 to 11 weeks. They grow 30 to 50 inches (75 to 125 cm) tall. It is an erect, glabrous annual herb, leaves are ovate-shaped, flowering in July-September, in Sikkim. These plants were found to be affected by false root knot nematode which induced the galls on root of buckwheat. The symptomatic and microscopic examination revealed that the nematode was Nacobbus sp. Perusal of available literature revealed that this is the first report of false root knot nematode of buckwheat from India.

Key words: Buck wheat, False root knot, Nacobbus sp., Sikkim

171

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)588-590 (2016)

 

Simulation of wheat genotypes for grain yield using info crop model at enhanced CO2 level

 

JeetendraPandey*, PadmakarTripathi, Raj Pratap Singh, S.R. Mishra and Nitish Pandey

Department of Agricultural Meteorology, N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad-224 229, India

*e-mail: sobitasimon@gmail.com

(Received: July16, 2015; Revised received: March 03, 2016;Accepted: March 15, 2016)

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Abstract:Inforcrop simulation for prediction of grain yield of wheat genotypes at normal and enhanced level of C02 during 2013-14 & 2014-15 were performed in rabi season of 2013 and 2014. Eight varieties of wheat namely, PBW443, PBW343, HD2733, UP262, HP1744, NW1014, HUW234 and HD2643 were sown at three dates of sowing viz., 30th November, 15th December, 30th December in split plot design with three replications. The mean error percent of simulated yield over observed was minimum 3.4% in UP262 genotype followed by PBW343 3.9%, NW1014 4.3% and PBW443 4.5%. Among the varieties highest error percentage 6.3% was reported in HD2643 followed by 6.2% in HUW234, 5.4% in HP1744, 4.8% in HD2733, 4.5% in PBW443, 4.3% in NW1014, 3.9% in PBW343 and lowest 3.4% in UP262.Maximum change in yield percentage of simulated yield with increase of CO2 level at normal temperature with info crop model was reported at 470ppm of CO2 level in all the varieties. Both Inforcrop and ceres Models confirmed that among the varieties under test HD2643, UP262 and HUW234 possess maximum accurate simulated yield .Among the model ceres responded better over Info crop as to have the lower error % among all the varieties at highest CO2 level (470ppm). And among the varieties HD2643 possess highest error percentage over base yield i.e.28.43% from Ceres model and 31.0% from Inforcrop and the least error percentage was reported in HUW234 from both the model i.e. 24.9% from ceres and 27.5% from Inforcrop respectively.

Keywords:, Normal Temperature, Enhanced CO2, Sensitivity analysis andInforcrop

172

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)591-593 (2016)

 

Effect of pruning intensity and different levels of zinc sulphate on physico-chemical attributes of phalsa fruits (Grewia subinaequalis D.C.)

 

Geeta Goley*, Pradeep Kumar Yadav* and D.K. Yadav

N. D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad-224 229, India

*e-mail: geetafairy4@gmail.com

(Received: August04, 2015; Revised received: March 01, 2016;Accepted: March 03, 2016)

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Abstract: The present investigation was conducted during the year 2014-15. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized bock design with nine treatments and replicated in three times, considering two plants as a unit.The treatments significantly increased the vegetative growth and yield of phalsa. The maximum fruit length(1.53cm) & width(1.07cm), weight of 50 fruits(49.33g), pulp: stone ratio(1.23), total soluble solids (29.000 Brix), reducing sugar % (16.05), non reducing sugar % (4.63), total sugars % (21.08), minimum acidity (1.91%) and maximum ascorbic acid (38.50 mg/100 g pulp) were recorded with the spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.4 per cent with 50cm pruning intensity.

