RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-9, Number-6, JUNE-2016

 

187

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6)651-654(2016)

 

Seed storage methods, germination and growth studies in karonda (carissa carandas L.)

Muthanna, K.T.1, Praneeth, Y.S.*1, Vinay, G.M.1and Mahadevamma, M.2

1College of Horticulture, GKVK post, Bengaluru -560065, India

2Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture, UHS Campus, GKVK post, Bengaluru-560065, India

*e-mail: praneethchama@gmail.com

(Received: August 08, 2015; Revised received: April 26, 2016;Accepted: April 28, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The experiment was conducted for the study the effect of storage on viability of karonda seeds, their germination and growth of seedlings. Among the treatments seeds stored in earthen pots had minimum reduction in the seed moisture percent (41.67% and 15.93%) after two months and four months of storage respectively.Polyethylene coverin refrigeratorrecorded the minimum number of days taken for initiation of germination (19.67 days) and 50 per cent germination (29.00 days).Aluminium foil coated pouch in refrigeratorrecorded maximum germination per cent (56.67%), seedling height (12.91 cm), number of leaves (40.30), fresh weight and dry weight of seedling (6.39 g and 3.17 g) respectively and vigour index-I and II 731.57 cm and 179.63 g respectively.The present investigation, indicate that aluminium foil coated pouch in refrigerator after two months of storagewas best for seed storage, germination and growth of seedlings.

Key words:Karonda, Seed storage, Germination, Aluminium foil coated pouch

 

 

188

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 655-657 (2016)

 

Growth and yield of aerobic rice as influenced by levels and time of application of nitrogen

T. G. Amrutha, H. M. Jayadeva, H. D. Shilpa and C. M. Sunil*

University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agronomy, GKVK, Bangalore 560 065, India

*e-mail: sunilcmuasb@gmail.com

(Received: October16, 2015; Revised received: April 04, 2016;Accepted: April 07, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during kharif comprising of 5 levels of nitrogen (80, 90, 100, 110 & 120 kg N per ha) and two levels of time of application of nitrogen (50 % at sowing + 25 % at tillering + 25 % at panicle initiation and 10 % at sowing + 40 % at tillering + 25 % at 50 DAS + 25 % at flowering) laid out in a factorial Randomized Complete Block Design comprising of 3 replications and 10 treatments. Application of nitrogen at 120 kg/ha recorded significantly higher growth attributes, yield attributes and grain yield over 80 kg N application per ha. Among different levels of time of application of nitrogen, application of 50 % nitrogen at sowing + 25 % at tillering + 25 % at panicle initiation recorded significantly higher growth attributes. Plant height(38.57cm) Leaf area index(3.93), Number of tillers per hill(26.80) Total dry matter production (89.50g hill-1), yield attributes i.e Productive tillers per hill(18.41), Panicle length(21.01cm), 1000 seed weight (21.75g) No. of filled grains per panicle(70.65) Sterility per cent(15.67) Grain yield (4318kg ha-1) Straw yield(6847kg ha-1) Harvest index(0.380)over application of nitrogen as 10 % at sowing + 40 % at tillering + 25 % at 50 DAS + 25 % at flowering. Thus application of nitrogen at 120 kg/ha at sowing (50 %) + tillering (25 %) + panicle initiation (25%) was found to be optimum nitrogen management for higher productivity of aerobic rice.

Key words: Aerobic rice, Levels of nitrogen and Time of application

 

 

189

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 658-659 (2016)

 

Yield gap analysis through front line demonstrations (FLDs) in wheat crop

Anand Naik*, Devappagouda H. Patil, Raju, G. Teggelli and Zaheer Ahamed, B.

Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburagi UAS, Raichur, Karnataka 585 101, India

*e-mail: anandnaik2@gmail.com

(Received: August27, 2015; Revised received: March 11, 2016;Accepted: March14, 2016)

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Abstract: The present study was carried out at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburagi to know the yield gaps between improved package and practices (IP) under Front Line Demonstration (FLD) and farmers practice (FP) of wheat crop during 2010-11 to 2013-14 in different adopted villages. Prevailing farmers practices were treated as control for comparison with recommended practices. The average yield of demonstrated plot obtained was 20.78. q/ha over control (17.61 /ha) with an additional yield of 3.17 q/ha and the increase average wheat productivity by 17.87 per cent. The average technology gap and index were found to be 14.21 and 40.61 per cent, respectively.

Key words: Front Line Demonstration; Transfer of Technology; Recommended practices; Yield gap

 

 

 

190

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 660-662(2016)

 

Nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency of aerobic rice as influenced by levels and time of application of nitrogen

T. G. Amrutha*, H. M. Jayadeva, H. D. Shilpa and C. M. Sunil

Department of Agronomy, Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru 560065, India

*e-mail: ammusagara@gmail.com

(Received: October 16, 2015; Revised received: April 06, 2016;Accepted: April 10, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during kharif, 2012 at University of Agricultural Sciences,GKVK, Bengaluru to study the impact of levels and time of application of nitrogen on nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiencyof riceunder aerobic condition. The experiment consistsof five levels of nitrogen viz., as factor A i.e. Nitrogen at 120, 110, 100, 90 and 80 kg ha-1) and two time of application of nitrogen as factor B i.e. 10 % at sowing + 40 % at tillering (25 DAS) + 25 % at 50 DAS + 25 % at 75 DAS and 50 % at Sowing + 25 % at tillering (25 DAS) + 25 % at panicleinitiation 50 DAS.The application of nitrogen at 120 kg ha-1 recorded significantly higher nutrients uptake andnutrients use efficiency as compared to application of nitrogen at 80 kg ha-1. Among time of application of nitrogen, application of nitrogen as 10 % at sowing + 40 % at tillering (25 DAS) + 25 % at 50 DAS + 25 % at 75 DAS recorded highest nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency. Whereas, the net returns and B:C ratioalso followed the similar trend. From the studies it can be concluded that application of 120 kg nitrogen per ha as 10 % at sowing + 40 % at tillering (25 DAS) + 25 % at 50 DAS + 25 % at 75 DASrecorded highest nutrient uptake and use efficiency with higher net returns and B:C ratio.

Key words: Aerobic rice, Nutrients uptake, Nutrients use efficiency and Correlation studies

 

 

191

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 663-665(2016)

 

Effect of different weed control treatments on growth, yield parameters and studies on effect of herbicides on soil micro organisms in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.)

Jeevan, U.*1, Padmavathamma, A.S.1, Halesh, G.K.2, Nayan Deepak, G.3 and Bhagya, H.P.4

1Division of Floriculture and Landscaping, College of Horticulture- Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India

2IARI New Delhi ,3COH - Bengaluru, 4IIOPR, Pedavagi, India

*e-mail: jeevan.horti@gmail.com

(Received: November 27, 2015; Revised received: May 02, 2016;Accepted: May 05, 2016)

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Abstract: To study the effect of herbicides as a chemical, paddy straw as an organic mulch and black polythene sheet as an inorganic mulch on growth, flowering and yield parameters of tuberose in the cultivar Hyderabad Single in plot size of 3.0 x 3.0 m.The three pre emergent herbicideslike pendimethalin 30 EC, oxyflourfen 23 EC and atrazine 5%WP and quizalofop ethyl as a post emergent herbicides were utilized for this experiment. Black polythene sheet was the best treatment with respect to quality, yield and weed control was noticed. To know the greenness Also calculated the weed control efficiency (WCE) and weed index in all the treatments. Apart from weed controlling effect, they also greatly impact on soil microorganisms like fungi(10.-3),47.33 & bacteria(10-5)99.00. These microorganisms are very much essential for various biological processes, during the crop growth period. So keeping all these in concern, soil microbial study was conducted onlywith different pre emergent herbicides like pendimethalin, atrazine and oxyfluorfen. The results were highly significant for cfu (colony forming unit) count for different herbicides. Due to thisimpact of herbicides on soil microbial population is only for transient period of about two weeks from date of spraying and soon after growth will be recovered.

