RESEARCH IN ENVIRONMENT AND LIFE SCIENCES

Volume-9, Number-8, August-2016

 

255

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)911-913 (2016)

Influence of sulphur and sulphur oxidizing biofertilizer on growth attributes at different stages of sunflower

Amit M. Pujar* and B. N. Aravinda Kumar

Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, India

*e-mail: amit4670@gmail.com

(Received: September 06, 2015; Revised received: April 26, 2016;Accepted: April 28, 2016)

 

 

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Abstract: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), which used to be an ornamental plants in India, has in recent times become an important source of edible oil. The saturated fatty acids, like palmitic acid and stearic acid constitute only 15 per cent. The main constituent, linoleic acid ranges from 40-70 per cent. A field experiment was conducted at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India to study the effect of different levels of sulphur alone or in combination with sulphur oxidizing biofertilizer in sunflower during kharif 2013.Results indicated that application of 30 kg sulphur ha-1 with sulphur oxidizing biofertilizer registered higher plant height (195.00 cm), number of green leaves plant-1 (10.56), Leaf area (dm2) (26.68), Leaf area index (1.48) and Dry matter production(g plant- 1) (59.64). However, the significantly lowest growth attributes were obtained in control. This means that the positive effect of the inoculation with sulphur oxidizing bacteria was the highest when elemental sulphur was applied.

Key words: Growth Attributes, Sunflower, Sulphur and Sulphur Oxidizing Biofertilizer

256

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)914-916 (2016)

 

Biochemical changes during off-season flowering in custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) cv. Balanagar induced by pruning and defoliation

G. M. Vinay*1,Y.S. Praneeth2, G.K. Halesh3. R. Chithiraichelvan1

1Division of fruit crops, IIHR, Hesaraghatta Lake Post Bengaluru-560089, India; 2College of Horticulture, GKVK post, Bengaluru, India

3Department of Plant Biochemistry, college of Horticulture, Bengaluru, India

*e-mail: vingeegmvegs@gmail.com

(Received: September 03, 2015; Revised received: April 25, 2016;Accepted: April 28, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore; during 2013-2014 to study the biochemical changes in the leaf of twelve year old custard apple cv. Balanagarduring off-season flowering.Treatments contain different pruning levels (25% and 50%) combined with defoliation chemicals (Urea 5%, Ethrel 2000ppm, Potassium iodide 1% and Orthophosphoric acid 1%) with control. Total phenolics, Reducing sugars, Non-reducing sugars, Total sugars, Proline, Chlorophyll-a, Chlorophyll-b and Total chlorophyll concentrations were monitored before treatment application and after treatments application. Total phenolics, Reducing sugars and Non-reducing sugars are decreased in treated trees than the before application of treatments and control, but Total sugar found more in before treatment application than the control and treated trees, and Proline, Chlorophyll-a, Chlorophyll-b and Total chlorophyll levels in leaves increased in the treated trees than the control and before application of the treatments. Such biochemical changes within the custard apple leaves may have resulted in greater flowering and fruiting, giving rise to off-season flowering and fruiting with yield of 10.33 kg per plant in the treatment of 25 per cent pruning + Urea 5 per cent and 25 per cent pruning + Potassium iodide 1 per cent,than the other treatments.

Key words:Custard apple, Balanagar, Off-season, Biochemicals, Urea

257

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)917-919 (2016)

 

Evaluation of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) genotypes for growth, yield and yield attributes

 Shashidhar Dodamani*, N.K. Hegde, Gangadharappa, P.M., Shashikant, E., Ravi Pujari and Sharatbabu, A.G.

Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic crops, Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi - 591 218, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India

*e-mail:shashru2105@gmail.com

(Received: September 03, 2015; Revised received: April 25, 2016;Accepted: April 28, 2016)

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Abstract: Eighteen Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) genotypes were assessed for growth, yield and yield components. There was significant difference among the genotypes for growth and production potential. The results indicated that the maximum plant height (101.95 cm), leaf area index (5.28), number of primary rhizomes (7.51), number of secondary rhizomes (14.48), yield per plant (574.16 g), estimated fresh yield (42.53 t/ha) and HI (79.76%) was recorded in cv. Salem while the minimum was recorded in CO-2 (78.58 cm), CLI-14 (3.72), Bidar local (3.21), Prabha (7.16), CLI-14 (185.18 g), CLI-14 (13.72 t/ha) and CLI-14 (53.08 %) respectively. The highest number of tillers was recorded in var. Suroma (5.90) while the lowestwas recorded in var. Krishna (3.72). Maximum fresh weight of primary rhizomes (327 g) and secondary rhizomes (215.5 g) was recorded in var. Suroma while the minimum was recorded in CLI- 327 (162.18 g) and CLI-14 (70.22 g) respectively.

Keywords: Curcuma longa, Genotypes, Evaluation, Growth, Yield

258

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)920-922 (2016)

 

Response of sunflower to sulphur and sulphur oxidizing biofertilizer on quality and sulphur use efficiency

 Amit M. Pujar* and B. N. Aravinda Kumar

Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, India

*e-mail:amit4670@gmail.com

(Received: September 06, 2015; Revised received: April 26, 2016;Accepted: April 28, 2016)

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Abstract: Globally, sunflower ranks second to soybean among annual field crops grown for edible oil. Sunflower contains 48-53 per cent oil and 14 to 19 per cent protein. Functionally, sulphur significantly influences the yield and quality of crops, improves odour, flavors and imparts resistance to cold; and hence it is generally considered a “quality nutrient”. A field experiment was conducted at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India to study the effect of different levels of sulphur alone or in combination with sulphur oxidizing biofertilizer in sunflower during kharif 2013. Results of the study indicated that application of 30 kg S ha-1 with sulphur oxidizing biofertilizer resulted in higher seed oil content (39.00%) and oil yield (783 kg ha-1) over control (34.33%) and (482 kg ha-1), respectively. However, oil content in sunflower was on par with 30 kg S ha-1 alone (38.93%) and 20 kg S ha-1 with sulphur oxidizing biofertilizer (38.43%). Application of 10 kg S ha-1 with sulphur oxidizing biofertilizer recorded significantly a higher (5.73%) sulphur use efficiency. Lower sulphur use efficiency was observed under control.

Key words: Sulphur, Quality and Sulphur Use Efficiency

259

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8) 923-926(2016)

 

Isolation, identification and assessment of lipid percentage of cyanobacteria from different habitat for biodiesel

Ningaraj Dalawai*1, Harinikumar, K.M.1, Krupa, K.N.1, Manoj Kumar. H.B.1, Shreeshail Sonyal2, Hampanna, V.1 and Chethan, K.L.1

1Department of Plant Biotechnology, 2Department of Plant Pathology,UAS, GKVK, Bengaluru-65, India

*e-mail: subash4586@gmail.com

(Received: December 26, 2015; Revised received: June 22, 2016;Accepted: June 26, 2016)

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Abstract: Cyanobacteria: A major group of bacteria that occur throughout the world. They are also known as blue- green algae. Different species of cyanobacteria live in wide variety of habitats-from soil to fresh and sea waters, as well as in extreme habitats such as hot springs, soda and salt lakes. Cyanobacteria, which are characterized by rapid photoautotrophic growth and high speed of biomass accumulation, are now considered as important renewable energy alternatives for petroleum-based fuels, like biofuels—biogas, bioethanol, or biodiesel. In agricultural field cyanobacteria is used as nitrogen fixing bio fertilizer, for bioremediation co2 sequestration and biofuel production. This research is based on isolation and identification of cyanobacteria species collected from locations and assessment of their lipid percentage for biofuel production as lipid is important source for biodiesel production.