Key Words: Foliar application of nutrients, Physico- chemical attributes of phalsa

173

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)594-596 (2016)

 

Effect of edible coatings on biochemical properties and storage life of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under ambient condition

 

Manoj, H. G.1, Praneeth.2, Poornachandra Gowda, G.*3, Chirag Reddy1and Sreenivas, K. N.1

1Department of Post-Harvest Technology, 2Department of PSMAC, 3Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture, UHS Campus, GKVK, Bangalore 560065, University of Horticultural Sciences, India

*e-mail: purnachandra.gowda@gmail.com

(Received: July22, 2015; Revised received: February 24, 2016;Accepted: February 26, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Bell pepper fruits coated with chitosan and Aloe vera gel, showed significant changes with respect to changes in biochemical properties over different storage durations. Fruits coated with 1 % chitosan showed best results in all biochemical properties, viz., highest total acidity (0.22 %), minimum loss in ascorbic acid (84.00 mg 100-1g) and decreased level of antioxidant activity (204.94 mg 100-1g). Whereas, Aloe vera gel at 20 % showed better results with respect to least microbial (bacteria and fungi) growth at the end of 9 days of storage (0.09 X 103 and 0.15 X 103 CFU/g respectively.

Key words: Edible coating, Chitosan, Aloe vera, Capsicum, Biochemical properties

 

174

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)597-598 (2016)

 

Yield gap analysis of sorghum through front line demonstrations in Kalaburagi region of northern Karnataka

 

Anand Naik*, Raju, G. Teggelli, Zaheer Ahamed, B. and Devappagouda H. Patil

Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburagi UAS, Raichur, Karnataka 585 101, India

*e-mail: anandnaik2@gmail.com

(Received: August27, 2015; Revised received: February 21, 2016;Accepted: February 24, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The study was carried out during Rabi season of 2011-12 to 2013-14. All the front line demonstrations were carried out in an area of 5 hectares with 12 demonstrations. The results of FLD’s showed that improved technologies consisting of use of improved variety, seed treatment with Azospirillium, balanced fertilizer application and integrated pest management recorded higher yield as compared to farmer’s local practice. The results indicated an increase in yield (14.53 q/ha) and yield attributes in the demonstration package compared to the farmers practice (12.90 q/ha). Average net returns of Rs. 25,110/- with a benefit cost ratio of 3.6 was obtained in demonstration compared to Rs.23, 750/- per hectare of farmers practice with a benefit cost ratio of 3.0. Thus, front line demonstrations are effective tools in introducing new technologies to the farmers on the basis of results obtained in other fields.

Index terms: Front line demonstrations, Sorghum, Yield attribute, Yield potential

 

175

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)599-601 (2016)

 

Effect of calcium and potassium compounds on physical parameters and chemical composition of fruit of guava (Psidium guajava L.)

 

Sanjay Kumar Vishwakarma, B. K. Singh, Anand K. Singh, S. P. Singh and Anil Kumar*

Department of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Science, B.H.U.,Varanasi-221005, India

*e-mail: akkakori@gmail.com

(Received: August14, 2015; Revised received: February 23, 2016;Accepted: February 25, 2016)

 

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Abstract: An experiment was conducted to find out the effect of calcium and potassium compounds on physical parameters and chemical composition of winter season guava. The experiment was laid out with fourteen treatment comprising six nutrients namely calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, calcium sulphate, potassium chloride, and potassium nitrate, potassium sulphate along with water spray and two concentrations (1 and 1.5%) of each nutrient spray of water used as a control. Increasing concentration of nutrients resulted in significant increase in length of fruit (7.70 and 7.81cm), diameter of fruit (8.22 and 8.40cm) and fruit volume (191.00 and 196.67cm3) were improved significantly with increasing concentration of nutrients and recorded highest values at 1.5% potassium nitrate during both seasons. The chemical composition like total soluble solids (18.87 and 18.73 0Brix), low acidity as anhydrous citric acid (0.33 and 0.37%) and ascorbic acid (110.09 and 115.68mg/100g). Application of potassium nitrate at higher concentration (1.5%) recorded more value for physical parameters and chemical composition of fruits.

Key words: Physical parameters, Chemical composition

 

176

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)602-605 (2016)

 

Effect of edible coatings on quality parameters and storage life of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under ambient condition

 

Manoj, H. G.1, Praneeth2, PoornachandraGowda G.3, Chirag Reddy1 and Sreenivas, K.N.1

1Department of Post-Harvest Technology, 2 Department of PSMAC, 3 Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture,

College of Horticulture, UHS Campus, GKVK, Bangalore 560065, University of Horticultural Sciences, India

*e-mail: purnachandra.gowda@gmail.com

(Received: July22, 2015; Revised received: February 09, 2016;Accepted: February 14, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Chitosan and Aloe vera gel coatings on bell pepper creates a semi permeable barrier that controls gases exchange and reduce water loss, there by maintain tissue firmness, reducing microbial decay and delays oxidative browning. In this experiment, the bell pepper fruits coated with 1 % chitosan recorded minimum weight loss (17.56 %), maximum firmness (3.67 kg/cm­2), least TSS (5.27 °B), and retained the maximum green colour at 9 days of storage. Whereas, the bell pepper fruits which were not coated with any of the edible coatings recorded the maximum weight loss (21.68 %), least firmness (2.01 kg/cm­2), highest TSS (7.03 °B), and retained minimum green colour.

