RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-9, Number-7, JULY-2016

 

225

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7) 781-783 (2016)

 

Effect of sugar and storage periods on chemical composition of whey beverage

 

Ramji Lal, M.P.S. Yadav, A.S. Chauhan* and Shiv Sharan

Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, C.S.A. University of Agriculture and Technology Kanpur, India

*e-mail: aschauhan7569@gmail.com

(Received: October 05, 2015; Revised received: April 04, 2016;Accepted: April 07, 2016)

 

 

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Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three different levels of sugar (9%, 10% and 11% v/wt basis) and four various storage periods (0 day, 5 days, 10 days and 15 days) on chemical content of whey beverage, these samples were stored at 50 C, and evaluate the fat, protein, lactose, sucrose, ash and total solids of whey beverage that were noticed during storage. This evaluation process replicated three times. The various storage periods and three different levels of sugar used for the preparation of whey beverage, affected non-significantly at 5 % level of significance. The interaction between sugar and storage periods found to be non-significant effect at 5% level of significance. Storage periods did also not affect the chemical components of whey beverage in respect of fat, protein, lactose, sucrose, ash and total solids. The percentage of sugar and total solids were depends on the addition of sugar during the preparation of whey beverage. On the basis of results, the conclusion is that the chemical composition of whey beverage does not differ up to 15th day of storage and the product would be best for consumption at fresh day or day of preparation. At 15th day of storage, its remains fit for human consumption.

Key words: Whey beverage, Sugar, Storage periods and Chemical content

226

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)784-789(2016)

 

Estimates of general and specific combining ability for grain yield and other physiological characters in bread wheat under late sown condition

 

Jaydev Kumar*1, S.K. Singh1, Lokendra Singh1, Anuj Kumar2, Anurag1, Sanjay kumar Singh3 and Mukul Kumar4

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, C.S. Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur-208002, India

2Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad-208002, India

3ICAR-Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal- India, 132001

4Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, Bihar Madan Bharti Agriculture College, Agwanpur, Saharsa, Bihar 852 201 India

*e-mail: jaydev.140@rediffmail.com

(Received: September 08, 2015; Revised received: April 02, 2016;Accepted: April 05, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Ten parents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Em. Thell.) were crossed in a diallel fashion (excluding reciprocals) and their 45F1’s and 45F2’s were evaluated for combining ability for grain yield and its physiological traits. The gca and sca components of variances were significant for all characters over both generations. The (gca/sca)0.5 variances below unity in both the generations showed the predominance of additive gene actions effects for all the traits. On the basis of general combining ability (gca) effect and per seperformance , parents K 0307 and K 0911 emerged as good general combiners for grain yield per plant and average to high combiners for almost all the traits under study. Both genotypes have good gene combinations against high temperature tolerance during grain filling period. Parent K 9533 have good general combiner for CTD and parents K 0307 and K 0911 have also positive gca effects for days to 75% flowering, days to maturity, duration of reproductive phase in both generations. On the basis of sca effects, the crosses DBW 14 x K 0424 and K 9533 x K 0307 emerged as good specific cross combinations over both generations for grain yield per plant. These cross combinations are results of high x high, high x low and low x low general combiners.

Key words: Bread wheat, Combining ability and Gene effects

227

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)790-795(2016)

 

Seed yield, percent disease index and correlation studies as influenced by different sowing windows and mungbean varieties under foliar nutrition

 

G. Madhu*, Ganajaxi Math, P.S. Prabhamani,Rahul Sutar, A. Sudarshan Reddy and IrappaD. Patil

Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, India

*e-mail: manumadhu.716@gmail.com

(Received: October 15, 2015; Revised received: March 27, 2016;Accepted: March 29, 2016)

 

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Abstract:A field experiment was conducted during Kharif2012, The per cent disease index of leaf spot significantly differed, among the dates of sowing. The crop sown on first fort night of June (8.70) recorded significantly lower PDI followed by second fort night of June (12.65), first fort night of July (17.35) and second fort night of July (25.56) recorded the higher PDI. Among varieties, significantly lower PDI was observed in IPM-02-14 (13.01) followed by DGGV-2 (15.46) and higher disease index was recorded in SEL-4 (19.72). Further it was observed that the PDI differed significantly between 2 per cent DAP (15.62) spray and without DAP (16.51) spray. The interaction between dates of sowing and variety the D4V3 (second fort night of July and variety SEL-4) recorded significantly PDI (35.00) followed by D4V1 (23.33), D3V3 (19.81), D4V2 (18.33), D3V1 (17.59), D3V2 (14.63), D2V3 (14.44) and the lower PDI was recorded in the interaction D1V2 (7.51). Whereas, dates of sowing and 2 per cent DAP spray in D4S2 (26.67), followed by D4S1 (24.44), D3S2 (17.53), D3S1 (17.16), D2S2 (12.96) D1S2 (8.9) and D1S1 (8.52). PDI is highly correlated with yield.

Key words: Disease index, Mungbean varieties, Dates of Sowing, Foliar nutrition.

228

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)796-799(2016)

 

Influence of pruning, ethephon and some nutrient sprays on vegetative, flowering and fruit characteristics of guava

 

Deepa Lal*1, M.L. Meena1, Md. Abu Nayyer2,Jitendra Kumar Meena1,Tribhuvan Rai1 and Ravi Shankar Verma1

1Department of Applied Plant Science (Horticulture), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, India

2Department of Horticulture (Fruit & fruit Tech.), Bihar Agricultural University, Sabour, Bihar, India

*e-mail: deepalal055@gmail.com

(Received: October 17, 2015; Revised received: April 06, 2016;Accepted: April 10, 2016)

 

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Abstract:Present investigation was carried out to find out the Influence of Pruning, Ethephon and some Nutrient sprays on Vegetative, Flowering and Fruit characteristics of Guava. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design .The selected plants were pruned at 25%, 50% and 75 % shoot growth and plant selectedfor spray sprayed with Ethephon (250 ppm, 500 ppm and 750ppm), Calcium nitrate (1.0, 1.5 % and 2.0 %)and Potassium nitrate (1.0 %, 3.0 % and 4.5 % ) solutions in first week ofMay and control (without any treatment). The observations were recorded on shoot girth, shoot length, trunk girth, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight, number of flower per tree and fruit yield. Shoot length with pruning, KNO3 and, Ca(NO3)2was better than that of ethephon and control in increasing the shoot length. shoot length (23.45 cm) and (20.41 cm) were found with the plants treated with 75%and 50 % pruning, Shoot girth (18.24 mm) and trunk girth (3.06) were maximum with the plants treated with 75 % pruning.Maximum number of flowers per plant (796.5), fruit weight (170.30 g) and (165.63 g) were found with pruning 50 %and KNO3 4.5% treated plants. The maximum fruit length (7.49 cm), Fruit width (6.49 cm), number of fruit per tree (267.67) and yield (46.29 kg/tree) is found with the 50 % pruning and KNO3 4.5% treated plants.