Key words: Black polythene sheet,Herbicides, SPAD Value, Weed control efficiency, Weed index,cfu count

 

 

192

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 666-668(2016)

 

Application of growth regulators for production of quality nursery stock on different clones of poplar (Populus deltoides)

Neeta S. Kerketta*1 and Afaq Majid Wani2

1School of Forestry and Environment, SHIATS, Allahabad Agricultural Institute, Allahabad- 211007, India

2Tree breeding School of Forestry and Environment, SHIATS, Allahabad-211007, India

*e-mail: kerkettaneeta@gmail.com

(Received: November 12, 2015; Revised received: May 13, 2016;Accepted: May 16, 2016)

 

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Abstract:The cuttings were obtained from the forest nursery, school of forestry and environment with 15 cm length and without any branches and flowers.The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design (RBD) with tree replications. The properly prepared cuttings were treated with different growth regulator IBA(100 ppm), IAA (100 ppm), NAA (100 ppm), GA3 (100 ppm), 2,4-D (100 ppm). Among the different treatments the most effective growth regulator was T1 (IBA 100 ppm) in all aspects as survival percentage, sprouted length, number of roots, root length, fresh weight of root, dry weight of rootcompared to other treatments. Overall treatment V1T1(S7C15 and IBA 100 ppm), combination was found best in all the parameters observed.

Key words: Poplar, Growth regulators, Clone, Survival percentage

 

193

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 669-671 (2016)

 

Biology and development of root-knot nematode (M. incognita) on Patchouli

Shivalingappa Hotkar*1, Reddy, B.M.R.1, Ravichandra, N.G.1, M. Vasundhara2, Shreeshail Sonyal1, Mahesha, H.S.1 and Somaning, S.1

1Department of Plant Pathology, 2Department of Horticulture, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore 560065, India

*e-mail: shivu1053@gmail.com

(Received: November 16, 2015; Revised received: May 11, 2016;Accepted: May 14, 2016)

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Abstract: The biology of M. incognita was studied on patchouli, with respect to the invasion of larvae into roots, their development and maturity in the roots and the reproduction. The results revealed that second stage juveniles (J2) invaded the roots of patchouli two days after inoculation. Maximum number of juveniles 180.40 invaded the roots of patchouli at 5 days after inoculation (DAI). Development and maturity of 2nd stage juvenile was observed from 02-11 DAI. However, 3rd stage juvenile was observed from 09-15 DAI. 4th stage nematodes were observed from 12-21 DAI. Few males were also observed. Mature females were observed from 15-28 DAI. Egg deposition started at 31st DAI. M. incognita took 24 days to produce galls on patchouli, with respect to the number of days taken for egg-mass production, it was found 31days and each egg mass contained 278 eggs.

Key words: Cimshreshta, Lnvasion, Development, Maturity and Reproduction

 

 

194

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 672-675 (2016)

 

Performance and capital use efficiency of Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) genotypes in their production

Uma Kant Singh1, Devi Singh1, V. M. Prasad1, Hemant Kumar*2 and Rajiv Umrao2

1Dept. of Horticulture,, 2Dept. of Forestry, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad-211007, India

*e-mail: hemantfri@gmail.com

(Received: November 17, 2015; Revised received: May 15, 2016;Accepted: May 17, 2016)

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Abstract: Study was conducted during Kharif season to evaluate the correlation between growth and yield attribute with net return as well as B: C ratio of 40 genotypes of Bitter gourd. Observations were recorded on the following traits viz. plant height, number of branches per plant, days to first appearance of male flower,days to first appearance of female flower, Number of male flower, Number of female flower, Number of fruits / plant and Fruit yield (q/ha) and analyzed statistically. The capital use efficiency and B: C ratio among the genotypes was recorded higher in IC-085612(IIVR) and IC-085616(IIVR) with (1:6.16 & 1:5.76) while minimum (1:2.09) was in IC-085608 during both the years of investigation suggesting that investment of capital in production of bitter gourd of above genotype were the most efficient as well as their production is highly profitable for the growers.

Key words: Bitter gourd, Genotypes, Capital efficiency, B: C ratio & Net return

 

 

195

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 676-680 (2016)

 

Management of M. incognita infesting Patchouli under field condition

Shivalingappa Hotkar*1, Reddy, B.M.R.1, Ravichandra, N.G.1, M. Vasundhara2, Shreeshail Sonyal1, Mahesha, H.S.1 and Somaning, S.1

1Department of Plant Pathology, 2Department of Horticulture, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore 560065, India

*e-mail: shivu1053@gmail.com

(Received: November 19, 2015; Revised received: May 10, 2016;Accepted: May 14, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was carried out to evaluate bio-agents- Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma viride, organic amendment-Neem cake and cultural-incorporation of Mustard crop15 days before planting and inter crop with marigold as management practices, for their efficacy against Meloidogyne incognita on patchouli cv. Cimshreshta, along with Carbofuran 3G as chemical check. The results of the trial on efficacy of different treatments on nematode parameters viz., soil and root population of M. incognita and number of galls/root system, number of egg masses/root system and number of eggs/egg mass. The nematode population in 200 cc soil was lowest at 30 DAP (331.80/200 cc soil) followed by, 60 DAP (292.42), 90 DAP (218.43), 120 DAP (175.62) and at harvest (155.43) was observed with P. fluorescens. All the treatments recorded lower population of nematodes per 5 g root over untreated check. However, P. fluorescens recorded minimum nematode population of 53.73 per 5 g root. P. fluorescens recorded minimum number of galls 23.76 galls/root system, against untreated check (89.30 galls/root system). P. fluorescens recorded minimum number of egg masses and number of eggs per egg mass (18.13 per root system and 135.96 eggs per egg mass).

Key words: Psuedomonas fluorescens, Meloidogyne incognita, soil and root population, number of galls/root system, number of egg masses/root system and number of eggs/egg mass.

 

 

196

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 681-683(2016)

 

Effect of plant activators (Manda-31) on growth and yield parameters of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) hybrid (NS-501)

M. Puneeth, M. Anjanappa*, B. Sureshkumara and R. Kirankumar

Department of vegetable science, College of Horticulture, UHS Campus, GKVK Post, Bengaluru-560 065, India

*e-mail: m_anjanappa@rediffmail.com

(Received: July 30, 2015; Revised received: April 06, 2016;Accepted: April 09, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of plant activator (Manda-31) on growth and yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) hybrid (NS-501) during summer 2013. Plants are sprayed with 15,000 ppm of plant activator (Manda-31) at vegetative stage recorded highest plant height (127.60 cm), number of leaves (92.27), number of branches (13.43) and total chlorophyll content (1.62 mg/g). Among the different yield attributing parameters, a significant increase was observed in number of fruits per plant (27.70), number of fruits per plot (132.67), average fruit weight (96.73 g), fruit yield per plant (3.92 kg/plant) and yield per hectare (82.52 t/ha) were observed with 15,000 ppm of plant activator (Manda-31) sprayed at vegetative stage. Among the different stages and concentrations of plant activator (Manda-31) foliar sprayed with 15,000 ppm (T7) at vegetative growth stage (20 and 30 days after transplanting) and 7,500 ppm (T4) at nursery stages (15 and 25 Days After Sowing) with 10 days intervals of sprays are more effective for growth and yield parameters of tomato.