Key words: Edible coating, Chitosan, Aloe vera, Capsicum, Storage life

177

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)606-608 (2016)

 

Effect of pruning intensity and different levels of potassium chloride on physico-chemical attributes of phalsa fruits (Grewia subinaequalis D.C.)

 

Pradeep Kumar Yadav, A.L.Yadav and Geeta Goley*

Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology,Kumarganj-Faizabad-224 229, India

*e-mail: geetafairy4@gmail.com

(Received: August04, 2015; Revised received: March 01, 2016;Accepted: March 03, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The present investigation was carried outduring the year 2014-15. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with nine treatments and replicated in three times, considering two plants as a unit. The treatments significantly increased the quality of phalsa fruits. The maximum fruit length (1.26cm) & width (1.11cm), weight of 50 fruits (46.35g), pulp: stone ratio (1.21), total soluble solids (27.00o Brix), reducing sugar (15.05%), non reducing sugar (3.96%), total sugars(19.01%), minimum acidity(1.96%) and maximum ascorbic acid(36.50 mg/100 g pulp) were recorded with the spray of KCl @ 0.4 per cent at 50 cm pruning intensity.

Key Words: Foliar application of nutrients, Physico-chemical attributes of phalsa

178

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)609-612 (2016)

 

Subsurface drainage for combating soil salinity and waterlogging in vertisols of canal command, Karnataka

 

M.V. Manjunatha*1 andManjunatha Hebbara2

1Agricultural Engineering, 2Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, College of Agriculture, UAS, Dharwad-580 005, India

*e-mail: mvmuasd@gmail.com

(Received: August06, 2015; Revised received: March 07, 2016;Accepted: March 11, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Considerable increase in crop production is achieved due to introduction of irrigation and adoption of new crop production technologies and crop varieties in India. In spite of its beneficial effects of irrigation, soil salinity and waterlogging are unavoidable processes in vertisols in semi-arid regions because of their inherent poor drainage property coupled with high potential evapo-transpiration rates. Vast area has been already affected due to these twin problems and more land is likely to go out of cultivation if non-judicious use of water is continued. Re-habilitation of these vast stretches of saline/waterlogged lands has become vital, as there is an obligation to provide food to the ever-growing population. Subsurface drainage system was installed in the farmer’s field near Virupapur village, in Karnataka during 1998 in an area of 62 ha and its performance was studied in terms of changes in soil salinity, water table, crop yield and cropping intensity. Considerable reduction in soil salinity, lowering of water table, and increase in paddy yield and improvement in cropping intensity was recorded in the subsurface drained area. Nitrogen loss through subsurface drainage system was estimated and it was in the range of 2 to 7 per cent of the recommended dose of nitrogen for paddy(i.e., 150 kg/ha) during different crop season. Partial blocking of the drainage system by the farmer’s was also observed resulting in increase in soil salinity in the lower profiles of the soil.

Key words: Soil salinity, Waterlogging, Subsurface drainage, Land reclamation and Crop improvement

179

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)613-616 (2016)

 

Studies on scaling up of seed yield and its quality parameters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

 

Mahesh Kumar*, R.D.S. Yadav, Sarvjeet, Neeraj Kumar, R. K. Chaudhary

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, N. D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad- , India

*e-mail: kumarnduat@gmail.com

(Received: July26, 2015; Revised received: March 09, 2016;Accepted: March 15, 2016)

 