Key words: Cyanobacteria, Biomass, Lipid and Biofuel

260

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)927-930 (2016)

 

Protein fractionation and amino acid composition of some new germplasm of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

Anil Kumar*, R.P. Singh, Pratibha Singh and R.N. Kewat

Department of Biochemistry N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

*e-mail: kumarbiochem87@gmail.com

(Received: September 04, 2015; Revised received: May 14, 2016;Accepted: May 20, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Ten germplasm of Desi and Kabuli chickpea namely BGM-568, JKG-5303, KKG-306, BG-2083, JSC-61, NDG-5-21, Udai, NDG-54, KWR-108, and BG-256 were collected from department of GPB of this university and taken in present research work. After harvesting the seeds of all the germplasm were collected separately and used for analysis of some physical, protein fractionation and amino acid composition. The number of pods per plant was higher in NDG-5-21(57.33) followed by Udai (55.00) and BG-256 (43.00). Minimum numbers of pods per plant were noticed in the germplasm BGM-568 (29.00). Maximum 1000- seed weight was recorded in the germplasm BG-2083 (34.22g) followed by JSC-61 (33.19g) and KKG-306 (32.25g). Lowest 1000-seed weight was observed in the germplasm NDG-5-21 (17.65g). The sulphur containing amino acids namely Cysteine and Cystine were reported highest in the germplasm of Udai (1.54g/16gN) followed by KKG-306 (1.52g/16gN) and NDG-5-21 (1.50g/16gN). Minimum Cysteine content was noticed in the germplasm JKG-5303 and NDG-54 (1.31g/16gN). Maximum Cystine content was recorded in the germplasm Udai (0.67g/16gN) followed by NDG-5-21 (0.65g/16gN) and KKG-306 (0.61g/16gN). Minimum Cystine content was observed in the germplasm JKG-5303 and NDG-54 (0.42g/16gN). Tryptophan and lysine content were noticed between 0.51-0.63g/16gN and 5.19-5.95 g/16gN respectively. Protein fractionation- soluble, albumin and globulin protein content were noticed in table 2, 3 and 4. On the basis of overall observation it can be concluded that germplasm NDG-5-21, BG-2083, and Udai, were rated superior as compared to other germplasm regarding physical, protein fractionation, amino acid, and sulphur containing amino acid quality parameters of Desi and Kabuli chickpea.

Key words: Chickpea, Pods per plant, 1000-seed weight, Tryptophan, Lysine, Cysteine, Cystine and Protein fractionation

261

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8) 931-932(2016)

 

Suitable water soluble fertilizers for increasing growth parameters of pigeonpea

Mamathashree C.M.*1, M.B. Patil2, Ashwini M.1, Shilpa H.D.3

Department of Agronomy, UAHS, Shivamogga; 2ARS Almel; 3Department of Agronomy, UAS Dhrwad

*e-mail: mamathashreecm@gmail.com

(Received: October 03, 2015; Revised received: May 15, 2016;Accepted: May 17, 2016)

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Abstract: The field experiment was conducted at College of Agriculture, Bijapur, to know the effect of foliar spray of water soluble fertilizers on growth and yield of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.)kharif2013. The experiment was laid out with twelve treatments replicated thrice in randomized block design.Foliar spray of 19:19:19 @ 2% had favorable effect on growth and development of pigeonpea as evidenced by higher plant height (185.9cm), number of primary branches (13.2). Water soluble fertilizers had significant influences on leaf area of pigeon pea at harvest.Among the treatments foliar spray of 19:19:19 at 2% recorded significantly higher leaf area per plant (18.7 dm2 plant-1) compared to other water soluble fertilizers, but it was on par with foliar spray of 0:52:34 at 2% (17.7 dm2 plant-1). Lower leaf area was recorded with control (12.4 dm2 plant-1).

Key words: Foliar spray, Pigeonpea, Plant height.

262

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8) 933-935 (2016)

 

Effect of organic manure and crop residue management on quality and economics in pigeonpea based intercropping systems

R.K. Nagar*, V.V. Goud, Rajesh Kumar and Anil Nath

Department of Agronomy, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, Maharastra–444 104, India

*e-mail: ravindranagaragro@gmail.com

(Received: October 13, 2015; Revised received: May 05, 2016;Accepted: May 11, 2016)

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Abstract: A field study was conducted at Pulses Research Unit, Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola (Maharashtra) during kharif season of 2013-14 on Inceptisol. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replication consisting three cropping systems [Pigeonpea + greengram, Pigeonpea + blackgram, Sole pigeonpea] and three levels of organic manure [FYM + phosphocompost, Pigeonpea stalk + phosphocompost, RDF alone]. Pigeonpea + blackgram intercropping system recorded highest protein content (20.45%), pigeonpea equivalent yield (2002 kg/ha), gross monetary returns (Rs/ha 106295), net monetary return (Rs/ha 79474) and B:C ratio (3.00) while maximum protein yield (317.2 kg/ha) and seed yield (1601 kg/ha) was recorded in sole pigeonpea. Among nutrient management application of inorganic fertilizer recorded higher seed yield (1330 kg/ha), PEY (1832 kg/ha) and B:C ratio (3.13) while highest protein content (20.71%), protein yield (266.9 kg/ha), gross monetary (Rs/ha 100173) and net monetary return returns (Rs/ha 71172) were recorded in FYM + phosphocompost.

Key words: Intercropping, Organic manure, Pigeonpea yield and economics

263

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)936-939 (2016)

 

Genetic diversity analysis for morpho-physiological, yield and quality traits in bread bread wheat under irrigated condition

B.A. Veeresha*1 and V. Rudra Naik2

1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 2Principal Scientist (Plant Breeding), All India Coordinated Wheat Improvement Project, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580005, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: ambavee@gmail.com

(Received: October 19, 2015; Revised received: May 18, 2016;Accepted: May 20, 2016)

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Abstract: In the present study, one hundred bread wheat genotypes were evaluated for assessing the nature and magnitude of genetic divergence using Mahalanobis’s D2 statistics. The data for twenty five quantitative traits recorded from the genotypes raised in alpha lattice design with two replications. All the genotypes were grouped into eight clusters. Cluster IV was largest with twenty six genotypes followed by cluster II with twenty four genotypes. The maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster V and VI, suggesting that the genetic makeup of the genotypes in one cluster differ entirely from those included in other clusters. Thus, hybridization among these cluster pairs is recommended for getting high transgressive segregants in F2 generation. Noteworthy is that both cluster III and II exhibited high cluster means for grain yield (kg/ha) and number of grains per spike, cluster VIII for thousand grain weight, number of spikelets per spike and sedimentation value and cluster VII for protein content. Cluster VII bears highest mean value for chlorophyll content at anthesis (49.40) and during grain filling (after anthesis, 48.28), whereas, Cluster V bears highest mean value for leaf vegetation at anthesis (0.69) and during grain filling (0.50). Similarly Cluster VIII has the lowest mean value for canopy temperature before anthesis (22.90), at anthesis (24.58) and during grain filling (27.20). Among the traits studied, maximum contribution was made by sedimentation value (45.29%), followed by days to maturity (18.59%), relative water content (16.24%) and thousand grain weight (8.42%). Hence, sedimentation value, days to maturity, relative water content and thousand grain weight together contribute 88.54% towards total divergence. Therefore, these traits may be given importance during hybridization programme. Noteworthy is that cluster II, IV, VI and VIII reflected high cluster means for grain yield, spike length, number grains per spike, protein content, number spikelets per spike, thousand grain weight, sedimentation value, and these clusters can be successfully utilized in hybridization programmes to get desirable transgressive segregants.