Key words: Plant activators, MANDA-31 and Hybrid NS 501

 

 

197

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 684-687 (2016)

 

Influence of different dose of N, P and K on plant growth and flower yield on pinched seedling plants of African marigold (TageteserectaL.)

Purnima Singh* and Balaji Vikram

Department of Horticulture, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology & Sciences, Allahabad-211007, India

*e-mail: hhpurnima2@gmail.com

(Received: August 03, 2015; Revised received: April 05, 2016;Accepted: April 09, 2016)

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Abstract: The present experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of N2, P2O5 and K2O on growth and flower yield of African marigold (Tageteserecta L.) during the Rabi season 2014. Ten treatments were included in the trial. The experiment of design was randomized block design. The results reveal that N, P and K treatments had significant response ongrowth, floral and yield characters. The maximum plant height (92.61cm), number of branches per plant (18.31), number of leaves per plant (94.82), first day to bud appearance (47.12 day), stalk length of flower (8.89cm ), flower diameter (7.41cm), number of flowers per plant (40.44), weight of flowers (10.46 g ), flower yield per plant (423.00 g ), flower yield per plot (3807.00 g) and flower yield per hectare (38.07 t/ha)were produced by the treatment (T4) with 100% N+ 100% P+ 70% K. It was the best treatment for good vegetative as well as reproductive growth.

Key words: Marigold, NPK, Pinching, Growth, Flower and Yield

 

 

198

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 688-690 (2016)

 

Effect of calcium and potassium compounds on vegetative growth,

flowering and fruiting of guava (Psidium guajava L.)

Sanjay Kumar Vishwakarma, B. K. Singh, Anand K. Singh and Anil Kumar*

Deportment of Horticulture, Institute of Agricultural Science, B.H.U.,Varanasi-221005, India

*e-mail: akkakori@gmail.com

(Received: August 14, 2015; Revised received: April 24, 2016;Accepted: April 27, 2016)

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Abstract: An experiment was conducted to find out the effect of calcium and potassium compounds on vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting of winter season guava. The experiment was laid out with fourteen treatment comprising six nutrients namely calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, calcium sulphate, potassium chloride, and potassium nitrate, potassium sulphate along with water spray and two concentrations (1 and 1.5%) of each nutrient, spray of water is taken as a control. Increasing concentration of nutrients resulted in significant increase in vegetative growth in terms of stem length (148.67 and 165.40cm), stem girth (4.75 and 5.0cm) and number of leaves per shoot (74.00 and 81.67) were improved significantly with increasing concentration of nutrients and recorded highest values at 1.5% potassium nitrate during both seasons. Flowering and fruiting components like days of first flowering (24.67 and 26.17), number of flowers per shoot (21.00 and 24.39) and fruit set per shoot (17.67 and 22.45). Application of potassium nitrate at concentration of (1.5%) recorded significantly positive for all the flowering and fruiting characters.

Key words: Psidium guajava, Vegetative growth, Flowering, Fruiting

 

199

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 691-692( 2016)

 

First report of post harvest rhizome rot disease of Gloriosa superba L. from Sikkim, India

Sobita Simon*, Abhilasha A. Lal, Ratna K. Subba and Kamaluddeen

Department of Plant Pathology, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad- 211007, India

*e-mail: sobitasimon@gmail.com

(Received: August 03, 2015; Revised received: April 25, 2016;Accepted: April 28, 2016)

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Abstract: Tiger lily (Gloriosa superba L.) an endangered, herbaceous, perennial, climbing lily that produces colchicine, a toxic alkaloid, in Sikkim, India were found to be affected by a rot disease. The rhizomes were found covered with a black and also with blue powdery growth of the fungus during the post harvest storage conditions. The microscopic examination revealed that on the basis of morphological characters it was Aspergillus niger. The pathogenicity test also confirmed that the rhizome rot was caused by A. niger.Perusal of available literature revealed that this is the first report of rhizome rot disease of tiger lily from India.

Key words: Colchicine, Colchicoside, Gloriosa superba L., Rhizome rot

 

 

200

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 693-695 (2016)

 

Effect of edible coatings and packaging on biochemical properties and storage life of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under ambient condition

Manoj, H. G.1, Chirag Reddy 1, PoornachandraGowda G.*2, Praneeth3 and Dr. Sreenivas, K. N.1

1Department of Post-Harvest Technology, 2Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, 3Department of PSMAC,

College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences Campus, GKVK, Bangalore 560065, India

*e-mail: purnachandra.gowda@gmail.com

(Received: July 22, 2015; Revised received: April 04, 2016;Accepted: April 09, 2016)

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Abstract: Bell pepper fruits coated with chitosan and Aloe vera gel along with polyethylene packaging, showed significant changes with respect to changes in biochemical properties over different storage durations. Fruits coated with 1 % chitosan showed best results in all biochemical properties, viz., highest total acidity (0.21 %), minimum loss in ascorbic acid (79.20 mg 100-1g) and decreased level of antioxidant activity (243.18 mg 100-1g). Whereas, Aloe vera gel at 20 % showed better results with respect to least microbial (bacteria and fungi) growth at the end of 12 days of storage (0.15X 103 and 0.18 X 103 CFU/g respectively).

Key words: Edible coating, Polyethylene packaging, Capsicum, Biochemical properties

 

 

201

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 696-698(2016)

 

Effect of different doses of potassium on morph-phenological, biochemical and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in naturally saline soil

Megha B. R.*, M. B. Doddamani, Venkatesh M. Dore, Kiran B. A. and Renukaswamy N. S.

Department of Crop Physiology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, India

*e-mail: megharangappa@gmail.com

(Received: August 07, 2015; Revised received: April 06, 2016;Accepted: April 09, 2016)

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Abstract: The field experiment was conducted on saline soils in Roogi village of Mudhol taluk, Bagalkot district situated in the northern dry zone (Zone-III) of Karnataka during kharif 2013 to study the influence of graded potassium doses on biochemical traits and yield in maize grown in natural soil salinity. The experiment was consisting of different levels of salinity (<2, 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 dS m-1) and potassium doses (37.5 kg ha-1, 75.0 kg ha-1, 102.5 kg ha-1, 150 kg ha-1). It was revealed that the application of K significantly decreased K: Na ratios in soil and morphological parameters viz., plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, days to 50 per cent flowering and yield were significantly higher in the less saline soil of < 2 dS m-1as compared with the 6-8 dS m-1.

Key words: Maize, Saline soil, Potassium, K+/Na+ ratio, Yield

 

 

 

202

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 699-702 (2016)

 

Physiological parameters and yield characters of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) as influenced by fertigation

C. Krishnamoorthy1, K. Soorianathasundaram2 and S. Mekala3

1Vanavarayar Institute of Agriculture, Pollachi, India; 2Department of Fruit Crops, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India

3Department of Commerce with Computer Applications, Kongu Arts and Science College, Bharathiar University, India

*e-mail: plantdoctorkrishna@gmail.com

(Received: January 10, 2015; Revised received: April 01, 2016;Accepted: April 03, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment to study the influence of fertigation of N and K fertilizers on physiology and yield of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) cv. BSR 2 was carried out at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India. The experiment consisted of seven treatments replicated four times in a randomized block design. The physiological parameters viz., crop growth rate, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, soluble protein and yield parameters viz., number of mother, primary and secondary rhizomes, length and girth of mother, primary and secondary rhizomes, weight of mother, primary and secondary rhizomes, fresh, cured rhizome yield plant-1 and estimated cured rhizome yield hectare-1 were recorded. The study revealed that the fertigation treatments were significantly superior over the control. Among the treatments, N + K @ 100 % level (150 : 108 NK kg ha-1) by fertigation using water soluble fertilizers viz., Urea and Multi K registered the highest values for the above parameters.