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Abstract: An investigation was carried out during rabi season of 2012 and 2013 for developing appropriate agronomic practices for seed production of wheat variety PBW 502. Twenty four treatments i.e. combinations of two sowing methods, three levels of fertilizer doses (NPK) and four levels of zinc sulphate, were laid out in 3 factor factorial randomized complete block design i.e. split-plot design with three replications. Methods of sowing were kept in main plots with different levels of fertilizer doses and zinc sulphate as Split Plots. Periodical observations were recorded on growth, yield attributing characters and grain yield. The results revealed that various methods of sowing and varied levels of NPK had significant effect on seed yield and its quality parameters like germination (%), germination rate, seedling length and vigour index. Increasing levels of zinc sulphate significantly increased the germination rate and vigour index. Highest seed yield (54.77 q ha-1 and 56.41 q ha-1) was obtained from the plants sown on ridges. Maximum seed yield potential can be obtained under ridge method of sowing along with the application of RDF + 25% higher dose and zinc sulphate @ 30 kg ha-1 as these combinations resulted into good quality seeds which were also permissible to standard seed health status.

Key words: Wheat, Sowing methods, Zinc sulphate,NPK

180

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)617-620 (2016)

 

Influence of different levels of calcium and phosphorus fertilization on growth and yield attributes of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

 

Ravi Kumar*, Rajesh Singh and Manoj Kumar

Department of Agronomy, Allahabad School of Agriculture, SHIATS, Allahabad - 211007, India

*e-mail: raviagronomy11@gmail.com

(Received: July08, 2015; Revised received: March 14, 2016;Accepted: March 16, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at crop research farm, Department of Agronomy, Allahabad School of Agriculture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agricultural, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad (U. P)near the Yamuna river to study the effect of different levels of calcium and phosphorus on growth and yield attribute of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) during Kharif season,2014.It was consisting of combination of four levels of phosphorus (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1) and four levels of calcium (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg Ca ha-1). The field experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The results showed that application of calcium fertilizer (150 kg ha1) had a significantly maximum growth and yield attributes viz., plant height (9.17, 22.36 and 36.38 cm, at 30,60, 90 DAS), plant dry weight (2.33, 4.55, 5.93 and 14.66 g at 15, 30, 45 and 60 DAS),CGR (g m-2 day-1) (1.92, 1.77, 2.10and 6.98 g at 0-15, 15-30, 30-45,and 45-60 DAS), number of nodule plant-1, seed yield(2.065 t ha-1), podyield (2.70.85 t ha-1), number of filled pods plant-1 (38.00), shelling percentage (76.41 %) respectively than other application of fertilizers application levels treatments.

Key words: Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), phosphorus levels and calcium levels

181

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)621-627 (2016)

 

Genetic diversity and DNA fingerprinting analysis among commercial pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) using RAPD and SSR markers

 

Sirat Sultan Mohammad*1, B. Fakrudin 2 , Gaurav N. Chaudhari2, Mahantesh Y. Jogi3

1Department of Fruit Science, 2 Dept. of Biotechnology and Crop Improvement, 3Dept. of Vegetable Science,

College of Horticulture, UHS campus, Bengaluru 560 065, India

*e-mail: sirat90@yahoo.com

(Received: August15, 2015; Revised received: March 16, 2016;Accepted: March 17, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of important horticultural plant in India with about several genotypes cultivated in several regions of country. Molecular markers including RAPD, and SSR were used to evaluate genetic diversity of twenty four pomegranate cultivars. Genetic parameters consisted of effective alleles (Ne), Nei genetic diversity (H), and polymorphic information content (PIC) was calculated based on molecular data. RAPD markers with their dominant nature showed the highest value of genetic parameters aforementioned with PIC value among all markers. Combined data of RAPD markers showed higher genetic diversity than SSR markers. UPGMA tree obtained from combined molecular data (total 1017 amplicons) discriminated pomegranate genotypes in two major groups. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) based on the first two components confirmed clustering. The homonymous, synonymous and/or mislabelled genotypes were identified using random decamer DNA markers. The matrix analysis showing calculated genetic similarity values indicated significant similarity (p= 0.94) between pomegranate genotypes in different localities. Only 2% of overall genetic variation was due to among locality groups differencewhile 98% of variation was due to within group differences.