Key words: D2 statistics, Genetic divergence, Morpho-physiological traits, Bread wheat

264

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)940-942 (2016)

 

Genetic diversity in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) genotypes

Vittal Mangi*, H.B. Patil, Shivappa M karadi, Mallesh Sanganamoni and Mahantesh Jogi

Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot-587 104,India

*e-mail: vittalmangiphd@gmail.com

(Received: October 10, 2015; Revised received: May 19, 2016;Accepted: May 24, 2016)

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Abstract: Genetic divergence among 60 brinjal genotypes was estimated using Mahalanobis D2 statistic. The genotypes were grouped into seven clusters with irrespective of geographic divergence, indicating no parallelism between geographic and genetic diversity. The maximum number of genotypes (36) was found in cluster I with intra-cluster distance of 20.79 and the maximum inter-cluster distance was observed in between cluster III and cluster VII. Hence, genotypes belonging to these clusters may be utilized for involving in hybridization programme for crop improvement. The characters of average fruit weight (52.32%), number of fruits per cluster (14.52%), plant spread at 60 DAT (13.90%) and plant height at 60 DAT (10.62%) contributed more for genetic divergence.

Key words: Brinjal, Genetic diversity, D2 statistics, Cluster analysis

265

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)943-945 (2016)

 

Association and path analysis for yield and yield attributing traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Rajendragouda Patil*1, J. M. Nidagundi2, Sudhir Kumar1, Asif Hadimani 3 and Manjunath B.4

1Groundnut Breeding ICRIAT Hyderabad, 2Breeder (Cotton) MARS UAS, Raichur,

3UAS, Bangaluru, 4Genetics and Plant Breeding, UAS, Raichur

*e-mail: rajendragouda@gmail.com

(Received: November 03, 2015; Revised received: May 26, 2016;Accepted: May 29, 2016)

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Abstract: The present experiment was carried out to study correlation and path analysis studies for yield and yield attributing traits in sixty rice genotypes. The correlation studies revealed that the genotypic correlation were higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlations. Yield exhibited positive association with panicles per plant, biological yield, panicle weight, harvest index, straw yield and number of grains per panicle, negatively associated with plant height. Harvest index has the highest direct effect on the yield fallowed by biological yield and straw yield. This association and path analysis effects on yield indicating the importance of these traits during selections for improvement of yield.

Key words: Genotypic correlation, Phenotypic correlation, Yield components

266

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)946-948 (2016)

 

Screening for yellow vein mosaic virus resistance

of okra under natural field conditions

Arti Verma*1, Sonia Sood1, Vimlesh Kumar2and Yudhvir Singh1

1Department of Vegetable Science and Floriculture,CSK HPKV, Palampur, India

2Department of Vegetable Science, NDUAT, Faizabad, India

*e-mail: verma.arti104@gmail.com

(Received: October 06, 2015; Revised received: May 29, 2016;Accepted: June 02, 2016)

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Abstract: One of the major limiting factors of okra is the incidence of yellow vein mosaic virus transmitted by white fly. Eight genotypes along with their twenty eight F1 hybrids of okra were screened for reaction to yellow vein mosaic virus in three replications of randomized block design under field conditions during June-Sep 2013 at the Research Sub Station (RSS), Akrot, Himachal Pradesh, India. The results exhibited that out of eight genotypes, SKBS-11 was moderately resistant, P-20 revealed no disease incidence whereas the remaining genotypes showed resistant reaction. These genotypes could be used for further hybrid breeding programme due to their resistant disease reaction to YVMV. Among 28 F1 hybrids, moderately resistant to resistant reaction was recorded while the susceptible check, Pusa Sawani showed highly susceptible reaction.

Keywords: Resistant, Okra, Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus, Disease incidence

267

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)949-955 (2016)

 

Efficacy of antagonistic soil bacteria in management of subterranean termites (Isoptera)

Y.S. Rakshiya, M.K. Verma and S.S. Sindhu*

         Department of Microbiology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India

*e-mail: sindhuss58@gmail.com

(Received: September 28, 2015; Revised received: June 01, 2016;Accepted: June 07, 2016)

 

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Abstract: Subterranean termites are important pest of the Indian subcontinent and cause extensive damage to major agricultural crops and forest plantation trees. Due to long persistence of synthetic insecticides in soil, entry of residual toxic chemicals in food chain and other environmental concerns, attempts are being made to characterize microorganisms for biological control of termites. In this study, 220 bacterial isolates were obtained from the nest soil collected from termite mounds. Sixty three bacterial isolates along with eight reference strains were found to kill the termites under in vitro conditions at 2 days of observation and killing frequency of different bacterial isolates varied from 5 to 90 percent. Nine isolates i.e., KPM35, KBM79, PBM106, PPM115, PPM126, PPM147, PPM195, PPM203, PPM204 were found to cause more than 60% killing of termites in Petri plates even on 2nd days of observation. Six bacterial isolates i.e., PPM119, PPM123, PPM167, PPM194, PPM199 and PPM203 caused even 100 percent killing at 5 days of observation. At 10 days of incubation, forty eight bacterial isolates caused 90 to 100 per cent killing of termites. To explore the mechanism of termite killing, all the 71 bacterial isolates were tested for expression of proteolytic, lipolytic and chitinolytic activities. Only 20 bacterial isolates expressed proteolytic activity on modified casein agar medium and proteolytic activity varied from 1.24 to 2.64 among different bacterial isolates. Lipolytic activity was expressed by 46 bacterial isolates on tributyrin supplemented medium plates and fourteen isolates showed very high lipolytic activity. The range of lipolytic activity varied from 1.16 to 4.50. Only 21 bacterial isolates expressed chitinolytic activity on plates containing colloidal chitin and it varied from 1.15 to 2.96 in different bacterial isolates. Nine bacterial isolates i.e., KPM15, KPM30, KPM31, KPM32, KPM35, PPM94, PPM100, PPM119 and WPS73 showed all the three enzyme activities. Some bacterial isolates i.e., NBM8, KPM72, PPM147, PPM162, PPM167, PPM203 and PPM204, which showed high termite killing ability, did not show any of the three enzyme activities. Thus, termite killing was not correlated with any of these enzyme activities and probably, some other compound such as toxin, hydrocyanic acid or siderophore along with these enzymes may be involved in killing of termites.

Key words: Termites, Biological control, Bacteria, Proteolytic, Lipolytic, Chitinolytic activities       

268

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)956-957 (2016)

 

Effect of different substrates on the production and productivity of Pleurotus florida

Susheel Kumar*1, Ved Ratan3, Vimlesh Kumar2, S.K. Pande1 and Neeraj Kumar4

1Deptt. of Plant Pathology, 2Deptt. of Vegetable Science,4Deptt. of Seed Science & Technology, NDUA&T , Faiazabad, India

3Departent of plant pathology, CSAUA&T, Kanpur, India

*e-mail: susheel8263@gmail.com

(Received: September 29, 2015; Revised received: June 02, 2016;Accepted: June 07, 2016)

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Abstract: In this study, the effects of five different synthetic and semi-synthetic natural solid media on production and productivity of Pleurotus florida. The paddy straw, moong straw, maize straw, bajra straw and wheat straw alone and in their different combinations were used in cultivation of Pleurotus florida. The study revealed that on the basis mean performence obtained the highest yield (1170.00gm) with 78 percent productivity was recorded with moong straw alone Followed by paddy strawalone which was statistically at parwith wheat+ moong straw, paddy + bajra straw was next in superiourity which gave 980.6gm yield with 65.7 percent productivity followed by paddy +wheat straw. The minimum yield 720 gm along with 48 percent productivity was found with bajra straw alone. The investigation also observed that for average fruit body per bunch was maximum with moon straw, paddy +moong and paddy + wheat. However size of fruit body in substrats paddy + moong followed by moon straw. The investigation concluded that the for the cultivation of the Pleurotus florida moon straw alone produce maximum yield and it is suitable medium for quality production.