Key words: Guava, Pruning, Ethephon,Potassium nitrate, Calcium nitrate, Vegetative, Flowering and Fruit characteristics

229

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)800-802(2016)

 

Physical evaluation of fresh and stored whey beverage by using various levels of sugar

 

Ramji Lal, M.P.S. Yadav, A.S. Chauhan* and P.K. Upadhyay

Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, C S A University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, India

*e-mail: aschauhan7569@gmail.com

(Received: October 10, 2015; Revised received: April 08, 2016;Accepted: April 10, 2016)

 

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Abstract:This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three different levels of sugar (9%, 10% and 11% v/wt basis) and various four storage periods (0 day, 5 days, 10 days and 15 days) used for the preparation of whey beverage, these samples were stored at 50 C, and evaluate the overall acceptability of whey beverage that were noticed during storage. This evaluation process replicated three times. The various storage periods and three different levels of sugar used for the preparation of whey beverage, affected significantly at 0.1 % level of significance. The interaction between sugar and storage periods found to be non-significant effect at 5% level of significance. In case of sugar, higher concentration of sugar retarded the growth of microorganism and increases the palatability of the product, so optimum level of sugar was liked more than other combinations. The overall acceptability of the product was decreased due the intensity of microbial contamination and off colour, low appearance and dull sweetness, so as days of storage periods increases the acceptability would be decreased. The product was best for consumption at fresh day or day of preparation. At 15th day of storage, the acceptability was decreased but its remains fit for human consumption. It was recommended that the best quality of whey beverage can be obtained by using optimum concentration of sugar at current day of preparation and it would be remain consumable up to 15 days when it stored at 50C.

Key words: Whey beverage, Sugar, Storage periods and sensory quality

230

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)803-807(2016)

 

Assessment of Trichoderma viride for compatibility and sensitivity against Rhizoctonia solani and common insecticides

                                                  

Narender Kumar*, Sushil Kumar Singh, Vipul Kumar, Surender Kumar and Akshay Kumar

Department of Plant Pathology, C.S. Azad University of Agri. and Tech., Kanpur, India

*e-mail: Kumar.narendra6887@gmail.com

(Received: November 06, 2015; Revised received: May 04, 2016;Accepted: May 08, 2016)

 

 

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Abstract:Trichodermais a best biological weapon for plant disease management.The success of bio-control agents is dependent on its compatibility with other chemical pesticides used in agriculture. However, the compatibility of Trichoderma to pesticides needs confirmation before its use in integrated management system. Studies were conducted on the isolation and characterization of Trichoderma and tolerance and sensitivity of T. viride against common pesticides.Trichoderma was isolated on potato dextrose Agar (PDA) medium and identified as T. viride on the basis of cultural and morphological characters. Among the solid and liquid media the maximum mycelial growth of T. viride were recorded on Potato Dextrose Agar and in potato dextrose broath. In vitro toxicity and compatibility study of commonly used insecticides like acetamiprid,thimethoxam and acephatewere found highly compatible with T. viride whereas, fipronil was moderately compatible with T. viride at recommended dose.Maximum population (5.33 cfu g-1 soil) of T. viride was recorded in untreated control followed by monocrotophos (5.33 cfu g-1soil), fipronil (5.33 cfu g-1 soil), acetamiprid (5.0 cfu g-1 soil) and acephate (5.0 cfu g-1 soil) in pesticides treated pots at recommended doses after 30 days of inoculation. We finally conclude that all testedinsectidesare found highly compatible with the T. viride and they recommendfor integrated disease management.

Key words: Trichoderma viride, Rhizoctonia solani, Insecticides, Biological weapon, Monocrotophos, Fipronil, Acetamiprid, Acephate

231

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)808-812 (2016)

 

Isolation, characterization and mass multiplication of entomopathogenic fungi: A review

 

Vandana Shukla*1, Payal Devi2 and Sanghmitra Baghel1

1Dept. of Plant Pathology, 2Dept. of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur - 492 012, Chhattisgarh, India

*e-mail: amazingvanna@gmail.com

(Received: October 12, 2015; Revised received: April 10, 2016;Accepted: April 15, 2016)

 

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Abstract:An attractive alternative method to chemical pesticides is the microbial biocontrol (MBCAs) agents. They are the natural enemies devastating the pest population with no hazard effects on human health and the environment. Entomopathogenic fungi has an important position among all the biocontrol agents because of its route of pathogenicity, broad host rang and its ability to control both sap sucking pests such as mosquitoes and aphids as well as pests with chewing mouthparts, yet they only cover a small percentage of the total insecticide market. Entomopathogenic fungi differ from other microorganisms in their infection process: they directly break the cuticle to enter the insect hemocoel, while other microorganisms enter by ingestion through mouth and then cause disease. Various attempts have been made to isolate and characterize native entomopathogenic fungi. Isolation of these fungi has done from dead insect larvae. Surface and mass culturing of these fungi has been done in Potato Dextrose Agar and Potato Dextrose Broth respectively. Different solid substrates i.e such as grains, vegetable wastes, maize, bran, cotton seed, rice husk, wheat and liquid media such as coconut water were evaluated at variable moisture content and yeast extract concentration for mass production of two entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuellemin and Metarhizium anisopliae. In the present review the isolation, mass multiplication and characterization of entomopathogenic fungi will be discussed.