Keywords: Combined molecular markers, Homonym, PIC, Punica granatum L. Genetic diversity DNA Fingerprinting; RAPD; SSR; PCR; Decamer primers; Dendrogram

Abbreviations: Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR), Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), principle Component analysis (PCA), Polymorphic Information Content (PIC), Unweighted Paired Group Mean using Arithmetic Average (UPGMA), Neighbor Joining (NJ).

182

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)628-633 (2016)

 

Estimating combining ability through Line × Tester analysis in upland cotton

 

Usharani C.V.*1, Manjula S.M.2 and S.S. Patil3

Dept. of Genetic and Plant Breeding, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, India

*e-mail: usha12dwd@gmail.com

(Received: August28, 2015; Revised received: March 18, 2016;Accepted: March 22, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Combining ability of the parents was estimated by using line x tester analysis to determine the ability of parents to combine their favourable alleles/genes during the process of hybridization and transfer those to their progenies. Two types of combining abilities viz., general combining ability (GCA) which is due to additive genes whereas specific combining ability (SCA) is due to dominant and epistatic gene effects were estimated. Twenty seven parents (22 lines and five testers) along with their 110 F1 hybrids were studied in lattice square design (LSD) with two replications during 2014-15 at ARS Hebballi, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The important yield contributing traits viz., number of bolls per plant, boll weight (g), seed cotton yield (q ha-1), ginning outturn percentage and seed index (g) were studied. The results indicatedthat GCA variances due to lines and testers and SCA variances due to lines x testers interaction were significant for all the characters studied. However, the magnitude of GCA from lines (females) and testers (pollinators) were lesser than the SCA indicating pre dominance of non-additive genes in the expression of all the traits except boll weight. Nonetheless, among the lines, DHS 10-4, MCU 8 and TCH 1457 whereas in testers, DHS T2 and DHS T3 by manifesting maximum GCA effects were regarded as the best general combiners for almost all the traits suggesting the presence of more additive genes in these parents, hence may serve as potential parents to be considered for hybridization and selection programmes to improve the characters studied. Among the F1 hybrids,DHS 10-4 x DHST1, TCH 1457 x DHS T3 and IC 3584 x DHS T3 were found as the best specific combiners for seed cotton yield. Therefore, these hybrids may be preferred for hybrid crop development.

Key Words: Combining ability, Line × Tester analysis, Gossypium hirsutum L.

183

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)634-636 (2016)

 

Effect of nutrient doses on growth, seed yield and tuber yield of glory lily (Gloriosasuperba L.)

 

Rahul S. Phatak*1, Laxminarayan Hegde2,Vijaykumar Narayanpur2,N. K. Hegde1

1Dept. of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic crops, KRC College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, India

2Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, College of Horticulture, Sirsi, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: rphatak2@gmail.com

(Received: August18, 2015; Revised received: March 19, 2016;Accepted: March 22, 2016)

 

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Abstract: In an experiment conducted to find the effect of nutrient doses on growth and yield of glory lily during 2012-13 at Antravalli, Kumta (Uttara Kannada, Karnataka),with six treatments replicated four times,15t Farm Yard Manure (FYM) + 150:75:120 kg NPK / ha registered significantly highest vine length (181.80 cm), number of branches (9.40), stem girth (6.97 mm), fresh seed yield (32.03 q/ha) and dry seed yield (6.57 q/ha). Fresh and dry seed yields in this treatment were statistically on par with 15t FYM + 125:70:100 kg NPK / ha. Significantly highest number of pods (17.0) / plant and pod length (7.11 cm) were recorded in 15t FYM + 100:50:75 kg NPK / ha and 15t FYM + 125:70:100 kg NPK / ha, respectively. The highest tuber yield per ha (26.61q) was recorded in 15t FYM + 100:50:75 kg NPK / ha.