Key words: Pleurotusflorida, Cultivation, Moong straw, Synthetic medium, Paddy straw

269

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)958-959 (2016)

 

Effect of submergence on growth, yield and yield attributing traits of Rice genotype

Garima Yadav*, Shambhoo Prasad, Shashi Deviand Atul Kumar Verma

Department of plant molecular biology and Genetic engineering, N.D.U.A. and T., Faizabad, India

*e-mail: yadav.garima169@gmail.com

(Received: November 06, 2015; Revised received: May 28, 2016;Accepted: June 04, 2016)

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Abstract: This experiment was conducted with 5 rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotype (N-22, N-97, Susk Samrat, Swarna sub-1 and NDR9830102) to assess the submergence tolerance in rice genotype under submergence condition. Twelve days submergence was given at vegetative stage of 35 days old seedling. Under water, submergence tolerant rice genotype swarna sub-1 has lower shoot elongation and showed better survival capacity, whereas NDR9830102 has both characteristic higher shoot elongation and good survival capacity as compare to N-97, Susk Samrat and N-22.Exposure of 12 days submergence significantly affects the growth and yield in N-22, N-97 and Susk Samrat while Swarnasub-1, NDR9830102 less affected and has better survival. Among the 5 genotypes swarna sub-1 showed good tolerance and NDR9830102 shows both better elongation and survival capacity under submergence condition.

Key words: Drought, Submergence, Oryza sativa L., Genotype

270

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)960-962 (2016)

 

Response of maize to zinc enriched organic manures in southern transitional zone of Karnataka

Shivanand Patil*, G. K. Girijesh, T. S. Vageesh, Renukaswamy N. S. and R. Mohan Kumar

Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga

*e-mail: shivugkk@gmail.com

(Received: October 06, 2015; Revised received: June 03, 2016;Accepted: June 09, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2014 at Agriculture College, Navile, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga to study the effect of zinc enriched maize residue compost on growth, yield and economics of maize. The experiment consisted of 12 treatments was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments comprise of soil application of maize residue compost @ 7.5 tonnes per hectare along with 10 and 15 kg ZnSO4 (T1 and T2), enriched farm yard manure (FYM) with 10 and 15 kg ZnSO4 (T3 and T4), enriched maize residue compost with 10 and 15 kg ZnSO4(T5 and T6), FYM and MRC at 7.5 tonnes per hectare along with 0.5 per cent ZnSO4 at varied crop stages (T7–T9), FYM and MRC at 7.5 tonnes per hectare alone (T10 and T11) and recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) alone (T12). The results of field experiment revealed that application of 7.5 tonnes of MRC enriched with 15 kg ZnSO4 (T6) recorded significantly higher growth attributing characters viz., plant height (172.63 cm), leaf area (56.88 dm2), leaf area index (4.21), leaf area duration (113.84 day), total dry matter production (326.38 g/plant) and yield attributes such as cob diameter (15.49 cm), grain yield per plant (134.7 g/plant) and test weight (31.51 g). As a resultant of increased growth and yield attributes former treatment recorded significantly higher grain (60.9 q ha-1) and stover yields (62.57 q ha-1). Further, economic analysis of maize indicated that application of 7.5 tonnes of MRC enriched with 15 kg ZnSO4 (T6) has recordedhigher gross (Rs 76,521 ha-1) and net returns (Rs 46,286 ha-1).

Keywords: Economics, Enriched, FYM, Foliar application, Maize, MRC, Yield, Zinc

271

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)963-965 (2016)

 

Study of contamination of Staphylococci and E. Coli Bacteria in different types of milk

 Ramjee Gupta*1, Sudhir Kumar Rawat2 and Manoj Kumar Singh1

1Deptt. ofA. H. and Dairying, C.S.A.U. A&T Kanpur, India; 2Animal Husbandry, K.V.K. Mohoba, U.P., India

*e-mail: ramg07@gmail.com

(Received: September 15, 2015; Revised received: June 02, 2016;Accepted:June 08, 2016)

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Abstract: Fifty four milk samples of raw and pasteurized / boiled milk samples were collected from different sources of milk supply in Kanpur city and bacteriological analysis was done in laboratory. In raw milk Staphylococci count/ ml, SPC/ml and Coliform count /ml were found highest in hawker’s milk followed by town dairies /Ghosies and C.S.A. University dairy milk Kanpur. In Parag milk (co--operative board milk, pasteurized) and Halwais milk (boiled) Staphylococcal and coliform contamination were totally absent. In Gyan dairy milk although it was pasteurized showed staphylococci and coliform contamination.SPC/ml in pasteurized /boiled milk were highest in Halwais milk, followed by Gyan dairy milk and co-operative board milk. Plasma coaguase test was found negative in all the cases of staphylococcal contamination, showed the total absence of Streptococcus aureus (coagulase positive staphylococci). Co-relation coefficient (r) was found highly significant between Staphylococci count/ml and SPC/ml of milk and between Staphylococci count/ml and Coliform count/ml of milk.

Key words: Coliform, Kanpur, Pasteurized, Plasma Coagulase test, Staphylococci

272

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)966-969 (2016)

 

Effect of plant geometry and fertility levels on nutrient content and uptake of different

varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in rabi season under central plain zone

Vishuddha Nand*

Department of Agronomy, C.S. Azad University of Agriculture andTechnology, Kanpur, India

*e-mail: vishuddhanand84nd@gmail.com

(Received: October 01, 2015; Revised received: june 08, 2016;Accepted: june 11, 2016)

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Abstract: Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops grown in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Despite its high yield potential, it is giving low yields because of lack of appropriate information about plant spacing and fertilizer management. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the major plant nutrients, which limit normal plant growth. Increasing productivity per unit area through agronomic management is one of the important strategies to increase the production of maize grain. Keeping this in view, a field experiment was conducted at Agronomy research Farm of C.S. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (U.P), during rabi season in 2010-11 and 2011-12. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with three replications. The main plots were allotted by maize hybrid (DHM-117) and composite (Madhuri) along with three spacing, 45cm x 20 cm, 60cm x 20 cm and 60cm x 25 cm. And sub plots, were tested three fertility levels viz, F1- NPK and ZnSo4 of (120:60:40 and 15 kgha-1) F2 -NPK and ZnSo4 of (160:80:60 and 20 kgha-1) and F3 - NPK and ZnSo4 of (180:100:80 and 25 kgha-1). The results were revealed that the maize hybrid (DHM-117) significantly more NPK and Zn content and uptake with fertility levels of NPK and ZnSo4 of (180:100:80 and 25 kgha-1) at plant geometry 60cm x20 cm followed by maize composite (Madhuri). The maize hybrid (DHM-117) with plant geometry 60cm x 20cm was obtained significantly maximum grain yield as well as stover yield compared to plant geometry 60cm x25 cm and 45cm x 20cm, respectively. The maximum net income (Rs. 108619.2 and 109324.1 ha-1) and B:C ratio (3.15 and 2.97) were noticedwith V2P2F3 and V2P2F2 treatment combination, respectively.

Key words: Maize, NPK and Zn, Plant geometry and nutrient content and uptake

273

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)970-972 (2016)

 

Effect of different plant spacings and cultivars on growth, flowering and seed production of china aster [Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees.]

V. Bhargav*1, B. P. Sharma2, B. S. Dilta3, Y.C. Gupta2 and N. Negi2

1Division of Ornamental Crops, ICAR-IIHR, Hessaragatta, Bengaluru, India

2Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, 3Department of Seed Science and Technology,

Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, India

*e-mail: bhargavhorti12@gmail.com

(Received: October 06, 2015; Revised received: June 07, 2016;Accepted:June 11, 2016)

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Abstract: Trail with four level of spacings viz., 30 x 15 cm (S1), 30 x 20 cm (S2), 30 x 25 cm (S3) and 30 x 30 cm (S4) and four cultivars namely ‘Poornima’ (V1), ‘Shashank’ (V2), ‘Kamini’ (V3), and ‘Violet Cushion’ (V4) was conducted on growth, flowering and seed production in China aster. Among different spacings, S1 (30 x 15 cm) recorded best results for plant height (84.50 cm), days taken for flower bud formation (107.40), days taken for 50% flowering (124.13), flower yield/m2 (1,946.51 g) and seed yield/m2 (186.77 g). However, plant spread (38.46 cm), number of flowers/plant (32.63), flower diameter (6.58 cm), duration of flowering (37.21 days), fresh flower weight (5.79 g), flower yield/plant(179.75 g), seed yield/plant(12.02 g) and 1000 seed weight (2.23 g) were recorded maximum in 30 x 30 cm spacing. Among the cultivars, cv. ‘Poornima’ recorded best results for plant height (96.25 cm) and fresh weight of flower (7.24 g) whereas minimum days taken for flower bud formation (89.88), 50% flowering (99.32 days) and highest 1000 seed weight (2.44 g) were recorded in cv. ‘Shashank’. However, cv. ‘Violet Cushion’ recorded the maximum plant spread (42.76 cm), flower yield/plant (156.52 g), flower yield/m2 (2,011.84 g), number of seeds/flower (262.04), seed yield/plant (17.13 g) and seed yield/ m2 (229.04 g). The cultivar ‘Kamini’ recorded maximum number of flowers/plant (33.41). Hence, it is concluded that plant spacing of 30 x 15 cm in cv. ‘Violet Cushion’ gave best results for most of the desirable growth, flower and seed parameters.