Key words: Entomopathogenic fungi, Isolation, Surface culture, Mass multiplication

232

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)813-818 (2016)

 

Seed yield, nutrient uptake, quality and economics of mungbean genotypes as influenced by different dates of sowing and foliar nutrition

 

G. Madhu*, Ganajaxi Math, Rahul Sutar, P.S. Prabhamani, A. Sudarshan Reddy and Irappa D. Patil

Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: manumadhu.716@gmail.com

(Received: October 15, 2015; Revised received: April 08, 2016;Accepted: April 14, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The experiment was laid out in split- split plot design with 24 treatment combinations consisting of four dates of sowing (14th June, 29th June, 15th July, 30th July), and three genotypes (DGGV-2, IPM-02-14, SEL-4) and foliar spray of 2 per cent DAP and without sprayin black soil with a pH of 7.80 under rainfed condition. The early sown of 14th June crop with DGGV-2 and spraying of 2% DAP at flowering and early pod development stage recorded significantly higher net returns Rs.32226 ha-1and B: C ratio of 2.92 andsame treatment recorded significantly higher nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium uptake (59.02, 11.90 and 26.16 kg ha-1, respectively) compared to other dates of sowing. The genotype DGGV-2 recorded significantly higher N, P and K uptake (50.89, 11.24 and 23.09 kg ha-1, respectively) over IPM-02-14 (43.39, 10.29 and 21.39 kg ha-1, respectively) and SEL-4 (45.30, 10.59 and 21.42 kg ha-1, respectively). Significant difference was observed in N and P uptake with 2% DAP spray compared no spray. None of the interactions were found to be significant except date of sowing and genotype the D1V1 recorded significantly higher N, P and K uptake (64.28, 13.13, 29.14 kg ha-1, respectively).

Key words: Mungbean quality, Date of sowing, Economics

233

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)819-821 (2016)

 

Drudgery reduction of farm women through twin wheel hoe for weeding in soybean crop

 

S.P. Tripathi*1, G.S. Chundawat1, S.P.S. Somvanshi1 and D.C. Shrivastava2

1Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Mandsaur RVS Agriculture University, Gwalior, India

2Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Seoni, J.N.K.V.V. Jabalpur, India

*e-mail: tripathisun84@gmail.com

(Received: October 24, 2015; Revised received: May 04, 2016;Accepted: May 08, 2016)

 

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Abstract:Women in agriculture are generally employed in the operations, which are either not mechanized or least mechanized and involve a lot of drudgery. Weeding in soybean crop with twin wheel hoe study was carried outwith farm women in adopted villages Lasudawan and Surkheda under On Farm Testing( FT) and Front Line Demonstration (FLD)programme conducted by KVK, Mandsaur (M.P.). It was clearly depicted that twin wheel hoe has proved efficient on time and output as ompared with traditional Khurpi. The percentage change in average working heart rate was increased 18.88 per cent with the use of twin wheel hoe. Drudgery reduction was found 70.21 per cent by use of twin wheel hoe and also reduce physiological cost, 21.42 per cent compare to traditional practice.Improved technologies for weeding activity for farm women is recommended so they can increase their efficiency, reduce the drudgery with time saving while performing weeding activity.

Key words: Twin wheel hoe, Drudgery, Working efficiency, Cardiac cost, Farm women

234

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)822-825 (2016)

 

Studies on integrated nutrient management in pearl millet-indian mustard cropping system

 

M.F. Husain*1, Vishwajeet Singh1, H.G. Prakash2, Mohd. Shamim2 and R.K. Pandey2

1regional Research Station, Kalai, Aligarh, India; 2C.S. Azad university of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, India

*e-mail: mfhusain15@gmail.com

(Received: October 08, 2015; Revised received: May 08, 2016;Accepted: May 10, 2016)

 

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Abstract:the main objective was to find out the suitable dose of integrated nutrients for pearl millet and Indian mustard under pearl millet-Indian mustard cropping system. The pooled results of three years displayed that the direct application of FYM, @ 5 t + N60 kg + P40 kg + K30 kg ha-1 with residue of N150 kg + P75 kg + K30 kg + gypsum 200 kg + ZnSo4 10 kg + FeSo4 10 kg ha-1 gave significantly higher grain yield of pearl millet (3288 kg ha-1). The lowest grain yield of pearl millet recorded at control (2082 kg ha-1). Significantly maximum seed yield of Indian mustard was recorded at direct application of N150 kg + P75 kg + K30 kg + gypsum 200 kg + ZnSo4 10 kg + FeSo4 10 kg ha-1 and residue of FYM @ 5 t + N60 kg + P40 kg + K30 kg ha-1­­, left by pearl millet (1745 kg ha-1), while lowest yield noted at control. The growth and yield traits of both the crops were concordant to the yields obtained from pearl millet-Indian mustard cropping system. The direct application of FYM @ 5 t + N60 kg + P40 kg + K30 kg ha-1 to pearl millet and N150 kg + P75 kg + K30 kg + gypsum 200 kg + ZnSo4 10 kg + FeSo4 10 kg ha-1 to Indian mustard under sequential cropping gave significantly higher pearl millet equivalent yield (9718 kg ha-1), net return (Rs. 50050 ha-1), link relative index (5.35) and BCR (1:2.67) in comparison to other tested nutrients combination.

Key words: Balance nutrition, Benefit-cost ratio, cropping system, integrated nutrient management, link relative index

235

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)826-829 (2016)

 

Bioefficacy, yield and economic impact of protecting aphid Uroleucon compositae (Theobald) pest in safflower through selected insecticides and biorationals

 

M.N. Vaani*, S.S. Udikeri and S.S. Karabhantanal

Department of Agril. Entomology, Vijayapura, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: mnvaani@gmail.com

(Received: September 09, 2015; Revised received: March 07, 2016;Accepted: March 09, 2016)

 

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Abstract:Uroleucon compositae (Theobald) is a sap feeding insect pest of safflower causing huge loss. Need based foliar applications were givento55 and 72 days standing crop. All the treatments rendered significant suppression of aphids compared to the population in untreated control. Flonicamid 50WG @ 0.1 g/l and dinotefuron 20SG @ 0.25 g/l have completely eliminated the aphid incidence by third day after first spay. From 58.94 aphids/ 5 cm apical shoot pre treatment count, the population of aphids in untreated control reached 191.60 by 10 days after second spray. In flonicamid and dintotefuronthe aphid count was least with 12.32 and 14.61 at 10 days after second spray respectively against 60.71 and 60.34/5 cm apical shootpre treatment count . These two treatments have recorded the highest seed yield of 15.40 q/ha and 15.03 q/ha respectively with 2.94 and 2.64 B: C. The test weight and oil content were also significantly high in these two treatments. The avoidable loss in yield was84%.