Key words: Physiology, Yield, Fertigation, Water soluble fertilizers, Straight fertilizers

 

 

203

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 703-706(2016)

 

Influence of seed coating materials with chemicals on germination and vigour of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) during storage

Himanshu Rai*1, Poonam Singh1 and Ovais Hamid Peerzada2

1Department of Seed Science and Technology, C.S.A. University of Agriculture Technology, Kanpur-208 002, India

2Seed Science and Technology section, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, CCS HAU, Hisar-125004, India

*e-mail: Himanshurai.ag@gmail.com

(Received: April 06, 2015; Revised received: April 03, 2016;Accepted: April 09, 2016)

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Abstract: Maintenance of seed vigor and viability during storage is a matter of prime concern. Research on storability of hybrid rice in India is of recent origin. Freshly harvested seed produce of F1 hybrid rice KRH-2 were dried to safe level moisture (<15.3%), graded to uniform size and used for the study. The seeds were treated with seed (T0- Untreated control,T1- Polymer coating (Polykote @ 3ml/kg of seeddiluted with 5ml of water), T2 - Flowable thiram (Royal flow 40SC) @ 2.4ml/kg, T3- Polymer + Flowable thiram (Royal flow 40 SC) @ 2.4 ml/kg seed,T4-Vitavax 200 (containing Thiram 37.5% and Carboxil 37.5%) @ 2g/kg seed,T5-Polymer+Vitavax 200 (containing Thiram, 37.5% and Carboxil, 37.5%) @ 2g/kg of seed at recommended dosage. Seed senescence or deterioration is irreversible and inexorable process. Amount of moisture in seeds is probably the most important factor influencing seed viability during storage. It may be concluded that seed coating treatment of Vitavax 200 (containing Thiram 37.5% and Carboxil 37.5%) @ 2g/kg seed (T4), was found best followed byPolymer + Flowable thiram (Royal flow 40 SC) @ 2.4 ml/kg seed (T3) andPolymer coating (Polykote @ 3ml/kg of seed, diluted with 5ml of water) (T1) moisture content of 15.3% for maintaining high germination, vigour and lowest insect infestation during ambient storage of eight months.

Keywords: Rice, Seed Coating, Synthetic Polymer

 

 

204

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 707-710 (2016)

 

Effect of edible coatings and packaging on quality parameters and storage life of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under ambient condition

Manoj, H.G.1, Chirag Reddy 1, PoornachandraGowda, G.*2, Praneeth3 and Sreenivas, K.N.1

1Department of Post-Harvest Technology, 2Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, 3Department of PSMAC,

College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences Campus, GKVK, Bangalore-560065, India

*e-mail: purnachandra.gowda@gmail.com

(Received: July 22, 2015; Revised received: April 27, 2016;Accepted: April 30, 2016)

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Abstract: Bell pepper fruits coated with edible coatings such as chitosan and Aloe vera gel along with packaging was experimented to study their quality parameters and storage life. Chitosan and Aloe vera gel coatings with bell pepper creates a semi permeable barrier that controls gases exchange, reduce water loss and there by maintain tissue firmness, reducing microbial decay and delays oxidative browning. The fruits coated with chitosan 1 per cent along with polyethylene packaging showed minimum loss in weight (18.88 %), maximumfirmness (3.38 kg/cm2), least TSS (5.03 B), and retained the maximum green colour at 12th day of storage. Whereas, the bell pepper fruits which were not coated with any of the edible coatings recorded the maximum weight loss (23.57 %), least firmness (1.92 kg/cm2), highest TSS (6.70 B), and retained minimum green colour as recorded at 12th day of storage.

Key words: Edible coating, Chitosan, Polyethylene packaging, Capsicum, Storage life

 

 

205

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 711-713 (2016)

 

Effect of pruning intensity and different levels of zinc sulphate on vegetative growth and yield of phalsa fruits (Grewia subinaequalis D.C.)

Geeta Goley, Pradeep Kumar Yadav and D.K. Yadav

Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj-Faizabad-224 229, India

*e-mail: geetafairy4@gmail.com

(Received: August04, 2015; Revised received: April 24, 2016;Accepted: April 29, 2016)

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Abstract: The present investigation was carried outduring the year 2014-15. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design with nine treatments and replicated in three times, considering two plants as a unit.The treatments significantly increased the vegetative growth and yield of phalsa. The maximum vegetative growth attributes like as shoot length(212.00cm), number of shoots per plant(97.33), number of leaves per shoot(62.00), internodal length (7.06), yield attributes like number of fruits per node(18.33), number of fruiting nodeper shoot(18.00), fruit yield per plant(3.90 kg) and per hactare (64.93 q) were recorded with the spray of ZnSO4 @ 0.4 per cent with 50cm pruning intensity.

Key Words: Foliar application of nutrients, Vegetative growth, Yield attributes of phalsa

 

 

206

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 714-716 (2016)

 

Residual effect of crop residues on soybean productivity

K. S. Bhargav*1, N. S. Khedkar2, Rajiv Umat2 and G. R. Ambawatia2

1RVSKVV, KVK Dewas, India and 2RVSKVV, KVK Shajapur, India

*e-mail: ksbhargav@rediffmail.com

(Received: July29, 2015; Revised received: April 11, 2016;Accepted: April 19, 2016)

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Abstract: Burning crop residue after harvesting of wheat crop to minimize obstruction in sowing of succeeding crop is a common practice of Malwa plateau being used in approximately one lakh ha in Shajapur, alone which deteriorates soil health. Wheat is a main crop of Rabi after gram. Residual effect of crop residues on yield of soybean were studied at farmers field under on farm trial (OFT) program in 2008 and 2009 with following treatments such as (a) in situ mixing of wheat crop residue by the rotavator (CRMR), (b) incorporation of crop residues in the field by mould board plough (CRMMB) and (c) burning of wheat crop residues in the field (CRB). Observation revealed that increasing pattern of organic carbon from 0.35 to 0.40 % in two years which is main source of microbial activity which ultimately enhances nutrient availability in field and produced higher grain yield in CRMR i.e 45.94% higher than CRB and 24.29% higher than CRMB.

Key Words: Rotavator, Soybean, Crop Residues, Wheat Residue and Organic Content

 

 

207

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 717-720 (2016)

 

Evaluation of substrates and supplements for enhancing the productivity of paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea)

Amit Kumar Maurya, Pradip Kumar*, Vivek Singh and Sanjeev Kumar

Department of Plant Pathology, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad-224229, India

*e-mail: pradipnduat07@gmail.com

(Received: August20, 2015; Revised received: April 14, 2016;Accepted: April 18, 2016)

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Abstract: The present study was taken up to find out the best substrate and supplement for the production of paddy straw mushroom. In evaluation of four locally available substrates for its cultivation, cotton waste substrate produced highest yield (734.8g and 796.2g per bed) and biological efficiency (14.7 % and 15.92 %) in both the cropping period followed by pea straw (12.96 % and 14.16 %), paddy straw (9.32 % and 12.68 %) and wheat straw (8.54 % and 11.32 %) respectively, in both the cropping period. Out of five supplements were evaluated on paddy straw substrate, rice bran enhanced highest yield (821.0g per bed of 5.0 kg dry substrate) followed by wheat bran (791.3g), chick pea grain powder (743.0g), pigeon pea grain powder (704.3g) and pea grain powder (683.0g).