Key words: China aster, Spacing, Cultivars

274

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)973-975 (2016)

 

Pollen storage studies in brinjal hybrid seed production

Mainavati Deshi* and N.K. Biradarpatil

Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad -580 005, India

*e-mail: maina.deshi@gmail.com

(Received: September 16, 2015; Revised received: May 16, 2016;Accepted: May 22, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during kharif 2012-13 season in shade house to know the effect of pollen viability of male parent and stigma receptivity of seed parent and this experiment consisted of 24 treatment combinations comprising of four levels of pollen viability as one factor and six levels of stigma receptivity as another factor, laid out with RBD in factorial concept at Hi-tech Horticulture Unit, Saidapur Farm, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad and seed quality parameters were conducted in the Seed Quality and Research Laboratory, Seed Unit, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The results showed that the use of fresh pollen recorded significantly higher fruit set (28.61 %) and seed yield (15.36 g/plant), seed germination (73.1 %) and seedling vigour index (1185) followed by one day stored pollen (27.94 %, 14.69 g/plant, 71.6 % and 1155, respectively). Significantly higher fruit set (32.02 %), seed yield (19.17 g/plant) with better seed quality traits were recorded in the treatment of pollination one day after emasculation (S2) compared to pollination four (S5) and five days after emasculation (S6).

Key words:Brinjal, Pollen viability, Seed yield, Seed quality, Stigma receptivity

275

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)976-979 (2016)

 

Impact of season, growing condition and curing of scion on success of softwood grafting in jack fruit

K. Shwetha, B. Divya, Praveenkumar Angadi and S. Jaganath*

Department of Horticulture, College of Horticulture, UHS Campus, GKVK Post, Bengaluru, India

*e-mail: sjaggihort@gmail.com

(Received: October 24, 2015; Revised received: June 07, 2016;Accepted: june 11, 2016)

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Abstract: Jackfruit is a cross-pollinated crop and highly heterozygous plants. Propagation through seeds leading to immense variation in yield and fruit characters. Further, the seedling plants take a long time for bearing; therefore, there is a great need to standardize suitable method of vegetative propagation for quick multiplication of selected plants. This experiment was conducted to find out best months to get highest success rate of softwood grafting in jack under different conditions (green house, mist chamber and open condition). The studies on vegetative propagation in jack plants were carried out at Gandhi Krishi Vignana Kendra (G.K.V.K). University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore, 2011-12. The experiment was laid in a RCBD design with three replications and three grafts per replication.The grafting operation at 5 months intervals on 6 month old rootstocks was carried out. The data on various parameters like girth of rootstock, days taken for sprouting, number and length of sprouts and percentage of graft success were studied, Grafting in the month of March recorded the maximum girth of rootstock irrespective of days of grafting in mist chamber where the significantly minimum number of days was taken for sprouting in the month of January in mist chamber. During the entire growth periods, the significantly maximum number of sprouts was found in the November. Among the four months studied, the percent of graft success after 30th, 45th, 60th and 75th day after grafting, success was found maximum when performed during February (53.68 per cent). This study found that there was a significant difference among the growing condition and concluded grafts grown under mist chamber had more success of graftage and highest values for all the parameters.

Key words: Jack fruit, Growing condition, Seasoning of scion, Mist chamber

276

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)980-982 (2016)

 

Effect of different concentrations of bio-fumigants against Pythium aphanidermatum causing soft rot disease of ginger

Ram Kishor and R.S. Mishra*

Department of Plant Pathology, N.D. University of Agriculture & Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad, India

*e-mail: drramsumanmishra@gmail.com

(Received: September 30, 2015; Revised received: June 08, 2016;Accepted: June 15, 2016)

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Abstract: An investigation was carried out to study the effect of different concentrations of bio-fumigants against Pythium aphanidermatum in vitro and in vivo. In vitro test was carried out in the laboratory with three concentrations viz. 5, 10 and 15 per cent of mustard, cabbage and radish of bio-fumigant. The effectiveness was found highest at 15 percent concentration followed by 10 and 5 percent concentration in all bio-fumigants. Mycelium growth inhibition was recorded maximum in 15 percent concentration (44.02, 42.43 and 41.78%) followed by 10 percent (42.53, 41.04 and 41.04%) and 5 percent (38.79, 38.06 and 37.31%) in mustard, cabbage and radish at 6th day after incubation, respectively. The pot experiments were carried out in net house with 0.5 kg, 1.0 kg and 1.5 kg per 5 kg soil pot-1 of each bio-fumigant viz. mustard, cabbage and radish from June to February. The percent disease control was recorded highest in bio-fumigation with mustard (39.91) followed by cabbage (37.24) and radish (36.91) @ 1.5 kg in 5 kg soil pot-1 over the control.

Keyword: Bio-fumigants, Concentrations, Pythium aphanidermatum, Soft rot, Ginger

277

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8) 983-986(2016)

Soil enzymes and mycorrhizal parameters of clusterbean (Cyamopsistetragonaloba (L). Taub.) genotypes (gum) as influenced by plant density and bio-inoculants

Shilpa V. Chogatapur*1, H.T. Chandranath1 and P. Jones Nirmalnath2

1Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad,India

2Department of Agicultural microbiology, Weed controlscheme, MARS, Dharwad

*e-mail: chogatapurshilpa@gmail.com

(Received: December 17, 2015; Revised received: June 24, 2016;Accepted: June 28, 2016)

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Abstract:The experimental results revealed that the soil enzyme activities viz, Dehydrogenase (66.12 µg TPF formed g-1 soil d-1), Phosphatase (13.90 µg PNP formed g-1 soil hr-1) andurease (1.37µg NH4-N formed g-1 soil d-1 )were recorded higher for the Gaurishankar -9 genotype. Similar trend was followed AM fungi root colonization (79.38%).Where has, Dehydrogenase(64.25 µg TPF formed g-1 soil d-1), Phosphatase acvtivities(13.61 µg PNP formed g-1 soil hr-1) and AM fungi root colonization(77. 75%) recorded higher with a spacing of 45 × 15 cm. The application of tripartite bio-inoculant (Bradyrizhobium + PSB + AM fungi) increased the dehydrogenase (70.56 µg TPF formed g-1 soil d-1), Phosphatase (17.04 µg PNP formed g-1 soil hr-1), urease activities (2.61 µg NH4-N formed g-1 soil day-1) and AM fungi root colonization (77. 75%) over other treatments.