Key words:Safflower, Aphid, Uroleucon compositae. Insecticide. Avoidable loss

236

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)830-833 (2016)

 

Development of integrated spray schedule for the management of Curvularia leaf spot of maize

Vidya Palaki* and P.V. Patil

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Vijayapur, UAS, Dharwad -580 005, India

*e-mail: vidya.palaki@gmail.com

(Received: September 25, 2015; Revised received: April 14, 2016;Accepted: April 16, 2016)

 

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Abstract:Curvularia leaf spot (CLS) caused by Curvularia lunata (Wakk.) Boedijn, is a major disease problem in maize. Presently moderate to high severity has been recorded in Karnataka. An attempt was made to evaluate fungicides and commercially available botanicals to test under in vitro by using poison food technique and indigenous technology knowledge (ITK’S) by “cavity slide” method.Further based on the results of in vitro studies, a spray schedule was developed involving cost effective fungicides, botanicals and ITK’S. Hexaconazole, propiconazole and triadimefon among systemic fungicides at 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 per cent, carbendazim + mancozeb and propineb among non systemic fungicides at 0.2 and 0.3 per cent, wanis among commercially available botanicals at 0.2 and 0.3 per cent concentration inhibited maximum mycelial growth of C. lunata and panchagavya among the ITK’S at 20 and 30 per cent concentration recorded maximum inhibition of spore germination of C.lunata. Among different spray schedules evaluated under field condition, hexaconazole @ 0.1 % - hexaconazole @ 0.1% spray schedule recorded least Curvularia leaf spot severity( 42.35%), highest grain yield (79.58 q/ha) , 100 grain weight (41.33g) and stover yield (8.02t/ha) with highest benefit: cost of 3.81.

Key words: Botanicals, Indigenous technology knowledge, Maize, Curvularia lunata

237

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)834-840( 2016)

Evaluation of medium early maturing rice (Oryza sativa L.) hybrids for grain yield and quality traits

S. S. Tomar1, Suresh B.G1, S. Rout*2 and S. S. Patra2

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Allahabad School of Agriculture, SHIATS, Allahabad, India

2School of Forestry & Environment, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology & Sciences, Allahabad, India

*e-mail: sandeeprout1988@gmail.com

(Received: September 20, 2015; Revised received: April 22, 2016;Accepted: April 26, 2016)

 

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Abstract:An experiment was conducted to evaluate 46 rice hybrids for yield and quality traits during Kharif, 2014. The data were recorded for 13 quantitative and 10 quality characters to study genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance analysis. Analysis of variance among 46 rice hybrids showed highly significant differences for all the characters indicated the presence of substantial amount of genetic variability. On the basis of mean performance high yield per plant observed for hybrid IHRT-ME1 (31.40), followed by IHRT-ME10 (26.40). Hybrid IHRT-ME39 exhibited maximum hulling percent and elongation ratio. The hybrid IHRT-ME28 was recorded high gel consistency among all the Hybrids. Hybrids IHRT-ME01, IHRT-ME06, IHRT-ME07, IHRT-ME10, IHRT-ME17, IHRT-ME28 and IHRT-ME39 had intermediate alkali spreading value gelatinization temperature.High phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) and genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) was observed for biological yield per hill and followed by. Panicles per plant indicating that these characters could use as selection for crop improvement. High estimate of heritability were observed for spikelets per panicle and test weight. High genetic advance was observed for number of spikelets per panicle and followed by biological yield per hill. High genetic advance as percent of mean was observed for biological yield per hill and followed by Panicles per plant.

Key words: Genetic advance, Genetic variability, Heritability, Hybrid

238

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)841-844 (2016)

 

Studies on the seed associated mycoflora with soybean and mungbean crops

 

Prahlad Kumar Bagri*, Usha Bhale and G. P. Tiwari

Department of Plant Pathology, JNKVV Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India

*e-mail: bagri.prahlad@gmail.com

(Received: September 04, 2015; Revised received: April 22, 2016;Accepted: April 26, 2016)

 

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Abstract:Soybean is a promising pulse crop with higher percentage of protein (40-42%) and oil (20- 24%). Five fungal species were found to be associated with soybean seeds were studied in agar plate and blotter methods. Blotter method was found better in yielding maximum number of colonies of fungi than Agar Plate method. In both the methods, unsterilized seeds yielded more number of colonies than sterilized seeds. Based upon the analysis of apparently normal healthy seeds, shriveled and deformed seeds and discoloured soybean seeds, tested by standard blotter method indicate that association of Macrophomina phaseolina was greater (upto 11.0%) in seeds from category II and III while the apparently normal healthy seeds had the association of Macrophomina in the range of 3.0 to 9.0%, in the farmer saved seeds. When the same seed lot and category were tested by standard agar plate method the association was comparatively less, however, the association of pathogens was greater in category II and III as compared to category I. Association of Colletotrichum dematium, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus spp. was recorded with three categories of mung bean seeds obtained from three sources. Association of F. oxysporum was greater in farmers saved seed and it ranged from 4.0 to 9.0% in discoloured seeds (category III), 2.0 to 8.0% in category II and 2.0 to 4.0% in apparently normal healthy seeds.

Key words: Soybean, Mungbean, Mycoflora, Standard blotter method and Standard Agar-plate method

239

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)845-848 (2016)

 

Epidemiology and management of Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria alternata) of ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.)