Key words: Fruiting bodies, Substrates, Supplements, Volvariella volvacea, Yield

 

 

208

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6)721-724 (2016)

 

Effect of plantingtechniques and irrigation schedules on yield, root development, water use efficiency and economics of summer greengram

Yogesh Kumar*, Uttam,S.K. and Ravendra singh

Department of Soil Conservation and water Management, C.S.A. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur- 208002, India

*e-mail: yogesh.iitkanpur@gmail.com

(Received: August12, 2015; Revised received: April 14, 2016;Accepted: April 18, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted on Sandy loam soil during zaid (summer) seasons of 2006 and 2007 at Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (U.P.)to find out the effect of different sowing techniques, irrigation schedules and irrigation depths on yield attributes, yield, water use efficiency, root development and economics of moong or green gram variety Samrat. The raised bed planting gave significantly higher seed andstick + straw yields as well as root development over flat bed planting during both years of investigations. Higher gross return, net return and cost: benefit ratio were also recorded when raised bed planting method was adapted. Significantly highest average seed yield (15.28 q/ha) was observed under the irrigation schedule at 0.8 IW/CPE ratio (Irrigation water / Cumulative pan evaporation) which was higher to the tune of 1.18 (8.37%) and 3.99 q/ha (35.34%) than that of 0.6 and 0.4 IW/CPE ratio respectively. The highest stick + straw yield, total water use, root nodules/plant, fresh and dry weight of nodules/plant grass returns, net return and cost : benefit ratio were also obtained under irrigation schedule at 0.8 IW/CPE ratio. The irrigation depths were found to have non-significant effect on yield attributes, root development and yield.

Key words: Planting techniques, Total water use, Water use efficiency, Irrigation schedules, Growth and yield attributes, Yield and economics

 

 

209

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 725-727 (2016)

 

Heterosis-a breeding approach: for earliness in yield and yield contributing traits of bitter gourd (Momordicacharantia L.)

N. K. Tiwari1, V. B. Singh2, R.K. Srivastava2, A.K. Pandey3 and S.K. Dubey*4

1Department of Vegetable Science, 2Department of Genetic and plant Breeding, N.D. U. A. & T., Faizabad-224229, India

3KVK, Gonda; 4WRDM, Department Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee - 247667, India

*e-mail: sunil2949@gmail.com

(Received: July 25, 2015; Revised received: April 06, 2016;Accepted: April 10, 2016)

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Abstract: Heterosis was determined in bitter gourd (Momordicacharantia L.) involving 9 parental lines viz., NDBT-7(P1), NDBT-9(P2), NDBT-3(P3), NDBT-2(P4), Pusa Do Mausmi(P5 Standard Variety), NDBT-12(P6), NDBT-1(P7), K. Sona(P8), NDBT-5(P9) and their 36 F1 hybrids(excluding reciprocals). The experiment was conducted at Main ExperimentStation of Vegetable Science N.D.U.A.&T. Kumarganj, Faizabad during summer 2011and 2012 in RandomizedBlock Design with three replications in single row plot with 2.5m x 0.5m spacing. Observations were recorded on parents and F1s for six characters viz.,days to firstfruits harvest, fruit length (cm), fruit diameter(cm), number of fruits per plant, fruits, Average fruit weight(g), fruit yield per plant(kg). The entire cross combinations that showed superiority over standard check for fruit yield per plantalso showed significant heterosis for majority of other traits. The five cross combination having superior heterobiltiesis for fruit yield per plant observed during 2011 wereNDBT-7 X NDBT-9, NDBT-7 X NDBT-2, NDBT-9 X NDBT-2, NDBT-2 X K. Sona , NDBT-7 X NDBT-2 in 2012 NDBT-9 X NDBT-12, NDBT-7 XNDBT-9,NDBT-9 XPusa DoMousmi, NDBT-3 XNDBT-12 and NDBT-3 X NDBT-2. The best cross combinationsobserved during 2011wereNDBT-7 X NDBT- 9,NDBT-7 X NDBT-2, NDBT-9 X NDBT-2, NDBT-2 X K. Sona and NDBT-7 X NDBT-2. In 2012, NDBT-9 X NDBT-12, NDBT-7 X NDBT -9, NDBT-9 Pusa DO Mousmi , NDBT-3 X NDBT-12 and NDBT-3 X NDBT-2 for standard heterosis. The Heterobiltiesis for fruit yield was showed significant superiority of hybrid -20.63 to 28.63 % and-20.63 to 12.41% per cent over standard variety (Pusa Do Mausmi) in 2011.whereas, it ranged from -6.28 to 6.77 per cent and -5.24 to 1.71 per centover better parent and standard variety during 2012, respectively. Days to first fruit harvest emerged as most important maturity traits, heterosis ranged from -2.49 to 14.32 per cent and -2.87 to 12.27 per cent over better parent and standard variety, respectively in 2011 while in 2012, it ranged from 9.55 to 13.54 per cent and -10.76 to 2.13 per cent over better parent and standard variety,(Pusa Do Mausmi) respectively.

Keyword- Heterosis, Heterobeltiosis, Pusa DO Mousmi

 

 

 

210

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6)728-730 (2016)

 

Genetic divergence study in tomato (Solanum lycopersicon (Mill.)Wettsd.) genotypes

Satish Yadav*1, G.C. Yadav1, Vimlesh Kumar and Sushil Kumar Yadav

1Department of vegetable Science, NDUAT, Faizabad-224229, India;2JNKV, Jabalpur- 482004, India

*e-mail: satishnduat@gmail.com

(Received: June 18, 2015; Revised received: April 09, 2016;Accepted: April 15, 2016)

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Abstract: The present investigation was conducted using forty nine genotypes (13 parents and 36 F1 hybrids) of tomato. Genetic divergence analysis following Mahalanobsis D2 statistics revealed wide range of genetic diversity among forty nine genotypes of tomato for all the fourteen characters which was pertaining to growth, yield and quality traits. The study observed for days to 50% flowering, plant height (cm), number of primary branches per plant, number of fruits per cluster, number of fruit per plant, average fruit weight (gm), fruit length (cm), fruit girth (cm), number of locules per fruit,pericarp thickness (mm), total soluble solids (TSS), ascorbic acid (mg/100 g fresh fruit), marketable fruit yield per plant (kg) and total fruit yield per plant (kg). Genetic variation within and between clusters observed.Eight clusters were framed from the D2 analysis using Tocher method. Cluster I had highest number of genotypes (14) followed by cluster II (9), Cluster VII (7), cluster VI (5) and cluster, III, IV, V (4) and cluster VIII (2).