Key words: Bradyrizhobium, PSB, AM fungi, Dehydrogenase acvtivities, Phosphatase

278

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8) 987-990(2016)

 

Physio-biochemical characterization of rice genotypes under

drought and submergence stress condition

Ajit Tiwari*, Anurag Mishra and K.N. Singh

Department of Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, NDUA&T, Kumarganj, Faizabad, India

*e-mail: tiw.ajit@gmail.com

(Received: December 16, 2015; Revised received: June 28, 2016;Accepted: June 30, 2016)

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Abstract: Crop in Rainfed lowland ecosystem often suffers both drought and/or submergence (either initial or last phase of life cycle) sometime in same life cycle depending upon prevalent weather in their region. Rice is more prone to this leading very poor or no yield. In the present study, one of promising IRRI rice lines NDR 9830102 was evaluated for drought and submergence. Swarna sub 1 and Jalmagna was taken as positive control for submergence and Nagina 22 as positive control for drought. Swarna is also evaluated in both conditions. For drought observation were recorded on leaf rolling, relative water content and proline content and plant height, shoot elongation, survival % and carbohydrate content for submergence. Experimental results after desubmergence revealed that the NDR 9830102, Jalmagna had maximum shoot elongation followed by Swarna while Swarna sub 1 had minimum shoot elongation. Swarna, NDR 9830102 had minimum survival % and carbohydrate accumulation while Swarna sub 1 and Jalmagna had maximum survival % and carbohydrate accumulation. Under drought condition accumulation of proline were recorded maximum in Nagina 22 followed by NDR 9830102, Swarna and Swarna sub 1. Seeing the promising dual tolerance in NDR 9830102, crosses were made between Swarna sub1 x NDR 9830102.

Key words: Rainfed lowland, Submergence, Drought, Shoot elongation, Carbohydrate and proline

279

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)991-993 (2016)

 

Synthesis and characterization of nanoencapsulated

pendimethalin herbicide using indirect method

T. Pradeesh Kumar*1 and C.R. Chinnamuthu2

1Department of Agronomy, TNAU, Coimbatore - 641 003,India; 2 Department of Agronomy, AC & RI, Madurai - 625 104, India

*e-mail: pradeesh465@gmail.com

(Received: September 06, 2015; Revised received: April 26, 2016;Accepted: April 28, 2016)

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Abstract: Laboratory experiment was carried at the Department of Nano Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2013-2014 to fabricate the slow release nanoencapsulated herbicide. In this experiment the pre-emergence herbicide pendimethalin was encapsulated using indirect method. Thus encapsulated pendimethalin particles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

Key words: Indirect encapsulation, Core-shell, Hallow-shell, Polymer, Characterization

280

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8) 994-996(2016)

 

Effect of nitrogen levels, planting distance and bulb size on sprouting of bulbs and vegetative growth of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Hyderabad Double

Shiv Kumar Vishwakarma and Ashok Kumar*

Department of Floriculture and Landscape, College of Horticulture & Forestry, N.D.U.A.&T., Faizabad, India

*e-mail: akmnduat@yahoo.com

(Received: September 23, 2015; Revised received: June 16, 2016;Accepted: June 20, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design (factorial) with 16 treatment combinations, comprising of 4 levels of nitrogen (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg/ha), two planting distance (30 x 20 and 30 x 30 cm) and two sizeof bulbs (1.00-2.00 and 2.00-3.00 cm) in two successive years 2012-13 and 2013-14 at Main Experiment Station, Department of Floriculture and Landscape, Narendra Deva University of Agriculture & Technology, Narendra Nagar (Kumarganj), Faizabad (U.P.). Results revealed that higher levels of nitrogen, wider spacing and bigger size bulbs helped in sprouting of bulb and enhanced vegetative growth in tuberose.

Key words: Nitrogen, Planting Distance, Bulb, Tuberose

281

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)997-998 (2016)

 

Effect of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on flowering attributes and vase life of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Hyderabad Double

Mahendra Pratap Singh, Ashok Kumar* and A.K. Singh

Department of Floriculture & Landscaping, N.D.University of Agriculture & Technology, Faizabad, India

*e-mail: akmnduat@yahoo.com

(Received: September 23, 2015; Revised received: June 14, 2016;Accepted: June 19, 2016)

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Abstract: The experiment was conducted in Randomized Block Design (factorial) with 16 treatment combinations, comprising of 4 levels of nitrogen (0, 200, 300 and 400 kg/ha) and 4 levels of phosphorus (0, 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha) during the year 2014-2015. Results revealed that higher levels of Nitrogen and Phosphorus had increased the spike production and number of florets per spike. Spike initiation and opening of florets was (82 days) and (85 days), duration of flowering (20.30 days) and vase life (9.33 days) was recorded superior in N2P2 treatment. Maximum length of spike (88.00 cm), number of spike per clump (2.70) and number of florets per spike (29.30) were noticed in N3P3 treatment combination.

Key words: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Spike, Floret, Vase life.

282

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)999-1001 (2016)

 

Correlation and path coefficient studies in okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench]

Mallesh Sanganamoni*, Revanappa, S. Shivashankar, B. Prabhakar and K. Muthaiah

Department of Vegetable Science, College of Horticulture, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: mallesh.horticulture@gmail.com

(Received: November 13, 2015; Revised received: June 02, 2016;Accepted: June 11, 2016)

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Abstract: The present study was undertaken on fifty two genotypes of okra to determine the nature of association among different yield attributes and their direct and indirect contribution towards yield. The fruit yield has significantly positive correlation with number of leaves both at 45 and 90 days after sowing and number of fruits per plant at both genotypic and phenotypic level, indicating mutual association of these traits. Path coefficient analysis revealed that number of fruits per plant had maximum direct contribution (1.257) towards fruit yield followed by average fruit weight (0.810), fruit length (0.166) and fruit diameter (0.080). However, number of leaves at 90 days after sowing exhibited highest negative direct effect (-0.109) followed by plant height at 45 days after sowing (-0.065) and days to first flowering (-0.040). These important traits may be viewed in selection programme for the further improvement of okra.

Key words: Correlation, Path analysis, Genotypes, Yield attributes and Okra

283

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)1002-1004 (2016)

 

Yield prediction models in maize using SPAD and NDVI

H.T. Chetan and M.P. Potdar*

Department of Agronomy, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India

*e-mail: mppotadruasd@gmail.com

(Received: September 22, 2015; Revised received: June 11, 2016;Accepted: June 18, 2016)

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Abstract: This study evaluated the relationship between corn (Zea mays L.) grain yield and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) sensor readings using the Green-Seeker sensor and SPAD values using chlorophyll meter. The relationships between grain yield and several predictor variables were determined using linear and nonlinear regression analysis. Categorizing NDVI and SPAD measurement by phenological stage indicated that growth stage was critical for predicting grain yield potential. Poor exponential relationships existed between SPAD, NDVI from early sensor measurements (V2–V7 leaf stage) and grain yield. By the tasseling stage (65 DAS), a strong relationship (R2=0.98) was achieved between NDVI, SPAD and grain yield. Later sensor measurements (After tasseling) failed to distinguish variation in green biomass as a result of canopy closure. This study showed that yield potential in corn could be accurately predicted in season with NDVI measured with the GreenSeeker sensor and SPAD measured with chlorophyll meter.

Key words: Yield prediction, Models, NDVI, SPAD and Coefficient of determent (R2)

284

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8) 1005-1008(2016)

 

Effect of irrigation scheduling with variable nitrogen application on vegetative growth and grain yield of paddy

Rahul Kumar*1, A.R. Mishra1 and Sandeep Kumar Pandey2

1Department of Soil, Water, Land Engineering and Management, SHIATS, Allahabad, U.P., India

2Department of Soil & Water Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

*e-mail: baliyan008@gmail.com

(Received: November 11, 2015; Revised received: June 21, 2016;Accepted: June 25, 2016)

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Abstract: Irrigation scheduling involves deciding when and how much water to apply to a field. Good scheduling will apply water at the right time and in the right quantity in order to optimize production and minimize adverse environmental impacts. Nitrogen is the key element in the production of rice and gives by far the largest response. High yielding varieties are generally more adaptive to nitrogen application and they show increased yield with increasing nitrogen level up to a certain limit.SHIATS DHAN 203 cultivar was used in the experiment. Crop water requirement for paddy crop and irrigation scheduling was determined by CROPWAT software. Total water requirement was estimated 10225 m3/ha during paddy production with application frequency of 13. Effect of six different nitrogen levels i.e. 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 kg/ha on paddy growth parameter such as plant height, number of tillers, biomass, SPAD data, leaf area, flag width, flag length, number of grains per panicle andyield were studied in this experiment. Results showed that all fertilizer rates significantly increased but maximum plant height (129.0 cm), number of tillers (30.20), grains per panicle (134), biomass (1043.33gm), SPAD data (48), leaf area (47.96cm2), flag width (3.33cm), flag length (43.03cm), panicle length (29.75cm) and yield (5.533 t/ha) was obtained in 180 kg N/ha Highest benefit cost ratio (2.38), and net return (46877 Rs/ha) was obtained from 180 kg/ha nitrogen.