 

Sukhvindar Singh, Sanjeev Kumar*, Santosh Kumar and Pankaj Kumar Tiwari

Department of Plant Pathology Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad, India

*e-mail: drsanjeev44@gmail.com

(Received: September 14, 2015; Revised received: May 02, 2016;Accepted: May 05, 2016)

 

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Abstract:Ber [Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk is an important fruit tree, grown in a wide range of tropical and subtropical regions of India. In the past it was general feeling that ber is free from major diseases but due to changes in agricultural practices and weather conditions, some diseases like leaf spot, powdery mildew and rust are getting importance in India, particularly in Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Under low temperature and humid conditions, black patches comprising plenty of conidia can be seen which serve as air borne inoculum. Alteraria leaf spot disease increases very fast when unseasonal rain occurs after 15th December. At the time of appearance of disease weather parameters viz. temperature maximum (19.20C) and minimum (8.00C), Relative humidity morning (95.2%) and evening (60.5%), sunshine hrs (1.7) and rainfall (19.1mm.) were recorded. For effective management of disease, out of seven treatments maximum per cent disease control (77.33) was recorded with Difenconazole followed by Propiconazole (75.00) and Copper oxychloride (68.71) whereas Neem oil (53.45) proved least effective. Maximum fruit yield/plant was recorded with Difenconazole (92.00 kg) followed by Propiconazole (89.50kg) and Copper oxychloride (80.00kg).

Keywords: Isolation, Identification, Alternaria alternata, Zizyphus mauritiana

240

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)849-853 (2016)

 

Effect of time and level of pruning on growth and yield of guava cv. Sardar under high density planting

 

R.K. Mahesh*, Praveen Jholgiker, Mamatha N.P,Ravi, P.,Shivanand, M.R. and Kallappa, S.N.

Department of Fruit Science, Kittur Rani Chennamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, UHS, Bagalkot, India

*e-mail: mkadahatti@gmail.com

(Received: November 09, 2015; Revised received: May 02, 2016;Accepted: May 06, 2016)

 

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Abstract:Effect of different pruning on growth, yield and guava cv. Sardar, during the year 2012-13 was observed at Department of Fruit Science, Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot. Maximum number of secondary and tertiary branches were recorded in T1 (pruning performed during first week of April - first week of August - first week of December), whereas highest N-S (North-South) canopy spread was recorded in T3 (pruning performed during first week of May - first week of September - first week of January) after III pruning cycle. Among different pruning level L1 (plants pruned with 25 per cent of shoot growth) recorded higher values for plant height, N-S and E-W (East-West) canopy spread. Interactions also give good result with respect to vegetative growth. Among the pruning levels maximum yield tons per ha was recorded in L1 (plants pruned with 25 per cent shoot growth) and in interactions T2L1 (plants pruned with 25 per cent shoot growth during third week of April - third week of August - third week of December) recorded maximum yield per ha.

Key words: High density planting (HDP), Guava, Pruning, Growth, Yield.

241

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)854-858(2016)

 

Effect of spacing and nitrogen levels on growth, flowering, yield and quality of garden rue (Ruta graveolens L.)

 

Shivanand Rangapur*, P.M. Gangadharappa, Ravi Pujari, Mahesh, R.K and Tammana Wagh

Dept. of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic crops, Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, UHS, Bagalkot, India

*e-mail: rangapurshivanand@gmail.com

(Received: October 31, 2015; Revised received: May 04, 2016;Accepted: May 06, 2016)

 

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Abstract: At harvest (180 DAP), maximum plant height, fresh and dry herbage and root yield per plot, per hectare and oil yield per hectare was noticed in S1 (45 x 30 cm). Minimum days to first flowering was observed with spacing of 45 x 45 cm (S2) whereas, wider spacing of 45 x 60 cm (S3) registered more number of primary branches per plant, flowers per plant, maximum plant spread, stem girth, fresh and dry herbage and root yield per plant and per cent dry matter. At harvest, application of 150 kg nitrogen per hectare (N4) recorded maximum plant height, more number of primary branches per plant, flowers per plant, plant spread, stem girth, fresh and dry herbage and root yield per plant, per plot, per hectare and per cent dry matter. Minimum days to first and fifty percent flowering were noticed with application of 60 kg nitrogen per hectare (N1). Whereas, highest essential oil content, oil yield per plant and per hectare was observed with the application of 120 kg nitrogen per hectare (N3). At harvest, the treatment combination S3N4 recorded highest fresh and dry herbage yield per plant, whereas highest fresh root yield per plant was recorded in S2N4. Plants grown at S1N4 combination registered maximum plant height, fresh and dry herbage and root yield per plot, per hectare, oil yield per hectare, per cent dry matter.

Key words: Garden rue, Spacing, Nitrogen levels, Growth, Yield and Quality.

242

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)859-864 (2016)

 

Effect of seed size on seedling vigour, plant growth, seed yield and its parameters: A review

 

J.B. Patel*, V.J. Bhatiya, C.A. Babariya and Jyoti Sondarva

Department of Seed Science and Technology, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362 001, India

*e-mail: jbpatelvasai38@gmail.com

(Received: September 19, 2015; Revised received: May 01, 2016;Accepted: May 03, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Seed size is one of the most important characteristics of seeds that can affect seed development and has a special role in crop production. Grading of seed based upon their size and weights is a common practice in a majority of crops as it has been found to regulate the germination and subsequent seedling growth in many plants. Genetic difference is the basis for variation in size of seed between varieties. Seed size is a relative term and has been interpreted differently by different researchers as very small, small, medium, bold, very bold, etc. according to the scale adopted by him. Some research workers may classify the seed size based on seed weight, seed density, specific gravity, and shape, etc. Different size of seeds having different levels of starch and other food storage may be one factor which influences the expression of germination and growth of the plants ((Wood et al., 1977). Germination may be dependent on the ability of seed to utilize reserves more efficiently (Rao and Sinha, 1993), by mobilization of seed reserves for germination traits (Penning de Vries, 1979). Therefore, the effect of seed size on germination, seedling vigour, plant growth, seed yield and seed quality parameters have been investigated by many researchers are reviewed herewith.