Keywords: Solanum lycopersicon (Mill.) Wettsd, Clusters, Genetic Divergence, Germplasm

 

 

211

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 731-733 (2016)

 

Role of irrigation scheduling and weed management on growth, yield attributes

and yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

D.M. Chaudhari*, A.C. Sadhu and H.K. Patel

Department of Agronomy, B.A. college of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand- 388 110, India

*e-mail: hirenubi@gmail.com

(Received: July 07, 2015; Revised received: April 22, 2016;Accepted: April24, 2016)

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Abstract: The field experiment was conducted at College Agronomy Farm,Anand Agricultural University, Anand to study the effect of irrigation scheduling and weed management practices on growth, yield attributes and yield of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.)during rabi season of the year 2013. The experiment consisted of four irrigation schedulingi.eI1 (Irrigation at branching + flowering), I2 (Irrigation at branching + flowering + siliquae formation), I3 (Irrigation at branching + flowering + siliquae formation + grain filling) and I4 (0.6 IW : CPE ratio) and four weed management practices i.eW1 (pendimethalin @ 0.5 kg ha-1 as pre emergence), W2 (Imazethapyr @ 0.05 kg ha-1 as pre emergence), W3 (interculturing followed by hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS) and W4 (unweeded Check). Result revealed that application ofirrigationsatbranching + flowering + siliquae formation + grain filling (I3) recorded significantly higher plant height, no. of branches plant-1, length of silique, no. of seeds silique-1, and the highest no. of silique plant-1 as well as the seed yield of Indian mustard. Weed management treatmentW3 (Interculturing followed by Hand Weeding at 20 and 40 DAS) increased the growth attributes i.e plant height and no. of branchesand the yield attributes i.e. number of siliquae plant-1, length of siliquae, no. of seeds siliqua-1test weight and producedthe highest seed yield. The interaction effect of irrigation scheduling and weed management revealed that application of irrigations at I3W3 along with inter culturing and hand weeding at 20 and 40 DAS gave significantly higher no. of silique, no. of seeds per silique as well as the seed yield of Indian Mustard.

Key words:Irrigation scheduling, Weed management, Indian mustard, Water use efficiency

 

 

 

212

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 734-735 (2016)

 

Effects of temperature and pH on sclerotial germination of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn inciting stem canker and black scurfin potato

Neelam Maurya, S.P. Pathak, Dharmendra Kumar*and Yashwant Kumar Bharti

Department of Plant Pathology, Narendra Dev University of Agriculture &Technology Kumarganj, Faizabad-224229, India

*e-mail: dkumar_nduat@yahoo.in

(Received: June 30, 2015; Revised received: May01, 2016;Accepted:May03, 2016)

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Abstract: RhizoctoniasolaniKuhn [teleomorph: Thanatephoruscucumeris(Frank) Donk.] is an important fungal pathogen that incites stem canker and black scurf disease in potato (SolanumtuberosumL.). This pathogen is widespread in all potato growing areas of the world.An experiment was carried out to study the effects oftemperatureandpHon sclerotialgerminationof ten isolates of Rhizoctonia solani AG 3collected from potato growing areas of Uttar Pradesh. These isolates were grown in potato dextrose agar medium. Sclerotia of all tested AG3 isolates were germinated50.0- 100 %at 20 1 C and 57.5 - 100 % at 251 C which showed the better germination of sclerotia at temperature range of 20-251 C.Sclerotial germination of isolates of R. solani AG 3 was ranged between85.0- 100 % atpH5,82.5 - 100 % at pH6 and 85.00 - 100% at pH 7 which indicates their better adoptability at pH 5 to pH 7. Per cent sclerotial germination was found lower at pH 4 and pH 8.

Key words: Rhizoctonia solani, Stem canker, Sclerotia, Black scurf

 

 

213

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 736-741 (2016)

 

Entomopathogenic fungi and the mechanisms of fungal pathogenesis in insects: A review

Vandana Shukla*1, Payal Devi2, Sanghmitra Baghel1and Nitin Kumar Torray1

1Department of Plant Pathology, 2Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

*e-mail: amazingvanna@gmail.com

(Received: October 12, 2015; Revised received: May 01, 2016;Accepted: May 03, 2016)

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Abstract: An important mechanism for insect pest control should be the use of fungal entomopathogens. Entomopathogenic fungi, with its cosmopolitan existence and rich diversity, present a sustainable solution towards integrated pest management programs. They are endophytes, antagonists of plant pathogens, associates with the rhizosphere, and possibly even plant growth promoting agents. These entomopathogens, due to their eco-friendliness and bio-persistence, are preferred to kill insects at various stages of its life cycle. The most important entomopathogens that have been commercially produced are Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae. These are classified into different phylums including Oomucota, Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota and Zygomocata. These entomopathogens have contact mode of action in most cases. It contacts the cuticle, forms appresoria, penetrates into the insect, proliferates, produces toxins and ultimately kills the insect. The insect host shows reaction of reduced or increased feeding, behavioral fever, aberrant mating, and changed ovipositional preferences. The spores are disseminated by the insect cadaver, air, soil and water. For future prospects, improvements are needed in the research methods, mass production, formulation and the application techniques. In this paper, we review the recently discovered roles played by many entomopathogenic fungi and propose new research strategies focused on alternate uses for these fungi.

Key words: Entomopathogenic Fungi, Endophytes, Biological control, Insect pest management

 

 

214

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 742-744(2016)

 

Effect of new pre and post emergence herbicides on growth, yield and economics of maize (Zea mays L.)

Geetha Kumari A.*1, M. T. Sanjay2, T. V. Ramachandra Prasad2, Rekha B.1, Veeresh Hatti1, Munirathnamma C. M.1

1Department of Agronomy, UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru-560 065, India; 2AICRP on weed control, MRS, Hebbal, UAS, Bengaluru, India

*e-mail: akkarekodi@gmail.com

(Received: November 26, 2015; Revised received: May 03, 2016;Accepted: May 05, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was carried out during kharif of 2013 to evaluate the bio-efficacy of new pre and post emergence herbicides on weed control and productivity of maize in sandy loam soil under irrigated condition. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with ten treatments replicated thrice. The treatments consisted of pre and post-emergence herbicides (acetochlor, atrazine, alachlor and topramezone+atrazine, tembotrione, respectively) and their combinations (acetochlor, atrazine and alachlor fb 2,4-D Na salt) compared with two hand weedings and weedy check. The study revealed significantly higher plant height, leaf area, total dry matter production by maize,total number of kernels per cob, kernel yield, gross returns, net returns and B : C ratio with application of alachlor 50 EC 1250 g a. i. ha-1 at 2 DAS fb 2,4-D Na salt 80 WP 500 g a. i. ha-1 at 40 DAS, acetochlor 900 EC 2250 g a. i. ha-1 at 2 DAS fb 2,4-D Na salt 80 WP 500 g a. i. ha-1 at 40 DAS and atrazine 50 WP 1250 g a. i. ha-1 at 2 DASfb2,4-D Na salt 80 WP 500 g a. i. ha-1 at 40 DAS and two hand weedings at 20 and 40 DAS as compared to weedy check.

Keywords: Herbicides, Growth, Kernel yield, Net return, Maize

 

 

215

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6)745-747 (2016)

 

Effect of nitrogen and growth retardants on flowering and yield potential of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.)