Key words: Irrigation scheduling, Nitrogen, Paddy, Vegetative growth, Yield

285

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8) 1009-1012(2016)

 

Effect of different herbicide molecules on weed control in transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Aman Kumar1, Akhtar Ali1, Sanjay Kumar*1, Ashok Kumar Singh1and R.R. Singh2

Department of Agronomy1 and Soil Science2, NDUA&T, Kumarganj, Faizabad, India

*e-mail: sanjay.psbvb@gmail.com

(Received: September 06, 2015; Revised received: April 26, 2016;Accepted: April 28, 2016)

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Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2012 with carried out in RBD with three replications, having 12 number of treatments viz. Bispyribac-Na 25 g, Pretilachlor 1000 g, Penoxsulam 22.5 g, Pyrazosulfuron 20 g, Bispyribac-Na + ethoxysulfuron methyl 25 g + 18.75 g, Bispyribac-Na + almix 25 g + 4 g, Pretilachlor fb ethoxysulfuron methyl 750 g / 18.75g , Pretilachlor fb almix 750 g / 4 g, Pyrazosulfuron fb MW 20 g / 25 DAT, Londex 10 kgha-1 along with weed free and weedy check. The density of BLWs, narrow leaved weeds and sedges as well as the total weed density and dry weight were recorded significantly less with Bispyribac-Na + almix 25 g + 4 g ha-1 as compared to rest of the treatments. Yield attributes viz. panicle length, test weight as well as grain and straw yield were significantly higher in Bispyribac-Na + almix 25 g + 4 g ha-1 followed by Pretilachlor fb almix 750 g / 4 g, Bispyribac-Na + ethoxysulfuron methyl 25 g + 18.75 g and Pretilachlor fb ethoxysulfuron methyl 750 g / 18.75 g ha-1.

Key word: Weeds, Rice, Herbicides, Growth, Yield

286

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)1013-1016(2016)

 

Effect of microbial bio-inoculant (VAM- Glomusfa sciculatum) and

bio-formulations on growth, yield and quality of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

Chandalinga*1, N.K. Hegde2 and C.P. Patil3

1K.R.C. College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, Gokak, Belagavi, India; 2Department of PSMAC, College of Horticulture, Sirsi, Uttara Kannada, India

3Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Division of NRM, K.R.C. College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, Gokak, India

*e-mail: chandanhort@gmail.com

(Received: September 06, 2015; Revised received: April 26, 2016;Accepted: April 28, 2016)

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Abstract: A field trial was carried out during 2012-13. Among the different treatments, inoculation with G. fasciculatum recorded significantly higher pseudostem girth (53.02 mm), number of leaves per clump (8.64), number of tillers per clump (8.64) and cured yield (9.25 t/ha) than the control (uninoculated). Processing percentage (30.45), curcumin content (4.42 %) and volatile oil content (1.17 %) were highest in turmeric crop inoculated withG. fasciculatum. Among nine bio-formulation treatments, the highest pseudostem girth (65.62 mm), number of leaves per clump (87.64), number of tillers per clump (8.93) and cured yield (9.79 t/ha) was recorded by T9 receiving the application of RDF + panchagavya + amritpani + mulch (Sugar cane trash) + Trichodermaspray (2.5 %) on mulch + agnihotra ash + triambakamhoma ashfollowed by T8 (8.91 t/ha) receiving RDF + panchagavya + amritpani + mulch (Sugar cane trash) + Trichodermaspray (2.5 %) on mulch compared to the lowest in T1(5.45 t/ha) receiving only RDF (180:90:90 kg NPK/ha and 25 t FYM/ha). Eventhough turmeric is a nutrient exhaustive crop, the results confirm possibility of production of turmeric with maximum yield and good quality produce by applying G. fasciculatum and bioformulations as against applying only synthetic fertilizers.

Key words: Turmeric, Bioinoculants, Bioformulations, RDF, VAM

287

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8) 1017-1021 (2016)

 

Effect of fertilization on soil phosphorus and its fraction in soil

Tripti Nayak*and Tribhuvan Patel

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Indira Gandhi Krishi VishwaVidyalaya, Raipur, India

*e-mail: nayaktripti66@gmail.com

(Received: October 14, 2015; Revised received: June 21, 2016;Accepted: June 26, 2016)

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Abstract: Phosphorus fractions are important for evaluation of their status in soil and understanding of soil chemistry that influence soil fertility. Amount and distribution of P in different fractions of soil. Soil P fractionation gives an idea about the soil P supplying capacity to plants. The dissolved phosphate ion is the only form that plants can take up, yet in the surface layer of most agricultural soils there is less than 1 mg/L (1 ppm) of dissolved phosphate in the soil solution (soil water), except in recently fertilized soils. On the other hand, the total soil P concentration can vary from about 200 to 2,000 ppm depending greatly on soil parent material. Thepresent experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different nutrient management. Investigations from researchers have shown the efficacy of the ion-sink methods especially the resin membranes which extract soil-available P in a similar manner as plant roots does. It can be employed for a variety of soil types irrespective of their properties.

Key word: Phosphorus availability, Different forms, Fertilization, Management

288

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)1022-1024(2016)

 

Selection Indices for cane yield in mid-late maturing clones

of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)

Guruprasad Hiremath* and T.E. Nagaraja

1 Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore-65; 2ZARS, V.C, Farm, Mandya, UAS, Bangalore

*e-mail: guruprasad4235@gmail.com

(Received: November 11, 2015; Revised received: June 28, 2016;Accepted: July 02, 2016)

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Abstract: The selection indices through discriminant function analysis provides better avenue for simultaneous improvement of several cane tonnage attributing traits which is of prime goal in sugarcane breeding. Thirty five clones of sugarcane were evaluated under RBD with two replications for cane yield and its component characters. Among the seven characters considered to construct indices, higher relative efficiency of 223.89 per cent coupled with high genetic advance (57.84) was exhibited by index with seven character combination of number of tillers (X1), number of millable canes (X2), millable cane length (X3), single cane weight (X4), pol per cent juice (X5) and CCS (X6) and cane yield (X7) itself. Though the selection index comprising five yield component characters had a greater relative efficiency over direct selection, relatively better efficiency (209.20%) was also exhibited by three (X1+X2+X3) character combinations with a genetic gain of 54.05. However, a practical breeder would prefer to use an index which would lead to maximum possible genetic gain by using a minimum number of characters. Therefore, it is suggested that combination of three characters viz., number of tillers, number of millable canes and millable cane length could be advantageously exploited in the sugarcane breeding programme. Thus, selecting plants based on this combination of characters would be more appropriate and effective in this population to get maximum improvement in cane yield.