Key words: Germination, Plant growth, Seedling vigour, Seed size, Seed yield and Quality

243

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)865-868 (2016)

 

Temperature regimes influences on chlorophyll and relative water content during reproductive phases of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes

 

M.K. Rathod*, V.P. Chimmad and B.A. Kiran

College of Agriculture, Department of Crop Physiology, University of agricultural sciences, Dharwad-580005, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: mukeshkrathore417@gmail.com

(Received: October 10, 2015; Revised received: May 04, 2016;Accepted: May 09, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Abiotic and biotic stresses interludes in chickpea production environments. Among the abiotic stresses, high temperature during reproductive phases is a major factor, associated with yield reduction. A field experiment was conducted during rabi, 2014-15 at Dharwad, Karnataka with three genotypes (Annigeri-1, JG-11 and JG-14) as influenced by five dates of sowing (D). The investigation revealed that the genotype, JG-14 under D1 to D3 temperature regimes significantly maintained maximum relative water content (RWC) (83.98, 79.79 and 78.08%, respectively) and total chlorophyll content (2.56, 3.36 and 3.07 mg g-1 of fresh tissue, respectively) during reproductive phases viz., at 50% flowering, 15 and 30 days after 50% flowering, respectively and recorded on par yield (21.17 q ha-1) than the Annigeri-1 and JG-11 under all temperature regimes, indeed, the greatest yield was realized by Annigeri-1 (21.24 q ha-1) with minimum RWC and total chlorophyll content. Genotype, JG-14, indeed, efficiently maintained RWC status of leaves and chlorophyll content under late sown and high temperature conditions with on par yield, apparently exhibiting thermo-tolerant attributes under all temperature regimes.

Key words: Chickpea, Chlorophyll, Physiology, Reproductive phase, Temperature regime

244

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)869-870 (2016)

 

Effect of spacing on yield, quality and economics of glory lily (Gloriosa superba L.)

 

Rahul S. Phatak*1, Laxminarayan Hegde2, N.K. Hegde1, Praveen Jholgiker1, Vijaykumar Narayanpur2

1Departmant of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic crops, KRC College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, India

2Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, College of Horticulture, Sirsi-581401, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: rphatak2@gmail.com

(Received: October 10, 2015; Revised received: May 04, 2016;Accepted: May 09, 2016)

 

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Abstract: An experiment was conducted in 2012-13 at Antravalli to know the effect of spacing on yield, quality and economics of glory lily production. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block design with eight treatments (spacing levels viz., 60 x 30 cm, 60 x 60 cm, 90 x 30 cm, 90 x 60 cm, 120 x 30 cm, 120 x 60 cm, 150 x 30 cm and 150 x 60 cm) replicated thrice. The study revealed that, there was a significant influence of spacing on the yield parameters. The fresh and dry seed yield per ha were statistically superior in 90 x30 cm spacing which recorded the higher returns and high B: C ratio. Highest tuber yield per ha (18.64 q) was recorded in 60 x 30 cm which was on par with 90 x 30 cm spacing. The colchicine content also varied with different spacing levels.

Key words: Agnishikha, Gloriosa superba, Gloriosa lily, Glory lily, Spacing

245

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)871-874 (2016)

A study on ADI rotavator blades

Mukesh Rana* and R.N.Pateriya

1Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, College of Technology, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India

*e-mail: rana.gbpau@gmail.com

(Received: November 03, 2015; Revised received: May 05, 2016;Accepted: May 09, 2016)

 

 

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Abstract: The experiment was conducted at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar. A rotavator is popularly used to reduce the amount of time and labour spent in field preparation. However, wear of rotavator blades is very high, especially in sandy soil, which significantly affects its working life. This study was ADI rotavator blades compared to indigenous and imported rotavator blades. The test result showed that average gravimetric wear rate of ADI and indigenous blades were 110.08, 129.98, 154.42 and 106.87 % of imported blade. It was also found that the average width wear rate of the ADI blades (T1) at starting, bent and leg section were 0.36mm/h, 0.25mm/h and 0.025mm/h than (T2) 0.40mm/h, 0.27mm/h and 0.031mm/h and (T3) 0.42mm/h, 0.27mm/h and 0.037mm/h while those of the indigenous (T4) and imported (T5) blade were 0.29mm/h, 0.18mm/h and 0.021mm/h than 0.26mm/h, 0.17mm/h and 0.016mm/h respectively. The wear rate of the ADI blades all treatments were significantly more than those of the indigenous and imported blades, indicating a maximum wear loss. Therefore, it was concluded that material composition of blades affects wear characteristics of both types of blades.

Keywords:ADI Blades, Rotavator, Tillage, Field

246

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7) 875-878(2016)

 

Triple test cross analysis for yield and its component traits in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

 

K.S. Chandel, Sanjeev Naryal and Smita Kumari*

Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture, CSKHPKV, Palampur (H.P.)

*e-mail: smitak659@gmail.com

(Received: October 10, 2015; Revised received: May 07, 2016;Accepted: May 10, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The success of vegetable breeding operations mainly depends upon the nature and extent of genetic components of variation. Thus it is imperative to have reliable estimates of such components in order to formulate an efficient breeding strategy. In the present study, the components of genetic variation were studied in MEW (Mino Early White) and PH (Pusa Himani) for quantitative characters. The estimates of both additive and dominance components were significant for all the characters except leaf weight, leaf length and days taken to maturity and leaf weight, leaf length and days taken to maturity were significant for only dominance component. Epistasis (i) type was significant in all the traits except root: top ratio, and days taken to maturity while as (j+l) type epistasis was found in all traits except root diameter (cm) and number of leaves.The degree of dominance (H/D)1/2 was in the range of over dominance for root yield/plot (kg), gross root weight (g), root girth (cm), root diameter (cm), leaf length (cm), number of leaves and days taken to maturity where as the presence of partial dominance for days to root length (cm), leaf weight (g) and root: top ratio.