S.K. Verma, A.K. Singh* and R.P. Verma

1Department of Horticulture, College of Horticulture and Forestry, N.D.U. of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad-224 229, India

*e-mail: aruks59@gmail.com

(Received: October 08, 2015; Revised received: May 05, 2016;Accepted: May 09, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen and growth retardants on flowering and yield of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Hyderabad Double. The experimental field was having sandy loam soil. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized block design replicated thrice with twenty one treatment combinations, comprising three nitrogen levels N1 (225 Kg ha-1), N2 (300 Kg ha-1) and N3 (375 Kg ha-1) and two growth retardants viz. Cycocel (1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm) and Alar (1000, 1500 and 2000 ppm) and a control (distilled water) sprayed at 30 and 60 days after planting. In general, all parameters of flowering and yield of tuberose responded to the nitrogen and growth retardants application. Among various treatment combinations the application of 375 kg N ha-1 with foliar spray of Cycocel 1500 ppm was found most effective for days taken for spike initiation, opening of first floret, length of spike, number florets/spike, Yield of flower/ha (tonnes) and number of spike/ha (lacs).

Key words: Nitrogen, Cycocel, Alar, Flowering, Yield and Tuberose

 

 

216

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6)748-750(2016)

 

Effect of micronutrients on growth and productivity of pigeonpea under rainfed conditions

Pandit S. Rathod*, Dodamani, B.M. and Patil, D.H

Department of Agronomy, Agricultural Research Station, Gulbarga-585101, India

*e-mail: psrathod_agron@rediffmail.com

(Received: November 16, 2015; Revised received: May 07, 2016;Accepted: May 10, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted on shallow black soil during kharif seasons of 2010, 2011 and 2012 to study the effect of micronutrients on growth, yield parameters and productivity of pigeonpea. The pooled results indicated that application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha-1 along with recommended dose of fertilizers recorded significantly higher pigeonpea grain yield (1373 kg ha-1), gross returns (Rs. 59,039 ha-1), net returns (Rs. 38,209 ha-1) and B: C ratio (2.83) as compared to absolute control and other micronutrient combinations, however it was on par with application of ZnSO4 @ 25 kg ha-1 along with recommended dose of fertilizers. Application ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha-1 along with recommended dose of fertilizers increased the plant height (212.87 cm), number of primary branches (10.55 plant-1) and secondary branches (7.26 plant-1), number of pods plant-1 (169.87), pod weight plant-1 (71.05 g), seed weight plant-1(29.47 g) and 100 seed weight (10.00 g) significantly over the other treatments. The lower seed yield (776 kg ha-1), net returns (Rs. 13808 ha-1) and B:C ratio (1.71) was recorded in absolute control. From the study it can be concluded that combined application of RDF+ ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha-1 recorded higher pigeonpea yield, net returns and B:C ratio.

Key words: Pigeonpea, Borax, Chelated iron, Sodium molybdate

 

 

217

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 751-754 (2016)

 

Standardization of drying temperature and drying time for superior quality of dried dutch rose flower production

Mohammed Azhar Bintory*1, Seetharamu G.K.2, Shivakumar S.P,Mohamad Tayeeb Ulla H., Basavaraj N. and Tanveer Ahmed

1Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture,College of Horticulture, UHS Campus, GKVK, Bengaluru-560065, India

*e-mail: mabintory@gmail.com

(Received: December 26, 2015; Revised received: May 08, 2016;Accepted: May 10, 2016)

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Abstract: Recent research has proved thatDutch roses dried under different temperature levels 40C, 42C, 45C, 48C with respect to per cent moisture loss, quality attributes and drying period was highly significant at 42C. To know the effect of Drying of different Dutch rose varieties under varied temperature levels, experiment was conducted in the laboratory of RHREC, COH Bangalore Karnataka, during the year of 2014-15, on the quality of dried Dutch rose flowers. The experiment was laid out in a two factorial completely randomized design with sixteen treatments and replicated three times i.e. T1 - 40 C, T2 - 42 C, T3 - 45 C, T4 - 48 C and four varieties viz., V1 - Taj Mahal, V2 - Gold Strike, V3 Noblesse, V4 Avalanche. The study revealed that out of all the treatmentsvar. Noblesse dried at 42C in hot air oven recorded recorded maximum score for color (23.30), (23.30) and (23.10) texture (23.04) and overall appearance (23.08), (22.87) and (22.86) with least dry weight of (0.80 g) with maximum moisture loss of 89.91 per cent and with the drying time of (62.51 hours). Among the varied drying temperature levels of hot air oven, 42C recorded minimum dry weight (1.25 g), (1.26 g) and (1.26 g) at 30 and 60 days after storage, maximum moisture loss (87.36%) and time (63.43 hours) for drying. Among varieties dried at different drying temperature levels of hot air oven, var. Noblesse recorded minimum dry weight (1.01 g), (1.03 g)and (1.03 g) with maximum moisture loss (86.98 %) and and with the drying time of (56.04 hours). Among the different drying temperature levels of hot air oven, 42C recorded minimum moisture gain (0.14%).

Key words: Dutch rose, Hot air oven, Moisture loss and gain, Quality parameters

 

 

 

218

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 755-758 (2016)

 

Effect of site specific nutrient management (SSNM) on yield, nutrient uptake and nutrient balance sheet of maize hybrids under irrigated situation

H.T. Chetan and M.P. Potdar*

Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, India

*e-mail: mppotdaruasd@gmail.com

(Received: September 22, 2015; Revised received: April 27, 2016;Accepted: May 02, 2016)

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Abstract: Studies was undertaken during 2014 kharif season at ARS, Mudhol to know the effect of site specific nutrient management on yield, nutrient uptake and nutrient balance sheet of maize hybrids viz., NK-6240 and 900 M GOLD to five target yield levels (100, 120, 140 q ha-1, RDF and absolute control). The results revealed that significantly higher grain yield (130.53 q ha-1), stover yield (147.75 q ha-1) and harvest index (46.91 per cent) was recorded by hybrid 900 M GOLD with target yield level of 140 q ha-1. 900 M GOLD with 140 q ha-1 recorded higher N, P2O5 and K2O uptake at different phonological stages as compared to other treatment combinations. However, with respect to available nutrients NK-6240 with 140 q ha-1 recorded higher available N, P2O5 and K2O (223.31, 39.12 and 1102.15 kg ha-1).

Key words: Available nutrients, Nutrient uptake and Balance sheet

 

 

219

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 759-763 (2016)

 

Genetic variability studies for growth, earliness, yield and quality parameters in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes

Vittal Mangi*, H. B. Patil, Shivappa M karadi, Mallesh Sanganamoni and Mahantesh Jogi

Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot-587 104, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: vittalmangiphd@gmail.com

(Received: October 10, 2015; Revised received: April 27, 2016;Accepted:April 29, 2016)

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Abstract: A field investigation was carried out with 60 genotypes of brinjal to know the nature and extent of genetic variability for growth, earliness, yield and quality parameters. The phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) for all the traits. The presence of narrow gap between PCV and GCV were found for most of the characters under study. High GCV and PCV (>20%) were observed for number of primary branches (at 90 and 120 DAT), stem girth at 60 DAT, leaf area (at 60 and 90 DAT), number of fruits per cluster, average fruit weight, fruit length-diameter ratio, number of fruits per plant, total yield per plant, yield per plot, yield per hectare, early yield per plant and phenol content in fruits indicating the existence of broad genetic base, which would be amenable for further selection. High heritability coupled with high genetic advance over mean was observed for plant height ( at 60, 90 and 120 DAT), plant spread at 60 DAT, number of primary branches ( at 90 and 120 DAT), stem girth at 60 DAT, leaf area(at 60 and 90 DAT), days to first flowering, number of fruits per cluster, fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit length-diameter ratio, average fruit weight, phenol content, early yield per plant, total yield per plant and per cent dry matter in fruitsindicates predominance additive gene action. Thus, there is ample scope for improving these characters through direct selection.