Key words: Selection indices, Genetic gain, Discriminant function analysis and Relative efficieny

289

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)1025-1027(2016)

 

Economic impact of front line demonstrations on vegetables

in Kalaburagi district of Karnataka

Raju, G. Teggelli, Siddappa*, Anand Naik and Zaheer Ahmad M.C. Patil

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kalaburagi, Karnataka, India

*e-mail: siddu.biradar11@gmail.com

(Received: October 31, 2015; Revised received: June 29, 2016;Accepted: July 04, 2016)

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Abstract: Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.), Onion (Allium cepa L.) and Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) are the major vegetable crops grown in the Kalaburagi district of Karnataka. Krishi Vigyan Kendra laid down front line demonstrations on these four vegetable crops introducing improved and hybrid varieties and applying scientific package of practices in their cultivation. The productivity and economic returns of brinjal, onion and chilli in improved technologies were calculated and compared with the corresponding farmer’s practices. Adoption of improved production technology will increase the average yield 21.88% over farmer practices in onion followed by chilli and brinjal (10.77and 7.09 %, respectively) during the period from 2010-11 to 2013-14. Among three vegetables brinjal showed highest technological gap (193.40 q ha-1), followed by onion and chilli (189.18 and 151.38 q ha-1, respectively) whereas, chilli showed highest extension gap (49.65 q ha-1) followed by onion and brinjal (24.19 and 20.40 q ha-1, respectively). Brinjal, onion and chilli recorded higher gross returns (307925, 285421 and 218083 Rs ha-1, respectively), net return (259812, 243171 and 164500 Rs ha-1, respectively) and benefit cost ratio (5.40, 5.75 and 3.07, respectively) in improved technologies as compared to farmer’s practices. It is suggested that location-specific improved technologies through frontline demonstration would be needed to bridge the productivity gap of the vegetable crops grown in the Kalaburagi district of Karnataka.

Key words: Vegetable crops, Front line demonstrations, Technology and extension gaps, Technology index, Economics

290

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8) 1028-1029 (2016)

 

Management of wilt of chickpea through fungicides and biopesticides caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri

Kamlesh Ram*1 and Ramesh Singh2

1Department of Plant Pathology, Brahmanand Post Graduate College, Rath, Hamirpur, India

 2Deptt. of Plant Pathology, Tilak DharI Post Graduate College Jaunpur, India

*e-mail: kamlesram.rath@gmail.com

(Received: October 10, 2015; Revised received: June 25, 2016;Accepted: July 04, 2016)

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Abstract: Studies conducted on the effect of fungicides and biopesticides.Among the fungicides only two fungicidesviz., Bavistin, and Topsin-M, proved to be the most effective as they have inhibited the fungus growth completely, whereas, Benomyl, Ridomil, benlate and vitavax were found the next best in inhibiting the growth of the pathogen upto 91.6 to 85.09 % respectively. Sadabohar was least effective plant extract which have 43.00 mm of radial growth and inhibited the growth only 21.81 %. In-vivo condition the maximum seed germination (95.26% and 95.16%), minimum wilt incidence (8.16% and 8.04%) and highest grain yield (14.46q/ha and 15.36 q/ha) was found in (T1) seed treatment Bavistin 0.2%). Among the tested plant extracts Tulsi was least effective, which shows the minimum seed germination (76.60% and 82.30), maximum wilt incidence (17.36% and 19.36%) and lowestgrain yield (8.20 q/ha and 7.40q/ha.).

Key words: Management, Chick pea, Wilt, Fungicides and Bio-pesticides

291

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)1030-1032 (2016)

 

Effects of gamma irradiation and chemical mutagens in tuberose Polianthes tuberosa L.

K. Kayalvizhi1*, M. Kannan2 and M. Ganga3

Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India

*e-mail: kkayal.flori@gmail.com

(Received: December 08, 2015; Revised received: July 02, 2016;Accepted: July 09, 2016)

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Abstract: A study was undertaken in tuberose to find out the effect of physical and chemical mutagens on sprouting percentage, survival percentage, plant height and number of leaves to identify the lethal dose (LD50 and LC50) values. The bulbs of popular variety ‘Prajwal’ were exposed to gamma ray (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kR ) and soaked in Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (EMS) (15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 mM) and Diethyl Sulphate (DES) (10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 mM) respectively with an untreated control. Based on the probit curve, the LD50 value for gamma ray (2.0 kR), the LC50 value for chemical mutagens i.e., EMS (62.92 mM), DES (21.65 mM). By increasing the dose/concentration of physical and chemical mutagens beyond LD50 and LC50 level, decreased in sprouting percentage, survival percentage, plant height and number of leaves per plant were observed.

Key words: Mutation, Gamma ray, EMS, DES, Survival, LD50, Tuberose, Prajwal

292

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8)1033-1036(2016)

 

Effect of boron levels on growth, flowering and yield of greenhouse cucumber (Cucumissativus L.)

Bommesh J.C.1*, P. IreneVethamoni1, K.S. Subramanian2, Kattula Nagaraju1, Sunil Kumar M.K.3

1Department of Vegetable Crops, HC and RI, 2Department of Nano Science and Technology,

Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India

3Department of Vegetable Science, (K RC College of Horticulture) UHS, Bagalkot, India

*e-mail: bommesh.jc@icar.gov.in

(Received: December 26, 2015; Revised received: June 03, 2016;Accepted: June 08, 2016)

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Abstract: The experimental studycarried out to examine the effect of boron levels on greenhouse cucumber productivityto enhance the overall productivity of greenhouse parthenocarpic cucumber under tropical condition with reduction in curled and aborted fruit percentage.The results revealed that,the soil application of boron at the rate of 1.5kg ha–1along with foliar spray of boric acid (0.5%) in an interval of 30 and 45 days after sowing (DAS)found to best for highest vine length, maximum number of leaves and nodes. However,the soil application of 1.5kg ha–1 of boron withfoliar spray of boric acid at the rate of 0.25% on 30 and 45 DAS revealed to be better for flowering and yield attributing characters like days to first flowering, nodes to first flowering, fruit length, fruit weight (154.74 g), fruits per plant, yield per plant, yield per hectare (115.54 t), marketable fruits (97.75 %). The parthenocarpic cucumber cultivation under greenhouse in tropical condition reduced the crooked and aborted fruit percentage.

Key words: Parthenocarpic, Nodes, Greenhouse, Yield, Cucmber

293

Res. Environ. Life Sci., 9 (8) 1037-1040(2016)

 

Appraisal of quality parameters such as colour of hot air oven dried dutch rose flowers

Mohammed Azhar Bintory*, Seetharamu G.K., Ibaad M.H, Saniya Taj, Shivakumar S.P. and Mohamad Tayeeb Ulla H.

Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture,College of Horticulture Bengaluru, UHSCampus, GKVK, Bengaluru, India

*e-mail: mabintory@gmail.com

(Received: December 26, 2015; Revised received: July 06, 2016;Accepted: July 11, 2016)

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Abstract: An experiment was conducted for the appraisal the quality parameter of hot air oven dried Dutch rose flowers with varied levels of drying temperature and four different varieties. Comprising of four levels of drying temperature i.e. T1 - 40 °C, T2 - 42 °C, T3 - 45 °C, T4 - 48 °C and four varieties viz., V1 - Taj Mahal, V2 - Gold Strike, V3 – Noblesse, V4 – Avalanche with three replication in two factorial completely randomized design. The results from the findings revealed that, among different temperature levels with respect to the lightness, chroma and hue angle at zero, 30 and 60 days after storage, maximum lightness (61.81), (61.27) and (61.30), chroma (38.23), (34.05) and (35.55) and lowest hue angle (56.19°), (55.73°) and (55.83°) was recorded at 42°C. Minimum hue angle was reported in var. Taj Mahal (1.58°) (2.38°) and (2.96°). Among the varied drying temperature levels of hot air oven, var. Noblesse at 42ÚC temperature level recorded maximum score for color Regarding interaction between varieties and different temperature levels at zero, 30 and 60 days after storage days with respect to flower colour, var. Noblesse dried at 42ÚC recorded maximum rating for flower colour such as (23.30), (23.10) and (23.04).

Key words: Dutch rose, Minolta CR-10 colorimeter, Lightness, Chroma, Hue angle

 

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