Key words: Triple test cross, Additive, Dominance

247

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)879-881(2016)

 

Performance of gladioles (Gladiolus hybridus L.) genotypes for growth, flowering and quality characters

 

R. Rashmi*, S.Y. Chandrashekarand N. Arulmani

Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture, College of Horticulture (UAHS Shivamogga), Mudigere - 577 132, India

*e-mail: rashmi.hortico@gmail.com

(Received: September 05, 2015; Revised received: May 08, 2016;Accepted: May 10, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The performance of different genotypes for growth, flowering and quality characters showed significant differences. Among the twenty genotypes studied, Arka Gold recorded maximum plant height (79.40cm) whereas minimum plant height was observed in Green Star (53.80cm). Poonam produced more number of leaves (8.60), whereas Pinklady (7.40) produced less number of leaves.Early emergence of spike was recorded in genotype Liemonocello (48.80 days) while, it was late in genotype Tilak (69.40 days). First floret opening was recorded in genotype Shobha (62.40 days), while it was delayed in genotype Charms Flow (78.07 days). The longest spike length was recorded in genotype Sagar (90.73 cm) it was on par with cultivarArka Naveen(81.47 cm) and shortest spike length was in observed in the genotypeAlgarve (48.60 cm). Number of florets per spike was maximum in genotype Arka Kesar (19.13) whereas, minimum in genotype minimum in Algarve (9.27). Number of spikes was maximum in genotype Arka Amar (2.93) followed by Tilak and Sagar (2.13) while minimum in Greenstar, King Lynn, Magma, Liemonocello, Algarve, Cheops, Pinklady, Bangladesh, Anjali and Charms Flow. Genotype Tilak recorded maximum diameter of floret (11.19 cm) and it was minimum in genotype Aarti (7.67 cm).Among the genotypes studied, vase life was maximum in genotypes Arka Naveen, Tilak, Arka Kesar and Sagar (9.00 days) whereas minimum in genotype Algarve (6.60days).

Key words : Gladiolus,Genotypes, Performance, Flowering, Quality parameters

248

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)882-886 (2016)

 

Study of genetic variability and character association for yield and its contributing traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L)

 

Sarvan Kumar*1, B.S. Tyagi1, Anuj Kumar1, Pradeep Kumar1, Jaydev Kumar1 and Harpeer Kaur2

1Division of Crop Improvement, Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Karnal, Haryana -132 001, India

2Department of Agriculture,GSSDGS Khalsa College, Patiala, India

*e-mail: sarvan.khokhar@gmail.com

(Received: October 15, 2015; Revised received: May 09, 2016;Accepted: May 12, 2016)

 

 

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Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the genetic variability and characters association for yield and its contributing traits in different wheat crosses namely, DBW14/HUW468 (I), DL788-2/PBW502 (II) and DBW14/HUW533 (III). The analysis of variance showed considerable amount of variation in all three crosses for different traits under study except someone indicates presence of sufficient variability in the material. Highest magnitudes of GCV, PCV and high heritability coupled with high genetic advance as percent of means were recorded for days to heading, days to maturity and 1000 grain weight in cross (I); for spike length and grain per spike in cross (II) for plant height and grain yield per plant in cross (III) indicated predominance of additive gene action in the inheritance of these traits. The correlation coefficients showed significant and desirable correlations for productive tillers and grains per spike in cross (I); days to maturity and grain weight per spike in cross (II) whereas days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, grain per spike, grain weight per spike, grains per spike and thousand grain weight in cross (III) at both genotypic as well as phenotypic level. Path analysis showed maximum positive direct effect on grain yield was exerted by days to maturity (2.205) followed by plant height (0.435), tillers per plant (2.091) and grain weight per spike (0.745) in cross (I). Grain weight per spike showed maximum positive direct effect on grain yield in cross (III) and cross (II) showed in 1000 grain weight, indicating the true relationship between these traits as good contributors to grain yield. As a result, these traits could be considered as important traits for selection in breeding programme for higher grain yield of the bread wheat.

Key words: Variability, Heritability, Genetic advance, Characters association, Grain yield and Bread wheat

249

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)887-888 (2016)

 

Effect of drought at reproductive stage in different rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes

 

Garima Yadav*, Shambhoo Prasad, Shashi Devi , Sonam Singh and Atul Kumar Verma

Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, NDUA and T. Kumarganj Faizabad, India

*e-mail: yadav.garima169@gmail.com

(Received: November 06, 2015; Revised received: May 9, 2016;Accepted: May 11, 2016)

 

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Abstract: This experiment was conducted in three set to evaluate the effect of drought stress on 5 rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotype/line (Nagina-22, NDR-97, Susk Samrat, Swarna sub-1 and NDR 9830102) to assess the drought tolerance. Drought stress was given at reproductive stage for 15 days. Exposure of 15 days drought significantly affects the growth and yield of rice genotypes. Sensitive genotype (swarna sub-1) more reduced in plant height (up to 35% reduction) and grain yield (up to 47% reduction) than for moderately tolerant NDR 9830102 (maximum reductions of height up to 13.03% and grain yield up to 23.94%) and tolerant genotypes Nagina-22, NDR-97, , Susk Samrat respectively. 50% flowering, and days of maturity were also delayed across genotype at the tolerance levels. Drought stress at reproductive stage severally affect yield of Swarna sub-1, but impact of drought was less on Nagina-22, NDR-97, , and Susk Samrat and NDR 9830102 respectively.

Key Words: Drought, Submergence, Oryza sativa L.

250

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)889-894 (2016)

 

Isolation, characterization and biomass production of Trichoderma spp. - Areview

 

Vandana Shukla*1, Payal Devi2 andSanghmitra Baghel1

1Department of Plant Pathology, 2Department of Entomology, Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur, India

*e-mail: amazingvanna@gmail.com

(Received: September 25, 2015; Revised received: May 7, 2016;Accepted: May 11, 2016)

 

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Abstract: In the recent years, the environmental contamination caused by excessive use of chemical pesticides increased the interest in integrated pest management, where chemical pesticides are substituted by bio-pesticides to control plant pests and plant diseases. Trichoderma, soil-borne filamentous fungi, are capable of parasitising several plant pathogenic fungi. It is a potential fungal bio-control agent against a range of plant pathogens. Popularization of biopesticides is very slow as compared to chemicals and only 2% biopesticides are available. Among the different biopesticides, Trichoderma is most exploited and have many success stories. Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma harzianum have curved a niche for themselves in India as important biocontrol agents for management of various diseases. A number of successful products based on different species of Trichoderma have been commercialized in India. The potential Trichoderma isolates are formulated using different organic and inorganic carriers either through solid or liquid fermentation technologies. They are delivered either through seed treatment, bio-priming, seedling dip, soil application, and foliar spray. The major issue involved in mass production and utilization of biocontrol agent are selection of effective strains, development cost effective methods for mass multiplication, effective methods for storage, shipment and its formulation. Present study deals with use of household waste, vegetable waste and other wastes and assessment for their suitability as substrates for mass multiplication Trichoderma spp. and develops effective production methodology which can be easily adopted.