KEY WORDS:Agnishikha, Gloriosa lily, Glory lily, Nutrient doses

184

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)637-640 (2016)

 

Response of potassium to growth and yield of pearlmillet

 

S.S. Toncher*, M.R. Deshmukh, P.P. Kurhade and S.R. Anmulwad

Department of Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola-444 104, India

*e-mail: sandipresearch14@gmail.com

(Received: August25, 2015; Revised received: March 22, 2016;Accepted: March 27, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the kharif season of 2013-2014 in Vertisols of rainfed areas of central India to study the effect of application of graded doses of potassium (15, 30 and 45 kg K2O ha-1) on growth and yield of pearlmillet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Five treatments of different levels of potassium were tested in Vertisols possessing available potassium level up to 340.3 kg ha-1. Application of 60:30:00 kg NPK ha-1+45 kg K2O ha-1 recorded the maximum plant height, number of functional leaves, leaf area, girth of main stem and dry matter accumulation with highest values of yield attributes viz., number of effective tillers plant-1, number of earhead plant-1, mean length of earhead, circumference of earhead, weight of earhead g plant-1, weight of grains g plant-1 and test weight. Similarly, it enhanced the pealmillet grain and stover yield to an extent of 1690 and 3591 kg ha-1.

KEY WORDS: Grain yield, Growth parameters, Potassium, Pearlmillet,Stover yield, Vertisol, Yield attributes

185

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)641-646 (2016)

 

Molecular approaches for regulation of fruit ripening-A review

 

Harikanth Porika*, Gaurav N Chaudhari, Mahantesh Y Jogi, Mahadevappa Koti

College of Horticulture, UHS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore-560065, India

*e-mail: harikanthporika@gmail.com

(Received: August25, 2015; Revised received: March 22, 2016;Accepted: March 27, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Fruit ripening is a complex phenomenon with drastic changes in chemical composition, which enhance an important quality attributes such as flavour, softness, sweetness and color. These changes are very coordinated and involve many biochemical steps, which are upon a stringent and integrated control played by plant hormones and gene expression, including epigenetic mechanism. The expression of specific genes is essential to normal ripening and the synthesis of enzymes involved in the autocatalytic ethylene burst during climacteric fruit ripening. However, several other metabolic pathway are dependent on the modulation by gene expression, and some genes of enzymes putatively controlling the most important physiological changes associated to fruit ripening have been pointed. Based on the studies on tomatoes, there is already some understanding about the genes involved in the most important physiological changes, such as the accumulation of soluble sugars, cell wall disassembly, and synthesis of pigments during fruit ripening. In this way, the identification of genes induced during ripening could provide important clues about the activation of biochemical steps and its relationship to fruit quality.

Keywords: Fruit ripening, Gene expression, Molecular and quality

186

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (5)647-650 (2016)

           

Management of dry root rot disease in chickpea (Cicer ArietinumL.) caused by Macrophomina Phaseolina

 

Jyothi, V.* and Muhammad Saifulla

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore -560065, India

*e-mail: jyothivpath@gmail.com

(Received: August10, 2015; Revised received: March 23, 2016;Accepted: March 27, 2016)

 

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Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during Rabi and Kharif season at ZARS, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore under sick plot soil condition. Among the 15 treatments employed in management of dry root rot(DRR) during the Rabi seasonseed treatment with tebuconazole (2g kg-1 of seed) recorded significantly lowest dry root rot incidence of 7.12% with highest yield of754.74 kg ha-1, followed by seed treatment with tebuconazole (2g kg-1) + carbendazim (1g kg-1)recorded 14.87 % disease incidence with a yield of 721.05 kg ha-1compared to control which recorded 42.18 % diseases incidence with yield of 309.86 kg ha-1. During Kharif season also seed treatment with tebuconazole (2g kg-1 of seed) recorded lowest dry root rot incidence of 10.28 % with highest yield of 697.36 kg ha-1, followed by seed treatment with tebuconazole (2g kg-1) + carbendazim (1g kg-1) recorded 16.44 % disease incidence with yield of 637.86 kg ha-1 compared to control which recorded highest disease incidence of 45.64 % with yield of 259.55 kg ha-1. Mean data of Rabi and Kharif seasons indicated that seed treatment with tebuconazole (2g kg-1 of seed) recorded least disease incidence (8.70 %) with highest yield of 726.05 kg ha-1 and C: B ratio (1:2.37), followed by seed treatment with tebuconazole (2g kg-1) + carbendazim (1g kg-1) recorded 15.66 % diseases incidence with yield of 679.45 kg ha-1 and C: B ratio of 1:2.20 compared to control which recorded 43.91 % diseases incidence with yield of 284.70 kg ha-1 and C: B ratio of 1:0.95.

Key words: Chickpea, Macrophomina phaseolina, Management, DRR

 

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