Keywords Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Brinjal

 

 

220

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 764-767 (2016)

 

An experimental study of solar tunnel dryer for drying bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia L.)

Ashok Kumar*, S.C. Moses and Kalay Khan

Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, VSEAT, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, India

*e-mail: ak02071987@gmail.com

(Received: December 12, 2015; Revised received: April 23, 2016;Accepted: April 27, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Solar drying is one of the most important methods to reduce the moisture content from post harvest product to increase the self-life and quality of the product, which can be used during non-available periods. Solar drying is done in solar dryers, which use the solar energy to dry crops, vegetables and Fruits. The objective of this study solar tunnel dryer using semi transparent polythene collector with size of 200 micron and study its performance on drying of bitter gourd. The designed solar dryer consists of a drying chamber, semi transparent polythene collector, eight trays, an exhaust fan, and a hopper. Drying parameters of moisture ratio (MR) and moisture content was calculated. The results of the present study show that the semi transparent polythene collector temperature developed between 580 to 630 C and efficiency varied from 40% to 68% and the highest solar intensity was 1058 wave/square on June 14, 2015. The moisture ratio is reduced from 1 to 0 in five days. The moisture content of bitter gourd is reduced from 90% to 10% in 5 days.

Key words: Solar drying, Bitter Gourd, Semi transparent polythene collector, Moisture ratio, Moisture content, Efficiency, Solar intensity

 

221

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 768-770 (2016)

 

Effect of establishment methods, nitrogen levels and azotobactor seed inoculation on growth and yield of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.)

Bheem Pareek*, Rajesh Singh, Arjun sherawat and Kirta Kumar Singh

Department of Agronomy, Allahabad School Of Agriculture, SHIATS, Allahabad-211007, India

*e-mail: bheem.pareek0002@gmail.com

(Received: October 19, 2015; Revised received: April 26, 2016;Accepted: April 29, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the kharif season 2014 at the Crop Research Farm Department of Agronomy, Allahabad School of Agriculture, SHIATS, Allahabad (U.P.) to evaluate the effect of establishment methods, nitrogen levels and azotobactor seed inoculation on growth and yield of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) laid outin Randomized Block Design with eighteen treatments replicated thrice. The results revealed that transplanting on 5 August + application of nitrogen at 100 kg/ha (without azotobactor seed inoculation) produced significantly higher length of ear (22.98cm). Although The highest grain yield (3.47 t ha-1), net return (43220.70ha-1 ) and benefit cost ratio (2.32) was obtained withtransplanting on 5 August + application of nitrogen at 100 kg/ha, with azotobactor seed inoculation.

Key words:Pearl millet, Establishment method, Nitrogen Level and Azotobactor seed inoculation

 

 

222

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6) 771-774 (2016)

 

Photoperiod effect on yield attributing traits of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

Ravi Shankar1*, Dhirendra Singh1 and Jitendra Kumar2

1Department of Vegetable Science, 2Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture,

Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology Pantnagar, Uttarakhand- 263 145, India

*e-mail: shankarravi34740@gmail.com

(Received: October 17, 2015; Revised received: May 02, 2016;Accepted: May 07, 2016)

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Abstract: Response of potato genotypes to different photoperiods was studied and it was found that seedling emergence at 25 days after planting, plant height, number of shoots/plant, number of tuber/plant, tuber weight/plant and tuber yield/m2 were significantly higher under extended photoperiod. Among twenty genotypes highest tuber yield/m2 were observed in MM-7 (4.29 kg/m2) followed by AICRP-08-2 (4.04 kg/m2) and C-19 (4.00 kg/m2) while the lowest tuber yield/m2 was recorded in Laddy Roseeta (1.36 kg/m2). Among all interactions, genotypes B-420, Kufri Chipsona-3 and Laddy Roseta showed significantly higher per cent emergence under extended photoperiod. Tuber yield/m2 among all the interactions, was maximum in genotype MM-7 followed by Pant sel.-09-53, Pant Sel-09-15 and C-4, respectively in comparison to other interactions under extended photoperiod.

Key Word: Potato, Genotype, Photoperiod, Light, Yield

 

 

223

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6)775-778(2016)

 

Evaluation of onion (Allium cepa L.) genotypes: variability and trait relationship studies

Kushal*, M. G. Patil, Jaiprakashnarayan R.P., Pampanna. Y., S.S. Patiland K. Kavita

Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur -584104, India

*e-mail: kushal_1024@rediffmail.com

(Received: September 02, 2015; Revised received: May 03, 2016;Accepted: May 07, 2016)

 

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Abstract: High GCV and PCV were observed for bulb neck thickness (24.69; 25.06) and bulb yield per plot (18.25; 18.66). Moderate values of GCV and PCV were observed for number of rings per bulb (12.27; 13.46). Whereas, lowest GCV and PCV were observed for bulb diameter (6.51; 6.57), bulb shape index (4.35; 4.67), number of leaves per plant (8.66;8.80), plant height(9.06;9.13) and bulb length (5.76;5.97). High heritability coupled with high genetic advance over mean was recorded for bulb neck thickness (50.10) and followed by bulb yield per plot (36.80), plant height (18.51) and number of rings per bulb (23.05). Whereas, high heritability coupled with moderate GAM was observed for number of leaves per plant (17.32), bulb diameter (13.28), bulb length (11.46) and bulb shape index (8.34). Moderate heritable values captured with moderate genetic advance suggests the role of second order gene interaction in expressing of traits. The number of rings per bulb (0.579; 0.532) exhibited highest positive significant association with bulb yield per plot at both genotypic and phenotypic level, followed by plant height (0.534; 0.529), bulb diameter (0.448: 0.442) and number of leaves per plant (0.433; 0.424), whereas, bulb length (0.272; 0.265) showed positive non-significant correlation at both genotypic and phenotypic level. Among all the characters studied, number of rings per bulb had highest (0.804; 0.444) positive direct effect on bulb yield per plot at genotypic and phenotypic level respectively, followed by number of leaves per plant (0.607;0.195), and bulb length ( 0.416;0.140) at both genotypic and phenotypic level.

Key words: Correlation, Genotypes, Genetic advance, Heritability, Path analysis and Variability

 

224

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (6)779-780 (2016)

 

The role of nutrients on milk products

Manoj Kumar Bansala*, Rajkumar and D. S. Sahu

Department of Animal Husbandry, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250110, India

*e-mail: bansalamanoj87@gmail.com

(Received: December 10, 2015; Revised received: May 06, 2016;Accepted: May 08, 2016)

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Abstract: Six Sahiwal cows and Six Murrah buffaloes, three animals of each species were given control diet and three were given experimental diet to study the effect of diet and species on milk cream yield and khoa yield in factorial experiment. The average cream and khoa (g) per kg of milk along with cv in percent in Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes under control diet and experiment diet were found to be as50(8.66), 55(7.87), 85(5.09) and 90(4.81) g cream, and 174(47.89), 200(41.66), 219(38.05) and 280(29.76) g khoa respectively. The factorial effect of diet and species were found on cream yield 5.01.20 and 2041.20 (g) per kg of milk, andkhoa yield 35.55.27 and 62.55.27 and for nutrition 17.55.27 (g) per kg of milk respectively. The analysis of variance showed that in all the production traits except daily milk yield the difference between control diet and experimental diet and between Sahiwal cows and Murrah buffaloes were found to be highly significant.

Key words: Nutrients, Species, Cream, Khoa

 

 

 

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