Key words: Trichoderma spp., Biocontrol, Mass production, Characterization, Formulation

251

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)895-899 (2016)

 

Performance evaluation and correlation analysis in F2 generations of chilli (Capsicum annuum var. annuum)

 

N. Rohini* and V. Lakshmanan

Department of Vegetable Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agri. Univ., Periyakulam -625 604, India

*e-mail: rohizna@gmail.com

(Received: September 25, 2015; Revised received: May 7, 2016;Accepted: May 11, 2016)

 

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Abstract: The present investigation on mean and correlation analysis was conducted on genetically diverse thirty F2 progenies of chilli. The observation were recordedon the following traits,plant height, branches per plant, days to 50% flowering, fruits per plant, fruit length, fruit girth, individual fresh fruit weight, individual dry pod weight, fresh fruit yield per plant and dry pod yield per plant. Significant different were observed among the progenies for all the traits. On the basis of mean performance, progenies K 1 x Pusa Jwala, K 1 x PKM 1, LCA 625 x K 1, Pusa Jwalax PKM 1 and Pusa Jwala x K 1 were superior performed for fruit yield per plant, average fresh fruit and dry pod weight, fruits per plant and took less number of days to 50% flowering. Correlation studies revealed that dry pod yield per plant was significant and positive correlated with plant height, branches per plant, fruits per plant, fruit girth, fresh fruit weight, dry pod weight and fresh fruit yield. However negative association was observed with days to 50% flowering and fruit length. Hence selecting chilli progenies with early flowering, more number of branches and fruits per plant, high fruit weight will help to improve yield per plant in chilli.

Key words: Chilli, F2 generation, Evaluation, Correlation

252

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)900-902(2016)

 

Homology modeling of outer membrane lipoprotein of Salmonella typhi

 

Anand Kumar, Shiv Kumar, SubirKundu, Mira Debnath (Das)*

School of Biochemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi, India

*e-mail: m.debnath.bce@itbhu.ac.in

(Received: October 29, 2015; Revised received: May 14, 2016;Accepted: May 17, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Outer membrane lipoprotein play important role in B-cell stimulation. By Homology modeling structure of protein can be determine which is not available in the database.The present research work includes the protein modeling of outer membrane lipoprotein of Salmonella typhi.by homology modeling andValidation of model of protein.By Swiss-Protmodel was generated and quality of model was estimated by Qmean and Anolea.Some important tool as ProSA and ProFunc were used for the Structure Analysis and to determine the Functionality of protein. In the 191 (90.5%) out of 211residue Phi/psi angles were found in the most favoured region during the statistical score of the Ramachandran’s plot.The tool ProCheck was used to determine the stability of protein according to Ramachnadran’s plot.

Key words: Outer membrane lipoprotein, Salmonella typhi., Homology modeling,Procheck,ProSA, ProFunc.

253

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7)903-906 (2016)

 

Effect of growth regulators and chemical supplements on callus induction in japonica rice verities through anther culture

 

Dalpat Lal*, Avinash Sharma, Kheta Ram Tak and T.H. Ashok

Department of Plant Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: dalpat032@gmail.com

(Received: November 04, 2015; Revised received: March 06, 2016;Accepted: May 09, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Anther culture is an efficient and convenient technique for rapid production of doubled haploids which are useful in crop breeding programs. The combination of different growth regulators with chemical supplements facilitates callus induction on N6 medium. Among the twovarieties, highest callus induction frequency (44.44%) was recorded in treatment T4 containing 1.5 mg/L 2, 4-D + 1 mg/L NAA + 5 mg/L silver nitrate in Azucena. However, in Moroberekan highest callus induction frequency (40.0%) was recorded in treatment T11 containing 1 mg/L NAA + 0.5 mg/L Kinetin + 500 mg/L casein hydrolysate + 250 mg/L L-Proline. The present study revealed that response of anther culture was better in Azucena (subsp. japonica) compared to the Moroberekan (subsp. japonica). Therefore, genotype, type of growth regulator with chemical supplements and their interaction plays significant role in order to achieve high callus induction.

Key words: Anther culture, Chemical supplements, Azucena, Moroberekan, Callus

254

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (7) 907-910 (2016)

 

Assessment of the quality parameters such as colour of dried dutch rose flowers

 

Mohammed Azhar Bintory*, Seetharamu G.K., Ibaad M.H., Saniya Taj, Shivakumar S.P. and Mohamad Tayeeb Ulla H.

Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture,College of Horticulture Bengaluru, UHS Campus, GKVK, Bengaluru, India

*e-mail: mabintory@gmail.com

(Received: December 26, 2015; Revised received: May 18, 2016;Accepted: May 22, 2016)

 

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Abstract: An experiment was conducted to assess the quality parameter such as colour of dried dutch rose flowers in the laboratory of RHREC, COH Bangalore Karnataka, during the year of 2014-15. The treatment comprised of four dutch varieties, V1TajMahal, V2 - Gold Strike, V3 – Noblesse, V4 – Avalanche and two drying methods- D1 - Air drying, D2 - Hot air-oven,were replicated thrice in two factorial completely randomized design. The results from the findings indicated that, among the drying methods var. Taj Mahal of hot air oven drying recorded maximum score for color (22.20),(22.10) and (22.00) at zero days, 30 days and 60 days after storage. Among different drying methods significant lightness (67.83%), (61.47) and (61.28) was recorded highly under hot air oven drying at zero days, 30 days and 60 days after storage. With respect to the chroma (saturation) maximum was in var. Gold Strike (54.72), (46.73) and (41.95) and with respect to the hue angle minimum was recorded in var. Taj Mahal and was nearer to the original red colour (2.00°), (2.65°) and (3.52°) respectively at zero days, 30 days and 60 days after storage.

Key words: Dutch rose, Minolta CR-10 colorimeter, Lightness, Chroma, Hue angle

 

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